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Ij^troductoey Latik Book. 

ntended as an Elementary Drill Book on tho Inflections and Princi- 
ples of the Language, and as an Introduction to the author's Gram- 
mar, Reader, and Composition. By Albert Harkmess, Ph. D,, 
Professor in Brown University. 

ISmo, 16a Pages. 



\\ 



A Lat1]>^ GrRAMMAR. 



For Schools and Colleges. By Albert Harknkss, Ph. D., Professor 
in Brown University. 

12mo, 355 Pages. 



A Lati]s^ Reader. 



Intended as a Companion to the author's Latin Grammar ; with Ref- 
erences, Suggestions, Notes, and Vocabulary. By Albert Haukness, 
Ph. D., Professor in Brown University. 

12nno. 212 Pages. 



A First Greek Book. 



Comprising an Outline of ihe Forms and Inflections of the Language, 
a complete Analytical Syntax, and an Introductory Greek Reader, 
with Notes and Vocabularies. By Albert Harkness, Ph. D., Pro- 
fessor in Brown University, author of Harkness's Latin Grammar, 
&c., &c. 

13mo. 376 Pages. 



CO^r, CLARK & CO,, 

PUBLISHERS, 
17 and 19 KINO STBEET EAST. TORONTO. 



I : 



i:! 






' J 



GOPP, GLARE & GO:S PUBLIGATI0N8. 



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A Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges 

By A. HARKNESS, Ph.D.. Profedser in Brown University. 

To explain the general plan of thb work, the P«i)lisbors ask the attention 
of teaciiers to the following extracts from the Preface : 

1. This volume is designed to present a systematic arrangement of the 
great facts and kws of the Latin language ; to exhibit not only grammatical 
forms and constructions, but also those vital principles which underlie, con- 
trol, and explain them. 

2. Designed at once as a text-hook for the class-room, and a book of 
reference in study, it aims to introduce the beginner easily and pleasantly to 
the first principles of the language, and yet to make adequate provision for 
the wants of the more advanced student. 

3. By brevity and conciseness in the choice of phraseology and compact- 
ness in the arrangement ^f forms and topics, the author has endeavored to 
compress within the liiaits of a convenient manual an amount of carefully- 
selected grammatical facts, which would otherwise fill a much larger volume. 

4. He has, moreover, endeavored to present the whole subject in the 
light jf modern scholarship. Without encumbering hi spages with any nn- 
necessary discussions, he has aimed to enrich them with the practical results 
of the recent labors in the field of philology. 

5. Syntax has received in every part special attention. An attempt has 
been made to exhibit, as clearly as possible, that beautiful system of laws 
which the genius of the language — that highest of all grammatical authority 
—has created for itself. 

6. Topics which require extended illustration are first presented in their 
wmpleteness in general oatline, before the separate points are discussed in 
Jotail. Thus a single page often foreshadows all the leading features of an 
extended discussion, imparting a completeness and vividness to the impress- 
ion of the learner, impossible under any other treatment. 

7. Special care has been taken to explain and illustrate with the requisite 
fiilness all diflS^eult and intricate subjects. The Subjunctive Mood — that 
L-everest trial of the teacher's patience — has been presented, it is hoped, in a 
(brm at once simple and comprehensivo. 




S( 



'A FI 



The "^ VTHORIZED TEXT BOOK'' Series, 



LATIN GRAMMAR 



roa 



SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 



BY 



ALBERT HARKNESS, Ph. D., 

PBOFBSSOB IN BBOWN UNITEBSITT. 



AoraoB OP 



"A KHMT LAWS BOOK," "A BBOOHD LATIN BOOK," "a FIBBT OBEEK BOOK," WM. 



TOROlN^TO: 
COPP, CLARK & CO., 

n & 19 KING STREET EAST. 
1873. 



> 



RuTEacu, according to Act of the Plwlsionat Lo-t.^Iiitair, ia the yeir imst;, i>y 

ALBERT HARKNESS, 

111 the Office ol' the Registrar of tlio ProriDce of Canada 



ExTEUED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Couit of the United Statee for the South«ij 

District of New York. 



f I 



P E E F A E . 



yetr ISiSt}, Ity 



Ida 



i, bjr 



tlif South«u 



The work now offered to the public had its origin in a desire 
to promote the cause of Classical study. It has long been tho 
opunon ol tho autlior, in common with numerous classical teachers, 
tha the subject of Latin Grammar, often rej-arded us dry and dif- 
licult, may be presented to the learner in a form at onco simple, 
attractive, and philosophical. It is the aim of this manual to aid 
the instructor in the attainment of this most desirable end. 

Ihat tho present is a ftivorable time for the production of a 
Latm Grammar scarcely admits of a doubt. Never before were 
there such facilities for the work. The last quarter of a century 
has formed an epoch in the study of language and in the methods 
of instruction. During this period some of the most gifted minds 
of Germany have been gathering the choicest treasures in the field 
of philology, while others have been equally successful in devising 
nnproved methods of instruction. In our own country too, the 
more enterprising teachers have caught the spirit of improvement, 

::il JLlSi 2;:^ ' ''''-' -'''-' ''- '- ^^^^-- p- 

The present work has been prepared in view of these facts. 

of the?ri'.rf 7' ''^f^'^'^ *' present a systematic arrangement 
of the great facts and laws of the Latin language; to exhibit not 
only grammatical forms and constructions, but dso those .^7a 
i>mc.^^.. which underlie, control, and expliin them 

2 Designed at once as a text-book for the class-room, and a 
book of reference m study, it aims to introduce the beginner ea^i- 
y and pleasantly to the first principles of the languagefan^^^^^ 

stud nt. Accordingly it presents in large type a general survey 
of tho whole subject in a brief and concise statement of facts ani 



IV 



VUKVAVE. 



If 



laws, while parallel with this, in smaller typo, it furnishes a fuller 
discussion of irregularities and exceptions for later study and for 
reference. 

3. By brevity and conciseness in tho choice of phraseology and 
compactness in tho arrangement of forms and topics, tlio author 
has endeavored to compress within tho limits of a convenient 
manual an amount of carefully selected grammatical facts, which 
would otherwise fill a much larger volume. 

4. lie has, moreover, endeavored to present tho wliolo subject 
in the light of modern scliolarship. "Without encumbering his 
pages with any unnecessary discussions, he has aimed to enrich 
tliem with tho practical remits of tho recent labors in the field of 
philology. 

5. In tho regular paradigms, both of declension and of conjuga- 
tion, tho stems and endings have been distinguished by a diirercnco 
of type, tlius keeping constantly before the pupil ho significance of 
tho two essential elements which enter into tho composition of 
inflected forms. 

3. Syntax has received in every part special attention. An at- 
temi)t has been raado to exhibit, as clearly as possible, that beauti- 
ful system of laws which the genius of tho language — that highest 
of all grammatical authority — has created for itself. The leading 
principles of construction have been put in the form of definite 
rules, and illustrated by carefully selected examples. To secure 
convenience of reference and to give completeness and vividness 
to the general outline, these rules, after being separately discussed, 
are presented in a body at the close of tho Syntax. 

7. The subdivisions in each discussion are developed, as far as 
practicable, from the leading idea which underlies the whole sub- 
ject. Thus in the treatment of cases, moods, and tenses, various 
usee, comparatively distinct in themselves, aro found to centre 
around some leading idea or thought, thus imparting to the sub- 
ject both unity and simplicity. 

8. Topics which require extended illustration are first present- 
ed in their completeness in general outline, before the separate 
points are di-^cussed in detail. Thus a single page often foreshad- 
ows all tho leading features of an extended discussion, imparting a 
completeness and vividness to the impression of tho learner, im- 
possible under any other treatment. 

9. Special care has been taken to explain and illustrate with 



rilEFACE. 



ihcH a fuller 
luly uud for 

scology and 
tlio author 
convenient 

facts, which 

hole subject 
nbcriug liis 
(1 to enrich 
tlic field of 

of conjuga- 
a diirercnco 
;nificanco of 
ipositiou of 

on. An at- 
that beauti- 
tliat highest 
The leading 
1 of definite 
To secure 
id vividness 
ly discussed, 

ed, as far as 
I whole sub- 
ises, various 
d to centre 
to the sub- 

irst present- 
the separate 
en foreshfid- 
imparting a 
learner, im- 



tho r :i Isito fulness all difficult and intricate subjects. The Sub- 
junctive Mood— that Bovorest trial of the teacher's patience— Ima 
been presented, it is lioped, in a furm at once simple and coinpre- 
hensivo. The dillercnt uses have not only been carefully classified, 
but also distinguished by churacteristio and appropriate terms, 
convenient for the class-room. 

For the benefit of those who prefer to begin with a more ele- 
mentary manual in the study of Latin, it is in contemplation to 
l)ublish a smaller (Jrammar on i)recisL'ly the same plan as the pres- 
ent work, and with the same mode of treatment. This will be 
especially adapted to the wautd of those who do not contemplate 
a collogiato course of study. 

A Latin Header, prepared with special reference to this work 
and intended as a companion to it, will be published at an early day. 

In conclusion the author cheerfully acknowledges his indebted- 
ness to other scholars, who have labored in the sam^ field. The 
classification of verbs is founded in part on that of Grotefend and 
Kriiger, a mode of treatment generally adopted in the recent Ger- 
man works on the subject, and well exhibited by Allen in his 
Analysis of Latin Verbs. 

In Prosody much aid has been derived from the excellent 
works of Eamsay and Ilabenicht. 

On the general subjects of Etymology and Syntax, his indebted- 
ness is less direct, though perhaps no less real. His views of phi- 
lology have been formed in a great measure under the moulding 
infiuence of the great German masters; and perhaps few Latin 
Grammars of any repute have appeared within the last half ccn- ' 
tury, either in this country, England, or Germany, from which he 
has not received valuable suggestions. In the actual work of 
preparation, however, he has carried out his own plan, and pre- 
sented his own modes of treatment, but he has aimed to avoid all 
nntried novelties and to admit only that which is sustained by the 
highest authority, and confirmed by the actual experience of the 
class-room. 

The author is happy to express his grateful acknowledgmenJs 
to the numerous Instructors who have favored him with valuable 
suggestions ; especially to his esteemed friend and colleague, Pro- 
fessor J. L. Lincoln, of this University. 



nstrate with 



PaoviDKHCB, E. I., May 10th, 1864. 



PREFACE 



TO THE BEVISED EDITION. 

TnE present edition is the result of a thorough and 
complete revision. Tiie author has sulyected every part 
of the work to a eareful e.Ya,ni„ation ; he has availed 
Inmself of the suggestions of the most eminent elassieal 
.nstruetors, and, finally, as the surest of all tests, he has 
«»<..d the work in ec-.neetion with all the principal Latin 
authors usually read in school and college. The mate- 
na Is thus collected have been incorporated in this edition 
^nt.,out either changing the plan or increa.si„g the si.e 
of the work. By a studied attention to clearness and 
b.-ev.ty, space has been secured for many valuable refine- 
ments oftho lano-iia<r'> 

In this „e«. form the work is now committed to elas- 
-al teachers in the hope that in their hands it n.ay pro- 
".otc !he cause of classical edneation in our land. 

Dr.oKs Unitersitv, Septemkr, 1S67. 



* i 



CO]^TENTS, 



PART FIRST 
OUTKOORAPHY. 

Pago, 

Ali>hahet, 1 

Sounds of Letterff, . 2 

I. English Motliod of Pronunciation, 2 

11. Contiuental M'-tliod, .5 

i^>"'i''l«s, * . * 6 

(Quantity, •.......,. Y 

Accentuation, •••......, 7 

PART SECOND. 
ETYMOLOGir. 



CIIAPTETl I 

NOUXS. 

Oe!.rler 

i'd'son and Xuniber, 

Cases, 

Docleiisioiis, 

First D(!cIension, .... 

Greelf Nouns, 

Gender, 

Second Declension, 

Greek Xouas, .... 

Gender, 

Tliird Declension, 

Class I.— With Nominative Ending! . 
Class II. — Without Nominative Ending, 
Formation of Cases, . . . \ 
Greek Peculiarities, 

Gender, 

Fourth Declension, 

Gejidcr, ...... 

Fifth Dei'lension, . ■ . 

f'-ii'^M- ' , ' . 

Comparative View of Declen«'ion8, . 
GeneralTahlc of Gender, .... 
Declension of Compound Nouns, 



8 

9 

10 

10 

11 

12 

12 

12 

14 

15 

15 

16 

17 

20 

29 

30 

34 

35 

36 

86 

37 

39 

89 



vm 




Irregular Nouns, . 

I. ludt'cliiiaLle, 
II. Dcl'i-etivo, . 

III. IK'tc'ioclitcs, . 

IV. Ilctoiogeucous, . 

CHAPTER 

ADJECTIVES 

First and Second Declension" 

Third Declension, . .''.', 

Formation of Cases, 
Irregular Adjectives, . 
Comparison, 

I. Terminational Compailsoi!', 
Irregular, . 
Defective, 
IT. Adverbial Comparison, . 
Aumerals, . 

I. Numeral Adjectives, 
II. Numeral Adverbs, 



.'O^TENTS. 






Page. 


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II, 



Personal Pronouns, 
Possessive, . 
Demonstrative, 
Kelative, 
Interrogative, . 
ludefiiiite, . 



CHAPTER 

PEOXOUXS. 



III. 



CHAPTER IV. 



Voices, Afoods, .... 
Tenses, 

Numbers, Persons, . . ' ' 

Conjugation, . . . " . ' . 
Paradigms of Verbs, 
Synopsis of Conjugation, . ' . * . 
Deponent Vei'bs, .... * 
■^oiiphrastic Conjugation, . ' , ' . 
Contractions and Peculiarities of Coniii'^ation 
Pormation of the Parts of Verbs, ° ' 

Table of Verbal Inflections, , 
Comparative View of Conjugations ' 
Formation of Principal Parts, 

I. Regular Formations, . 

Ev.phonie Changes, . 
II. Irregular Formations, 
Prmcipal Parts in Compounds 



44 

47 

49 

50 

51 

51 

51 

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53 

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CONTENTS. 



IX 



Page. 

40 
. 40 

41 
. 42 

48 



44 

47 
49 

eo 

51 
51 
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62 
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54 
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63 



C5 
CG 
C7 
G7 
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96 
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102 
104 
104 
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109 



Classification of Ven . . ^^' 

Fh^tConjuga , . .*.*.•.*.• ' ^ 

Second Conjugation, ' ^ 

I hi rd Conjugation, . . ,," 

Fourth Conjugation, . ,.,;? 

Irregular Verbs, .° ]^ 

Detective " }-] 

Impersonal '* . . :„. 

• • • • . 136 

CHAPTER V. 

PAItTICLES. 

•A-dvcrbs 

Prepositions ' ' ' ' \Vq 

Conjunctions, ' ' ' Al 

Interjections, r^"! 

CHAPTER VI. 



FOUMATION 

Derivation of Words, 

Derivative Nouns, 
Derivative Adjectives, 
Derivative Verbs, 
Derivative Adverbs, 

Composition of Words, . 

Compound Nouns, , 
Compound Adjectives, 
Compound Verbs, . 
Compound Adverbs, . 



OF WOEDS. 



Section. 

I. Classification of Sentences, . 

If. Simple Sentences, . 

III. Complex Sentences, . 

IV. Compound Sentences. 



PART THIRD 
SYNTAX. 

CHAPTER I 

SYNTAX OF SENTENCES. 



CHAPTER II. 

SYNTAX OP NOUNS. 

I. Agreement of Nouns. . 

i jcuicatu i\ouns, .... 

Appositives, . 
II. Nominative, ....**' 



141 
141 
145 
147 
149 
150 
152 
152 
153 
163 



154 
156 
158 
159 



160 
160 
161 
162 



X 



CONTENTS. 



Section. 

III. VocaMvo, . 

IV. Accusative, . ' . " 

I. Direct Object, .".'.'_ 

Two AceiisativcH, 
II. Subject of Infinitive, 
III. AgieenientofAccu.sativo 
lY. Accusative in an Adverbial si'mo, 
With or without Prepositions 
Accusative of Time and Space, 
Accusative of Limit, 
Accusative of Specification' . 

■XT n .• ^'^^"«''tiv« 'u Exclamations, 

V. Dative, ' 

• • • 

J. Dative with Verbs-Indirect Olycct 
Dative of Advanta^o, . . 
Dative with Compounds, . 
Dutive of Possessor, 
Dative of Agent, 
Kthical Dative, . ' . ' 
Two Datives, . . * * 
II. Dative with Adjectives 

VI. GeSive^''''' ''"''^ ^''''!'' and Ad;e.bs," . 

I. lenitive with Nouns,* . 
II. (Jenitive with Adjectives, . 
m. Genitive with Verbs, 

Picdicate (Jeiiitive, ' . ' 
Genitive of Place, 
Gonitive in Special Constructions 
TTr r. ^.'■'"'tive and Accusative, . 
iy. Cfeniuve with Adverbs, 
Ablative, 



VII, 



Ablative of Cause, Manner, *Mean.s, 
Ablative of Price, 
Ablative with Comparatives, . 
Ablative of Differonce 

Ablative in Special Constn.ctions, 
n. Ablative of Place, . 

TTT An^'-''''%''J,.*^«"''^« aii'l Separation, 

III. Ablaiive of Time, . 

IV. Ablative of Characteristic, 

,.V -^.^'la^'ve of Specification, . ". ' 
VI. Ablative Absolute, . 

VFTT r "^.'''''^V^ ^^i^'' Propositions, ' . ' 
VIII. Cases with Prepositions, . . 

CHAPTER III. 





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• 


. 186 




187 


• 


. 187 




188 


. • • 


. 190 




190 


* • • 


. 191 




192 


• . • 


. 193 




195 


• 


. 196 




197 


• 


. 198 




198 


• 


. 199 




199 



Agreement of Adjectives 
Use of Adjootives, . ' 
Comparison, . 



6TXTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 



201 

202 
203 



rage. 
](5:5 
. ] (j;j 
It)4 
. 1()5 
1G7 
. 1(>7 
108 
. Itl8 
108 
. 108 
1()9 
. 169 
170 
. 170 
171 
. 172 
173 
. 173 
174 
. 174 
175 
17G 
170 
177 
180 
182 
182 
]8;j 
18;} 
186 
187 
187 
188 
190 
190 
191 
192 
193 
195 
196 
197 
198 
198 
199 
199 



CONTENTS. 

OriAPTER IV. 

SYNTAX OF PEONOUX.H. 

Agreement of Pronouns, 

rersonal and Possessive Pronouns, 

Ileflexive Use, ..... 

Demonstrative Pronouns, 

llelative Pronouns, 

Interrogative Pronouns, • . . . ' 
Indefinite Pronouns, 

CHAPTER V. 

SYNTAX OF TEUU.S. 
St'ctlon. 

I. Agreement of Verbs, .... 

II. Use of Voices, 

III. Tenses of the Indicative, 
IV". Use of tlie Indicative, .... 
V. Tenses of the Subjunctive, . 

Sequence of Tenses, .... 
VI. Use of tlie Sul)junctive, . . , " 

I. Potential Subjunctive, . 
II. Subjunctive of Desire, 

III. Sul)juuctive of Purpose or Eesult, . 

IV. Subjunctive of Condition, . 
V. Subjunctive of Concession, 

yi. Subjunctive of Cause and Time, 
VII. Suljjunetive in Indirect Questions, . 
VIII. Subjunctive by Attraction, 
IX. Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, . 

iMoods and Tenses in the Oratio Obliqua, 
Pfonouns, Adverbs, etc., in Oratio Oblique 
VII. Imperative, 

I. Tenses of tlie Imperative, . . 

II. Use of the Imperative, . 
VIII. Infinitive, 

I. Tenses of the Infinitive, 

II. Subject oi' the Infinitive, . 

III. Predicate after the Infinitive, 

IV. ConstiMction of the Infinitive, . 
IX. Subject and Object Clauses, . 

X. Gerund, ....... 

Gerundive, 

XT. Supine, " . 

XII. Participles 

CHAPTER VI. 

SYNTAX OF PAIJTICLES. 

Adverbs 



XI 



Pago. 

204 
20() 
206 
208 
209 
210 
211 



Frepooitions, 

Conjunctions, 

Inteijections, 



212 

214 
215 

219 

219 

220 

223 

223 

225 

220 

232 

23!> 

238 

242 

244 

245 

246 

248 

248 

248 

249 

250 

251 

252 

253 

254 

258 

202 

263 

260 

267 



270 

27r 

271 
274 



xii 



CONTISNTS. 






f|!! 



CHAPTER VII. 
Rules of Syntax, 

CHAPTER VIII. 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS AND CLAUSES. 



Section. 

I. Arrangement of Words, 

II. Arrangemout of Clauses, 



PART FOURTH. 

PROSODY. 

CHAPTER I. 

QUANTITY. 

I. General Rules of Quantity, .... 

II. Special Rules of Quantity, 

I. Quantity of Final' Syllables, . . . ' 
II. Quantity in Increments, .... 

III. Quantity of Derivative Endings, . 

IV. Quantity of Stem Syllables, 



CHAPTER II. 

VERSIFICATION. 

I. General View of the Subject, , 

I. Metrical Feet, ... 

II. Verses, 

III. Figures of Prosody, 
II. Varieties of Verso, .... 

I. Dactylic Vei-se, .... 
II. Anapaestic Verso, 

III. Trochaic Verse, . . . , 

IV. Iambic Verse, .... 
V. Ionic Verse, 

VI. Clioriambic Verso, 
VII. Logaeodic Verse, .... 
VIII. Miscellaneous Verses, 
III. Versification of Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Juvenal, 



APPENDIX 



Figures of Speech, 

Latin Authors, 

Roman Calendar, .... 
Roman Money, Weights, and Measures, 
Abbreviations, .... 

** Index of Verbs, .... 

ludci of Subjects, . , , , 



Papa 
274 



281 
285 



287 
280 
289 
202 
2!},') 
2U7 



,300 

300 

302 

804 

805 

SOS 

308 

808 

309 

812 

312 

313 

315 

315 



320 
322 
323 
825 
327 

328 
330 



Papa 
274 



' I 



281 
28S 



lATIN GRAMMAR. 



287 
289 
289 
292 
295 
297 



,300 
300 
302 
304 
805 
305 
308 
808 
309 
812 



1. Latin Grammar treats of the principles of the 
Latin language. It comprises four parts: 

I. Orthography, which treats of the letters and sounds 
of the language. 

II. Etymology, which treats of the classification, inflec- 
tion, and derivation of words. 

III. Syntax, Avhich treats of the construction of sen- 
tences. 

IV. Prosody, which treats of quantity and versification. 



PART FIRST. 
ORTHOGRAPHY. 



ALPHABET. 

2. The Latin alphabet is the same as the English with 
the omission of lo. 

1. U supplies tlic place of w. 

2. // is only a bioathiiig, and not strictly entitled to the rank of a 

3. J and v did not originally belong to the Latin : their places wcrn 
supplied respectively by i and u, which were used both as vowels and as 
consonants. 

_ 4. IC is seldom used, and ?/ and z occur only in words of Greek 
origin. 

3. Classes of Letters.— Letters are divided into two 
classes : 



*> 



SOUNDS OF LETTERS. 



ill 



a, c, !, 0, u, J. 
1, m, n, r. 



h, s. 



• P, b, f, V. 

f. s, k, q, j. 

. t, d. 



X, z. 



I. Vowels, . 

' • • • • , 

II. Consonants : 

1. Liquids, 

2. S[)iiant3, .... 

3. iMutcs: l)Lubiiils, 

2) Pulatal^, . 

3)Lingual3, .... 

4. Double Consonants, 

4. Combinations of Letters.-Wc notice hero'' 

1. n<phthongs-comhmai\om of two vowels in one syllable. The 
roost common are— ac, oc, aw. 

2. i>(,wWt' C«nso«a«<s_^ = OS or gs; z = ds or <.s-. 

3. Ch j>h, th arc best treated, not as combinations of letters but oniv 
as aspu-ated Ibrms of., ;,. and /, as k is only a breathing. ' ^ 

SOUNDS OF LETTERS. 
5. Scholars in different countries generally pronounce 
Latin substantially as they do their ou'n languages. In 
this country, however, two distinct systems are reco^^ni.. 

'wTT^ I T"" '"' '^'' ^''^^''^' ^"^1 ^'^^ Continental 
Method. For the convenience of the instructor, we add 
a brief outline of each. 



I. ENGLISH Method. 

1. Sounds of Vowels. 



sounds^^'^Bul' ^"""'^"^ ^^^^^ *^^^"* 1«"S or short English 

conslna?rs"wrchtctm;t^^^^^^^^ -° -™-^^"^^ -«d>fied by the 

vowel s5/„^r^'Bcro^"e'';;in,s''JtSS ^•''"^°"''^"^' P'-^'-^tly obscures the 

able from each olSJcr as in"^"^^!;; > /.ruS'.' f,f ^'"^"'^•'- 
nounced as in far for hnf hAfw„n^^ '' 'j./^f../"', while a and o are pro- 
: qmr'4ls!^d in in^vt^. '''*'''''° !?" ^""^ ^'' « approaches the sound of 

3. Dr, following qua, gives to a something of the sound of o • ouad'. 
n</)<-.9, as m quadruped. 

7. Long Sonni-Vowols have their long English sounds 



.»t oS„:t";s "™a:,?""""°'"' ""'""'■ ■" ""'' -'">■" »■' "" -»"•'• 



ENGLISH METHOD. 3 

—a 08 in fate, e in mete, i in pine, o in 7iote, u in tube, y in 
typt—m tlie folloAvin^i; situations : 

1. In iinal syllables ending in a vowel: ' se, si, ser'-vi 
ser-vo, cor'-nu, mi'-sy. 

2. In all syllables, before a vowel or diphthonn- : de-us 
de-o'-rwn, de'-ae, di-e'-i, ni'-hi-lum.'' ° ' 

3. In penultimate ' and unaccented syllables, not final, 
before a single consonant or a mute with I or r: pa'-ter, 
pa'-tres, A'-thos, O'-thrys, do-lo'-ris. But 

1) A unaccented has the souuJ oi a final in America: men'-sa 

2) A after qn. See 6. 2. 

'^\ .{. ^"■!'^'', y") J'"«<"f "K not fiiiiil, generally has the short sonnd of 
e: vMm (nob -e- is), Amncm (Am'-o-eus). Bu'. in the first syllable of a 
word It liaMl) before an aecented vowel or diphthong, its long sonnd 
ai -cbm ; and (:i) before a single consonant or a mute with / or r some- 
times the long sound, i-do'-nc-us; and sometimes the short sound, 'philo.i. 
ophm (phe-los -o-phus), ' ^ 

4) /and u in special combinations. See 9. 2 and 4. 

5) Brfore hi, gl, fl—Uhns the short sound before bl ,- and the other 
vowels before (/I and U: Pub-lie -o-la, Ag-la-o-phon, At' -las. 

6) In compounds, when the first part is entire and ends in a consonant 
any vowel before such consonant has generally the xhort sound : a in ab-es 
e III red.,l, i m in -Ho in ob-it, prod -est. But those final syllables which! 
as exceptions, have the long sound before a consonant (8. 1), retain that 
sound m compounds : joos<-y«am, /ios-ce. ' 

8. Short Sound.-yowels have the short English sound 
~a as in fat, e in met, i in pin, o in not, u in tub, y in 
myth—m the following situations: 

1. In final syllables ending in a consonant : a'-7nat, a'- 
met rex'. it, sol, eon'-sul, Te'-thys ; ^xc^i^i post, es final, ond 
OS final in plural cases : res, di'-es, hos, a'-gros. 

2. In all syllables before x, or any two consonants ex- 
cept a mute with I or r (7, 3) : re^-it, bel'-lum, rex-e'-nint, 
hel-lo'-rum. 

3. In all accented syllables before one or more conso- 
nants, except the penultimate: dom'.i-nus,pat'-rUus, But 

^^ ■^' ^ ' 0^ "' before a single consonant (or a mute with I or r) foU 

» Some give to i in both syllables omu and sihi. the short soundT 
2 In these niles no account is taken of 7i, as that is only a breathing: hence the first 
i in mhilnm is treated as a vowel before nnothm- vrnvel: for the .same reason, ch ph 
and th are treated as single mutes ; thus th in Athon and Othryn. ' * 

' Penultimate, the last syllable but one. 



ENGLISH MIJTIIOD. 



M 



lowed by e, i, or «, before nnothtr vowel, has the long eotind : a'-ci^ 
a-cri-a, me -rt-o, (lo'-cr-o. ' 

2) U, hi any syllal)I(! not final, before a sin-le oonHonant or a mute with 
I or r, except hi (V. 5), ban the long sound : I^u-m-cm, m-lu-bri-las. 

3) Lompounds. lisee 7. C). 

2. Hounds of Diphthongs. 
9. yle and oe aro pronounced like c : 

1) long: Cae'-sar (Co'-sar), Oe'-ta (E'-ta). 

2) short: Daed'-iirlus (Ded'-a-lus), Oed'-i-pus 
Arij as in author : au'-rum. 

Eu^ . . . neuter: neu'-ter. 

1. Ei milo! are seldom diplitIion-8, but when so uf^ed they are wro- 
nounced as in height, coin : hei, proiu. See Synaere.sis, mi II. 

2. / between an accented a, r, o, or y and another vowel has the sound 
of .V consonant n, yos -Arhnm (A-ka'-ya), /'o»/;>e/«s (Pom-pe'-yus), Z«/o/« 
( La-to -ya), Ilarpi/ta (Ilar-py-ya). Ti)cse combinations of i with the lollow- 
mg vowel are sonietuncs called semi-consonant diphthongs. 

3. Ui, as a diphthong with the long sound oi' i, occurs' in mi, hui, huir. 
4 t/, with the sound of w, sometimes unites witli the folIowinL' vowel 

or diphthong ;_(1) after y / ^m (kwi), qva, que, qvae :-(2) generally after 
ff. Iwffiia (im-gwa), hn -ffim, Iw'-ffuae :—{S) sometimes after «/ ma'-tko 
(swa -aeo). l he&e combinations ol' u are analogous to those of i mentioned 
above uuder 2. 

3. Sounds of Consonants. 

10. The consonants are jironounced in general as in 
English, but a few directions may aid the learner. 

11. C, G, S, T, and X are generally jironounced with 
their ordinary English sounds. Thus, 

1. C and ff are soft (like s and j) before c, i, ij, ae and oe, and 
7iard in other situations: ce'-do (sedo), ci'-vis, Ci/'-ms, cae'-do, 
coe'-na, a'-ge (a-jo), a'-gi; ca'-do (ka'-do), co'-go, cum, Ga'-de?.. 
But 

1) Ch is hard like k ; c/wrm (ko'-rus), Chi-o.<t (Ki'os). But see 13. 2. 

2) G has the soft sound before 5^ soft: ag'-ger. 

2. S generally has its regular English sound, as in son, thus : 
m'-cer, so'-ror, si'-dus. But 

1) ^' ffial, after c, ae, an, b, m, n, r, is pronounced like 2; spcs.praes, 
laus, urbs, hi -ems, mons, pars. 

2) In a few words s has the sound o(z, because so pronounced in Eu"- 
hsh words derived from them: Coe'-sar, Caesar ; cau'-m, cause; mu'-tta, 
muse ; mi'ser, miser ; phys'-i-cus, physic, etc. 

3. T has its regular English sound, as in time : ti-mor, to-tm. 

4. JThas generally its regular English sound like ks; rex'-i 
(rek'-si), nx'-or (uk'-sor). But 



id: a'-ci-es, 

n mute with 
i-las. 



CONTINENUVL AIETIIOD. 



5 



■pus 



py are pro- 

^ the pound 
us), Lnloia 
the lollow- 

, hiii, hiiic. 
viii<( vowel 
erally after 
/ xna'-ilco 
ujentioned 



al as in 

ed with 

1 oc, and 
cae'-do, 
Ga'-de-.. 

3ee 13. 2. 
11, thus: 

<cs,praes, 

i in Eng- 
; mu'-fia, 

, to-tvs. 
; rex'-i 



1) At the beginning of a word it has the sound of z ; A'an'-thus (Zan. 

tllUn). ^ 

2) IJetwoen c or n and an accented vowel, it has the Round of w? • cz^ 
t -Im (ogzi lid, as in exile); uxo'-ri-us (ugzo re-us, as in uxoHouh). * 

1 2. C, S, T, and X— Aspirated.— Botbro i i)reccded hy 
an accented sylhiblo and IbHowed by a vowel, c, s, t, and 
X are aspirated— r, s, and t takin^ir the sound of s/i, x that 
of ks/i ; so'-rl-Hs (so'-slie-us), Al'-sl-um (Al'she-irn), ar'-tl- 
nm (ar'she-uni) ; crnx'-i-us (ank'-«hc-us). C lias also the 
sound of sh before eu and yo preceded by an accented syl- 
lable : ca-du'-ce-ua (ca-du'-she-u.s), Sic'-y-on (Sish'-e-on). But 

1. S immediately preceded by an accented vowel and followed by:| 
with another vowel, has tiie sound of zh : Moe^i-a (Me'-zhe-a). Ih.t some 

s:rs,^S' .t ""'^^ '' '"' -'■''■' ^^■'^^'' ^''■'"'' ''■''^' 

/,•« .^VoT •''"'', \^'' ^^■T'.''^t'^(l) f^fter s, i, or x ; Os'-ti-a, At-ti-m, mix'-. 
ft.o._2) m old mfinitivos in icr ; Jfecti-cr .-—{3) Generally in Lrooer 
names in/io«(tyon): rhUk-ii^n, Am-phic-ty.^ ' ^'"'''''*'^ '" P'^^P^' 

13. Silent Consonants —An initial consonant, with or 
without the aspirate h, is sometimes silent : Thus 

1. C before n : Cnc'-un (Xe'-us). 

2. Ch ovph before a mute: Chlho'-ni-a (Thonia), PhthH-a (Thia). 
6. a or in before « ; f/ua'-rus ; Mue'-ino7i. ^ ' 
4. -/; before « or / ; P^y'-dic, Ftol'-e-mae-us. 

0. y'belorewi; Tmo'-lus. 

II. Continental Method. 
1. Sounds of Vowels. 
14. Each vowel has in the main one uniform sound ' 
but the length or duration of the sound depends upon the 
quantity of the vowel. See 20. 
The vowel sounds are as follows : 

a like ii in father : c. g. a'-ra. 

& a made : 

i 6 me : 

no : 

u 6 do: 

y e me: 



X>h'-bes, 

i'-ri. 

o'-ro. 

u'-num, 

N'y'-sa. 



«onso?anr"""'' '^^^'^^'^^^'^^So.X^^^t modifications in uniting with the various 



i 



* SYLLAULES. 

2. ^oioids of Dtj)/i(/io)if/3. 

15. Ae unci oe liko a in mado, o. g. ^,^''.^^.9, coc7^^m. 
"" " oil" out, « rt«'.n/;vi.' 

3. bounds of Consonants. 

16. The pronuncirxtion of the consonants is similar to 
that ot the English method, but it varies somewhat i.i ditl 
ferent countries. 

SYLLABLES. 

17. In the pronunciation of Latin, every word has as 
many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs; thus the 
Latni words, more, vice, acute, andpersicade areVronounccd, 
not as the same words arc in English, but with their vowel 
sounds all heard in separate syllables; thus, mo'-re, vl'-ce, 
a-cu -te, per-suai'de. 

18. Simple words are divided into syllables as follows- 

1. After a vowel (or diphthong), with the Long Sound (7), consonants 
must bo joined to the followh.g vowel : pa'-tcr, pa'-trcs, a-gro'-rum, sa-cro'- 
rum^ au-di-vi. 

2. After a vowel with the Short Sound (8), 

1) A single or douUe co7isonant is joined to such vowel, except after i 
unaccented : gcn'-c-ri, rex'-i, dom'-i-nus. 

2) 7W consonants arc separated : bel'-lum, mcn'-m, pat'-n-lms But 
X Mlomng a consonant must be joined to the preceding svllable : A'erx'- 
cs, anx'-i-us. 

3) Of three or more consonants, the last, or, if a mute with / or r, the 
last two must be joined to the following vowel : cmp'-tus, tem'-phm, claus- 
tra, trans' -tra. 

19. Compounds are divided int. rliahles, 

1. Generally like simple words : ed'-o-mo (e, ^lomo), \n-tef'.> ro (ante 

fero), be-nev'-o-lens (bene, volens), 7nag-na:' t-nai, (mugnus, animus). 

^ 2. But if the first part is entire and ends in a consonant, the compound 

is resolved into its component parts: ab'-cs, ab-i'-re. 



' In other combinations, the two vowels are generally pronounced separately, but 
41 and eu occur as diphthongs with nearly the same sound as In English. 



I » 



accii::<ti;a'iion. 



coe'-lum. 



I. 



similar to 
hat ill dif* 



)r(3 lias as 
; iLus the 
oiiouncccl, 
leir vowel 
'-re, vi'-ce^ 

s follows : 

, consonants 
'Kwi, sa-cro'- 

cccpt after i 

i-bus. But 
jle : A'crjc'- 

1 / or r, the 
lum, clans'- 



-<-ro (ante, 

mus). 

compound 



)arate!y, but 



QUANTITY. 

20. Syllables aro in quantity or length cither lon.^ 
short, or common.' °^ 

21. Long.— -A syllahlo i.s long hi quantity, 

1. If it cuiitains a diphthong : haec. 

2. If its vowel is followed by J, a', z, or any two consc 
nants, except a mute with / or r: rex, mons. 

22. Short.— A syllabic is short, if its vowel is followed 
by another vowel or a diphthong: cU'-es, vi'-ae, 7ii'.hiV 

23. Common.— A syllable is common, if its vowel, natu- 
rally short, is" followed by a mute with lovr: a'-(jrl. 

«.!• P?* '^h<^«'Sn9 ", ^ " denote respectively that the Bvllublea over 
which they are placed are long, short, or common : k-grO-rum. 

ACCENTUATION. 
I. Primary Accent. 

25. Monoeyllables are treated as accented syllables; 
mons, nos. 

26. Other words are accented as follows:' 

1. Words of two syllables^alwajs on the first : men'-sa. 

2. IFords of more than two syllables— on the 2iennlt * if 
that is long in quantity, otherwise on the antepenult:' ho- 
no'-rls, con' -su- lis. But 

fnll film^"'"'''"^* '"/ ^''•'" " ""'? yocaiives in i for ic retain the accent of the 
full form : tu-ffe -ni for m-sc'-ni-i ; Mer-cu-ri lor Mer-cu-ri-e. 

2 J^enults common in quantity take the accent when used as lonff. 

6) Compoicnds are accented like simple words ; but 

r..Ju I''^ ^'fi\'''i ?«e. w, ne, appended to words accented on the ante, 
penult, throw back their accent upon the last syllable of that word • W. 
\-ne -t/ue, hom -Uus-que. ' 

owntLnrX^rc"?"^'''''^ other words than prepositions, retaiiis its 



' Common, i. e. son.otinios long and sometimes short. For rules of quantity see 
L;n.e^ "■■ ■'■" '""""^ ''"'' "^' ""''' ^'^-^^ ''' *^« ConvcuiLce omL 

» No account Is taken of the breathing A (2. 2). 
» In the subsequent pages the pupil will be expected to accent words in nroni.n- 

iri'T •■;''"' -'?'"'*'■''='' ^""'^''^ determiued by 21 and 22^0, .m" 
am, to tt=cfii;iiii luu place or the iiceent. v.m.i. 

♦ Penult, last syllable but one; antepenult, the last but two. 



8 



ETYMOLOGY. 



II. Secondary Accents. 
27. A second accent is placed on the second or third syllabic before 
toe primary accent,_on the second, .f tliat is the first syllable of the word 
or ,3 long m quantity, othcrwi.o on the taird : man -u-c -runt ; mon-u-e-ra;. 
mus ; in-stau -ra-ve -runt. 

23 In the same way, a third accent is placed on the second or third 
syllable before the second accent : hon.o.rif'.i-ccn4is.s\-mus. 



pai:t second. 

ETYMOLOaY 



29. Etymology treats of the classification, inflection 
and derivation of words. ' 

30. The Parts of Speech ^vc—N^ouns, Adjectives, Pro- 
nouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and 
Interjections, 



CHAPTER I. 
ITOUNS. 

31. A Noun or Substantive is a name, as of a person, 
place, or thing : Cicero, Cicero ; Roma, Rome ; inter, boy • 
domus, house. ' 

Roma. ^ ^"^'' ^°'''' '" "" ^'''^'' '"'""'' ""^ ""^ ^ P°''*'" ^'" P^'^'-'^ '• <^"''^-«. 

nf oll,t^°™°"''' ^°'''' '' ^ "T' ''''"'"«" t"^ ^" t'l^ ™C"^'^ers of a class 
of ol jects • vir, a man ; equm, horse. Connnon nouns include 

peop!i;'^:::s,t™;r'"^°'"'"° ^ ^""^^^'^^ •^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^'-' 

tue;%;;^2:j:^t^:""-'"'°"'^'"^ P^^P^'^'^^ ^^ ^--"-= -'•^-. vlr. 

;i) J^/^f«a/^Vo«»,s— designating materials as such: aurum f^old • 
Injuum, wood ; t<y(<a, water. ' ° ' 

32. Nouns have Gender, Number, Person, and Case. 

GENDER. 

33. There are three genders— J/a-sr-?^//;?^, Feminine 
and Neuter. ' ' 

^ 34. In some nouns, gender is determined by si-niflca. 
tion J ni others, hy endings. 



GEXDEK. 



9 



rd syllable before 
able of the word, 
'■nt ; mo)i-u-e-ra'- 

3 second or third 
us. 



11, inflection, 

actives, Pro- 
ictiotis, and 



)f a person, 
2nte7', boy ; 

place: Cicero, 

bers of a cUiss 

tide 

;cts: popuiusy 

s: virtus, vir- 

lurum, gold; 

ind Case. 

Feminine} 
y significa' 



35. Gexkijal Rules for Gexder. 
I. Masculines. 

1. Names of Males : Cicero; vir, man ; rex, kin.-. 

2. Names of liivers, Winds, and Months: Bhenus, 
Khnie; JSotus, south Aviudj A2mlis, Apiil. 

II. Feminines. 

1. Names o^l^malcs: nmlier, woman ; leaena, lioness. 

2. Isames of Countries, Toims, Islands, and ^^.e,,; 
A^vyptus, Egypt ; /^dma, Rome ; Belos, Delos : j.ira.. 
pear tree. •'^ ' 

III. Neuters. 

1. Indecl'nahle Nouns : fas, right ; nihil, nothin-. 

2. 7f on^5 and Cfoi.se^ used as indeclinable nounsl triste 
vak, a sad farewell; di£icile est amicitiam manere, it is 
Uithcult for friendship to continue.' 

36. Remarks ox Gexder. 
a. va!.i„^rS°.!;-J|S:rX;;'''°™ '""'''"'^ S^™ aem a gon,„„ 

/?//a''son'H^T ^''"' ^'^^'■'"^ ^«™« ^^'^ ^5«'<-^rent genders- filin. 
Thev annlv nnl v tn 7»! J • 7 ^ ^""^ gender, but are used for both sexes 

S 3 ngs '« Je ''gootXarc'oTr' '''"^""'''"^ ^^'^^ ^^^ e^'^" S' 
feminine. ' ^ ^ ''^*' "' ^'''"^^^)' "masculine; a<juila, eagle, 

PEESON AND NUMBER. 
37. The Latin like the English, has three persons and 
U^o numbers. The first person denotes the speaker; the 
second the person spoken to; the third, the person spoken 
of. The smgular number denotes one, the plural more 
tiian one. ^ 

« U^ro^ale mdl^m.e amlcltlam ^n^mire are b^,sod as nontTT^ ' 



,j# 



M': ! 



■i: ■ 



11! I 



10 



CASES. DECLENSIONS. 



Names. 

Nominative. 

Genitive, 

Dative, 

Accusative, 

Vocative, 

Ablative, 



OASES. 
38. The Latin has six cases : 

English Equivalents. 

Nominative. 

Possessive, or Objective with of. 

Objective with to or for. 

Objective. 

Nominative Indei^endent. 

Objective with Jrom, by, in, with. 

1. Oblique Cases.-~In distinction from the Nominative and Vocative 
(casus recti, riglit cases), the other cases are called ohnque (casus obllqiii), 

2. Case-Endings — In form the several cases are in general distinguish- 
ed from each other by certain terminations called caac-cndincjs : ^om. 
mcufia, Gen. vicnsae, &c. 

3. Cases Alike — But certain cases are not distinguished in form. Thus, 

1) The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative iii neuters arc alike, and 
in the plural end in a. 

2) The Nominative and Vocative are alike in all pure Latin nouns, ex- 
cept those in us of the second declension (45). 

3) The Dative and Ablative Plural are alike. 



i 




1 > ( 



DECLEXSIOXS. 
39. The formation of the several cases is called Declen- 



sion. 



40. Five Declensions.— In Latin there are five declen- 
sions, distinguished from each other by the following 

Genitive Endings. 

Bee. I. Dec. II. Dec. III. Dec. IV. Dec. V. 

^®» h is, us, ei.* 

41. Stem and Endings.-In any noun, of whatever de- 
clension, 

1. Tlie stem may be found by dropping tlie endino- of 
the genitive singular. ° 

2. The several cases may bo formed by adding to this 
stem the case-endino-g. 

' See 119. 1. 



FIEST DECLENSION. 



11 



ts. 



ive with of. 



%r. 



lent. 

hy^ in., with. 

e and Vocative 
(casus obllqiii), 

oral distinguish- 
mdiiiffs: Horn. 

in form. Thus, 
s arc alike, and 

atin nouns, ex- 



iled Dcclen- 
five declcn- 



)wing 



7. 
1 

liatever dc- 
endiiio: of 
ng to this 



4 



FIRST DECLEXSION. 
42. Nouns of the first declension end in 

a and p~feminme; as and es,^mascnlme. 

But pure Latin nouns end only in a inrl o.« i • -, 

follows ; ^ ' ^^ ^^^ declined as 

SINGCLAB. 

Meaning. 

a table, 

of a (able, 

to, for a (able, 

a (able, 

O table, 

v:ith,from, by a (able, 

tables, 

of tables, 

to, for tables, 

tables, 

O tables, 

^•^ith, from, by tables. jg 

by tl>oir c.,.e-o„dingr ""'"'""^ *"'"i""'^"<!<I from each otl.er 

2. Zxamplss for Practipp xrui t-i 

Ala xvL . ^ '^'^'^'°''— ^ith these endings decline ; 

S. Irregular Case-Ending8.~The following occur : 
1) As for ae in (he Gon nP r •?• • 

ll.o J.«c„,la„t, of Dar<la„„., ' ■°''"'»«'^'"» f" DarianUanm, of 

•» Abus nil- s» ill 11,0 Dnt and Ahl m 

-<MV.V, daughter, to distinglhtholn n.^'i"^'"'""" '"" *''' «-'^'-«. 
a'Hl/7/«,,, sou. ^ "''^'" ''^'^ *lie same cases of deus, god, 

«0™,„, cowo, a crown, the crolu ""' ""' '"" '""' ""• 



Nom, 
Gen. 
Lat. 
Ace. 
Vvc. 
Abl. 

Nom. 
Gen. 
But. 
Ace, 
Voc. 
Abl. 



Example, 
mensii, 

mensae, 
mensao, 
niensiiin, 

meusii. 



mcns'ac, 

meiissiriiim, 

menais, 

njoiisas, 

uien.sae, 

nieusis. 



Case-Endinga 
a 
ae 
ae 
am 
a 

a 



ao 

arum 
is 

as 
ae 
is. 



i'^^ 



12 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



43. Greek Nouns. — Nouns of this declension in e, as, 
and es are of Greek origin, and are declined as follows : 

Epitome, epitome. Aeneas, Aeneas. Pyrites, 2Wi^cs. 



K. opltom© 
(t. epitomCs 
J), epitomae 
A. epitomcn 
V. epitomC 
A, '^■pitouie 

i\r. i^pitomac 
G. opitoinilrikia 
J), epitomis 
A. epitomas 
V. epitomae 
A. epitomis. 



SINGULAR. 

AenCfts 

Aeneae 

Aeueae 

Acno&m, an 

Aenoa 

Aencft. 

PLUKAL. 



pyrites 
pyritao 
pyritae 
pyritCn 
pyjitC*, a 
pyrite, a 

pyritae 

pyritartem 

pyritis 

pyritas 

pyritae 

pyrltls. 



1. Examples for Practice.— ^?o^, aloe ; horcas, north wind; com- 
etes, comet. 

2. Paradigms.— Observe 1) That in the Plur. and in the Dat. Sing., 
Greek nouns are declined like mensa, and 2) That in the Gen. Sing., only 
those in e depart from the regular ending ae. 

3. Many Greek nouns assume the Latin ending a, and are declined like 
mensa. Many in e have also a form in a; epitome, ejnioma, epitome. 

44. Gender in First Declension. 



Feminine endings : 
Masculine endings : as, es. 



a, e. 



Exceptions. — Masculine — (1) a few in a by signification : pocta, poet ; 
atjricbta, husbandman. See 85. 1.— (2) Hadria^ Adriatic sea ; sometimes 
dama, deer, and talpa, mole. 




SECOND DECLENSION. 

45. Nouns of the second declension end in 

^r, ir, us, OBf— masculine ; iim, on^— neuter. 
But pure Latin nouns end only in cr, «V, us^ urn, and are 
declined as follows : 



^^ .: 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



ensiou m e, as, 
(1 as follows : 

fviiesj 2)yritcs. 

pyrites 
pyritac 
pyritae 
pyriten 
pyiUe, a 
pyrite, a 

pyritae 

pyritariem 

pyritis 

pyritas 

pyritae 

pyrltls. 

ortli wind ; com- 

in the Dat. Sing., 
e Gen. Sing., only 

d are declined like 
a, epitome. 



ition : pocta, poet ; 
iic sea ; sonietimea 



m 

—neuter. 

us, unij and are 



13 

SINGULAn. 

3gfr 



N, scrviis 
G. servl 
J), servo 
A. scrviijii 
V. scv\ii 
A. servo 

iV". servl 

G. scrvOrJini 

JD- scrvis 
A. servos 
V. scrvi 
A. servis. 



puSr 

puerl 

pudio 

puuriiim 

puer 

puero 

puerl 

pueror&m 

puSris 

pucros 

puorl 

puoris. 



SgrI 

agro 

agriini 

ager 

agro 



TLURAL. 



agrl 

agrOrJIiu 

agrls 
agros 
agi'i 
agrls. 



tempi iiitt 
tempi! 
templo 
tempi iim 

terapliiju 
templo 

tcmpia 

temploriiitt 

templls 

tcmpia 

tempia 

templls. 



. . "o"». templls. 

Case-Endings. 
2. 6r. 



■1- us. 

iV. ua 
G. I 
D. 6 
A. um 
K S 
A. o 



G. orum 
n. Is 
A. OS 

V. I 
A. Is. 



SINGULAR. 
1 

i 


fi 

PLCRAI-. 

i 

orum 

13 
OS 
I 

Is. 



3. Cm. 



um 

I 



Qm 

Cm 

A 



& 

orum 
Is 

a 

8. 
Is. 



2. Examples for PractiVA t ;k„ ^' 

master.-LiL.™„ X7„^ !r™-' T'"' ''''' '''"»»'"«. 
-- : /r*.., artisan Z^^'^^'-'T^^^'-""^^-^'^^ 
irar; ref/Mm, kingdom. ""as'^r.-Liko TEMpira: W;„;», 

3. Paradigms.— Oliserre 

,i ' The endings for tbe Noui an.i v«^ a- — — 



J4 



GREEK NOUNS. 



pi ]' 






endingg ms and e in the Nora, and Voc. ; Nora, puer for puci-ua, Voc. puer 

for puire. 

2) That affer d'irers from vuer only in dropping e before r.« 

3) That templum, as a neuter noun, haa the Norn., Accus., and Voc 
alike, ending in the plural in a. &e bS. 3. 

4. Ager a- d Puer.— Most nouns in er are declined like ager^ 
but, tlie following in cr and i> are declined likei?wer. 

1) Nouns in ir : vir, vlri, man. 

2) Compounds in /?>• and ^rcr: arm?<;rer, anw/jr^'n, annor-bcarer ; sig- 

tiifer, signifSri, standard-bearer. 

3) Adulter, adulterer ; Liber, Bacchus ; presbyter, elder. 
Celtiber, CeWberian ; ' Hbr-ri, children ; sueer, fathcr-in-law. 
ggner, son-in-law ; Mulciber, Vulcan ; ' vesper, evening. 
Iber, Spaniard."^ 

5. Irregular Case-Endings.— The following occur i 

1) I for ii by contraction, in the Gen. Sing, without change of accent: 
inge'ni for inge'nU, of talent. 

2) I for ie, common in proper names in ivK, without change of accent : 
Ilercu'ri for Mercuric, Mercury, Also iu /ili for Jilie, sou ; geiii for ymie, 
guardian spirit. ' , . , 

3) Us for c i° ^^^ '^''*"''> *^^ regular form in dens, god, but rare m other 

words. . • 1 . J 

4) Um for drum, common in a few words denoting money, weight, and 

measure: talentum for talentdrum, of talents; also in a few other words: 
deum for deorum; Uberum for likrOrum ; Arglvum for Aryuoi-um. 

6. Deus.— This has, Voc. Sing., deus; Nom. Plur., dci, dii, di; 
Gen.', dedrirn, deum; Dat. and Abl., deis, dils, dis; otherwise 
regular. 

46. Greek ISTouxs. 

Nouns of this declension in OS and on are of Greek 
origin. 

1 Nouns in os are generally declined like those in v.% except in the ac- 
cusative singular, where they have on: Delos, Dell, Ddo, Ddbn, etc., island 

2. Nouns in on are declined like templum, with on for um m the nom- 
inative, accusative, and vocative. 

3 Most Greek nouns generally assume in prose the Latm forms m ua 
and um, but sometimes, especially in. poetry, they retain in one or more 

cases the peculiar en dings of the Greek. Thus, ^ 

' V\r^ puer ebelongs to the stem, and is accordingly retained in all the cases; but 
In ager it is Inserted in the Norn, and Voc. Sing., as the pure stem agr would be dif- 
ficult to pronounce. ,,,,.. i, J 

» Celtiber and Iber have e lorg in the Gen., and Mulciber sometimes drops «. 



^f 



THIRD DECLP-.SIOX. 



15 



viiis, Voc. puer 

ire r.* 

ecus., and Voc 

iicd like ager, 

[lor-bcarcr ; siff- 

yter, elder, 
fathcr-iu-law. 
r, evening. 

bange of accent: 

liinge of accent : 
; yeiii for yenie, 

but rare in other 

ney, weight, and 
L'\v other words : 

ir., dci, dii^ di ; 
lis; otherwise 

are of Greek 

except in the ac- 
Delon, etc., island 

r -um in the nom- 

Latin forms in as 
1 in one or more 



In all the cnscs; but 
a agr would be dif- 

metimes drops e. 



1) Gen iz^ Singular, (rarely u) : ^„drc5geo from And rSgeSs. 

S)^omHat^veB,n'al,oe: can0,.l>6foe " canOphorcis 

4 Oemtu. •« 6n(om): bucollcon " bucoIIcSn 

5) ^'''^'fc«o«««t/ieus admit certain forms of the third declension- Or- 
pheus; G.0.^;u6.; D., Or,kei; A.. 0,^kca ; V., Or^kru.-FuntJ^ has 
. V oc. I^/U/iu, and pela.jus, Plur. /;<;%«. 

47. Gender in Second Declension. 
Masculine endings : er, ir, us, os. 
Keuter endings ; um, on. 
I. FEMININE BY Exception. 

1^ 2. Other Feminine exceptions are 

" 1) Most names of gems and ships : amethystm, sappJdnis. 

2 AlmsMWr, earbams,sa\\ ■ colas, distaflf ; humus, ground ; mnnus, sieve. 

3) Many Greek fem.nmes, as (1) nouns in odus, metros, thongm : periff. 

^/.^. period; d^amitros. diameter; diphthongus, diphthong; uT ZZs 

f^h^s; atdmus, atom; dialectos, diahct. S. K^J aoj/ssm. 

II. Neutkr by Exception. 

^ iV%««, sea ; virus, poisou ; vulffus (rarely masc), common people. 

^ THIRD DECLENSION. 

48. Nonns of the third declension end in 
a, e, i, o, y, c, 1, n, r, s, t, x. 

I. Masculine Endings: 

o, or, OS, er, es increasing in the genitive. 

II. Feminine Endings: 

as, is, ys, X, es not increasing in the genitive, s preceded by 

a consonant. 

in. Neuter Endings: 

a> e, i, y, c, 1, n, t, ar, iir, us. 

clas^et: ^''''"' ""^ *^'' declension may be didded into two 

• I%^o»"s which have a case-endincr in the nomi'nntiVn 
singular. These all end in e, s, or x. nominative 



Ill H 



10 



TlllllD DECLENSION. — CLASS I. 



II. Nouns which have no case-cndhig iu the nominative 

siiiKuhir. . . r 1 

III class II the Nom. Sing, is cither the same as the stem, or is formed 
frnm it 1 V dionniiik' Of chan-ing one or more letters ol the aleni : co»ml, 
f en CO. sa ' e a, cv...s«/:a consul; leo, leOni., sten., Icon (Norn, drops 
n), liou • oamcn, ca'rminis, 'stem, cannln (Nom. changes iu to en), song. 

60. Class I.— With NomixVative Ending. 
I. Nouns in es, is, S un2Jure,' and a '.-with stem un- 
changed ill nominatice. 

Avis,/. Urbs,/. 

bird. city. 

SLNGCLAR. 

avXa urba 

avis urbis 

avi urbl 

av^m urbCin 

avis urbs 

av6' urb6 

PLURAL. 

mbes 



Nubos,/. 
cloud. 

K. nubes 
G. nubXs 
D. nubl 
A. nubbin 
V. nubes 
A. nub«S 



Ilex, m. 
king. 



rex* 

regis 

regl 

reg^m 

rex 

rcg6 



JV. nubSs 
G. nubiam 
2). nubil»tts 
A. nubes 
V. nubes 
A. nubibiis. 



avCs 

avium 

avibiis 

aves 
avSs 
avibiis. 



urbiikin 

urbibuis 

urbes 

urbes 

urbibtis. 



rcgCs 

regAm 

regibtts 

reges 

rcgSs 

res^biis. 



II. Nouns in es, is, S impure, and z :— uu7/i stem chang- 
ed in nominative. 

Miles, m. Lapis, wi. Ars,/. 

soldier. stone. art. 



Judex, m. and/. 
judge. 



lapis 

lapulXs 

lapidl 

lapid^iHi 

lapis 

lapidfi 

lapidCs 
lapidtkm 



SINGULAR. 

ars 

artls 

artl 

art^iu 

ars 

arts 

PLURAL. 

artCs 
artiftm 



N. miles 
G. milltXs 
p. militl 
A. milltSm 
V. miles 
A. militfi 

N- milites 
G. militiim 

i X in rex = gn-g belonging to the stem, sind s being the nom. ending; but in 
Judex, X = cs-c belonging to the etera, and s being the nom. ending. 

• Impure, L c, preceded by a consonant. ' Sometimes avi. 



judex ' 

judicls 

judicl 

judTcSiu 

judex 

judicS 

judices 
judiciiitt 



t^ 



CLASS n. 



n 



2 nominative 

(in, or is formed 
ic sloni : coiim/^ 
on (Nom. drops 
1 to on), sonjj. 

Uh stem wi- 



X, m. 

ng. 






g6 
gCS 

gttm 
giltfis 

>ges 

;gXl>ilS. 

f/i s^em chang- 

idex, m. and/. 
Judge. 

iidex ' 

udicls 

udici 

udTc^nt 

udex 

udicS 

judices 
judlciiiti 



2). militXbtts 
A. luilites 
V. niilitCs 
A. niilitlbjls. 



lapidlbtks 
liipidCis 
la|)ideM 
lupidibiis. 



artiltiis 

urtcM 
artibils. 



judiclbjis 
judiuCi* 
judicCs 
judiclbiis. 



III. Nouns in as, OS, us, and e -.—those in as, os, and 
us with stem changed, those in e with stem unchanged. 



Civitas,/. 
utate. 

N. civitas 

O. civitutis 

D. civitati 

A. civitat^iu 

V. civltas 

A. civitutd 



Nepos, w. Virtus,/. 
grandson. virtue. 



nupOs 

nepotXs 

ncpoti 

ncpotdm 

nepos 

ucpOtC 



nepdtCs 
ncpOtiint 



SINGULAR. 

virtus 

virtutls 

virtfitl 

virtutCm 

virtus 

virtu t«S 

PLURAL. 

vlrtutCs 

virtutiiiit 

virtutXbtis 

virtutes 

virtiitCs 

virtutlbiis. 



Mare, n. 
sea. 

mard 

marls 
marl 
mard 
mard 
marl ' 



maris, 

maritkm 

marXbtiis 

marid 

mariil 

marlbils. 



N. civitatCs 

G. eivitatiim ' 

D. civitatibiis ncpotibtts 

A. civitatCs nepotCs 

V. civitatCs nepotCs 

A. civitatibiis. nepotXbiis, 

51. Class II — Without Nominative Ending. 

I. Nouns in 1 and r :—with stem unchanged in nomi- 
native. 

Sol, m. Consul, m. Passer, m. Vultur, m. 
sun. consid. sparrow. vulture. 

SINGULAR. 

passer 



nom. ending ', but in 
nding. 



K. 661 
G. soils 
D. soli 
A. soldm 
V. sol 
A. sol^ 

N. soles 

G. 

D. sr.llbiis 



consul 

consulls 

consull 

consuICm 

consid 

consult 

consrdCs 

consultint 

consullbiis 



passcrls 
passe rl 
passerCm 
passer 
passer^ 

PLURAL, 

passerCs 
passe rikin 
passerlbiis 



vultur 

vultiirls 

vulturl 

vulturCm 

vultur 

vuIturC 

vidturCs 

vulturttBtt 

Tulturibils 



I 



' Sometimes cititatmn. a Sometimes mure in poetr7. 



T" 



li 






18 



TUIUD DECLENSION. 



A. BCAem 


consults 


pass^rCs 


vulturC* 


V. Hol«8 


consuK^M 


passC'rCa 


TulturCs 


A. Bollhika, 


cousulibtiis. 


passcribAs. 


vulturlbjis. 


II. Nouns 


ill o and r 


: — icith stem changed in nam 


live. 








Leo, m. 


Virgo,/. 


Pater, m. 


Piistor, m. 


lion. 


maiden. 


father. 

SINGULAU. 


sh€jjhe7'd. 


JV. leo 


virgo 


pater 


pastor 


6^. icuiiXa 


virgiuls 


putrls 


pastorls 


J), loom 


virginl 


patrl 


paatorl 


u4. Icuu^m 


virglniSm 


patr£ni 


pastor^m 


V. Ico 


virgo 


patur 


pastor 


^4. IcOnd 


viigmd 


patrC 

PtURAL. 


pastOrC 


JV. leonCs 


virginCs 


patrCs 


pastures 


G. leoiiikm 


virginiiiii 


patrtkm 


pastOrttm 


D. leonibiks ■ 


virginlbfiis 


patilbiks 


pastoribiks 


A. leonCs 


virginCs 


patrCs 


pastorls 


V. leonCs 


virginCs 


patres 


pastorCs 


A. honthiks. 


virginitoiis. 


patrXbifcs. 


pastorib&s. 



III. Nouns in en, US, and ut : — with stem changed in 
nominative. 



Carmen, n. 


Opus, n. 


Corpus, n. 


Caput, n. 


song. 


icorJc, 


body. 

SINGULAR. 


head. 


N. carmen 


V V 

opus 


corpus 


caput 


G. carmTnIs 


operls 


corporis 


capitis 


D. carminl 


opSrl 


corporl 


capitl 


A. carmen 


opus 


corpus 


captit 


V. carmen 


opus 


corpus 


caput 


A. carminl 


operd 


corporis 

PLURAL. 


capltd 


N. carminfl/ 


operil 


corporsi. 


capita 


G. carmlnikm 


opertlm 


corporttm 


capttiim 


D. carminibils 


operlbiks 


corporlbiis 


capitibiis 


A. carmlnft, 


operii 


corporil 


capTtii 


V. carmina. 


opSrii 


corpurii 


capTtft 


A. carmmibtts 


, operibas. 


corporibiis. 


ciipitibiis. 



)\ 



CASK-ENDINGS. 



ID 



ilturCa 
iltui-Cs 
ilturlbjis. 

d in nomina- 
tor, m. 



,stur 

Lstorls 

latorl 

istor 

istOi'6 

istOrCs 

istoribiks 
istorCs 
istorCs 
istorib&s. 

n changed in 

/aput, n. 
head. 

put 
ipitiS 

ipiti 
iptit 
iput 
ipItiS 

ipita 

ipttuin 

ipitlbus 
ipTtii 
pTtft 
ipilibuS. 



62. Case-Endings.— From an inspection of tho paradigms 
it will be 8een, ' 

. 1. That the nouns belonging to Class 11. differ from those of 
Class I. only in taking no caso-oudlng in the nominative and voca- 
tive singular. 

2. That Jill nouns of both classes are declined with the following 
Case-Endings, 

SINQCLAR. 
Masc. snd Fem. 

Nom, s * (ea, is) • 

Oen. la 
Dat. I 
Ace. f>ra(im)* 
Voe. like nona. 
Ahl. 5, i 5^ J 



Neuter. 
5 « 

i 

like nora. 

<l u 



Mosc. and Fem. 

Norn, ca 

Gen. um, ium 

Dat. iljus 

Ace. ea 

Voc. fig 

Ahl. ibtis. 



PLURAL. 



Neuter. 
S, iil 
Km, ium 
ibua 
S, iii 

a, ij 
ibus. 



53. Declension.*-To apply these endings in declension we 
must know, besides the nominative singular, ' 

1. The Gender, as that shows which se't of endings must be 
used. 

^ 2. The Genitive Singular (or some oblique case), as that con- 
tains the stem (41) to which these endings must be added. 

54. Examples for Practice: 

Class I. 
Rnpes, Qcn. rupis, f. rock, hospea. Gen. hospitia, m. 



vcstis, 

tral)3, 

Ix, 

libertaa, 

80(ll],e, 



vestis, f. garment; cuspia, 
trabis, f. beam; inons, 
logia, f. law; gpex, 
libcrtatis, f. liherty ; s^lus, 
sedrlirt, n. scat ; 



cuspidis. f. 
iriontig, m, 
apicig, m. 
Balutia, f. 



guest, 
spear, 
mount ain. 
summit, 
safety. 



JJn nouns in a, (= cs or gs), « is tbc ca^e-en.ling, and the c or ^ belongs to the 

of CI JsTl^' '"'° '""'"'' '''* "'' case-endins is sometimes wanting, as in all noun, 
» The enclosed en<1in:r.=. nro Ir-s common than tho otLers 
For Irregularities see Formation of Uas.s (55-9S) and Irregular Nouns. 



,r, 



i 



11 




i . 




:; 1 




; ' i ■' . 


■ ■ 


i M ::i i 


i 


*^1' ■ 

y 


^ 



20 TIHUD DECLENSION. 

Class IT. 

Exsul, 6V». cxsuHh, m. and/. «///e; dolor, 6Vh. dolOrld, m. 
octio, actio iiif<, f. a<'//o» ; Imilj^'o, iinuf^Iiiia, f. 

anser, anst'riH, m. yuone ; tratcT, lriitrin, in. 

nOuicn, uonilnis, n. name ; tcnipua, tciupOria, ii. 

FORMATION OF CASES. 



pain, 
itnaj/e. 
brot/ier. 
time. 



Nominative Singular. 

65. The nominative singular may generally bo formed 
from any oblique case in one of two ways : 

I. By changing the ending of the given caso to tho 
nominative ending 

8 (es, is) in masculines and feminines ; e in neuters : 
Ace. urbem^ Nom. tcrbs ; dvcm, avis ; mlbcm, nubea. So 
Gen. maris (neut.), Nom. mare. 

II. By droi)ping the ending of the given case: Gen. 
co?isfilis, Noui. consul; jmsser is, passer; pastoris, pastor, 

1. The Fiust Method ap[»lios in Roneral to mute stems. 

2. The Second Method applies to most liquid stems. 

3. EtPHONic Changes: 

1) T, d, and r before a arc dropped; c and g before 8 unite with it 
and form x; i is sometimes v-hanj^ed to e: Gon. civitatis, N. civltas (for 
civitats, t dropped) ; 0. militis, N. miles {milits, t dropped and i changed 
to e) ; {i. regis, N. rex (regs). 

2) 'JJie endiiif/s on and in of masc. and fe.ii. stems arc generally 
changed to o : G. leonis, Is. leo (for leon) ; G. virr/lnis, N. virgo (for virgin). 
But in neuters );t is changed to en : G. carmhiis, earmen (for cnrmin). 

3) llic endings er and or of neut. stems arc generally changed to US : 
G. opSris, N. dpus (for oper) : G. corporis, N. corpus (for corpor). 

4) Other changes sometimes occur. 

Genitive Singular. 

I. GENERAL KULES. 

66. Class I. forms the genitive singular by changing the 
nominative ending into is : tnare, maris, sea ; urhs, iirbis, 
city ; niihcs, nubis, cloud ; hostis, host is, enemy ; arx (arcs), 
arcis, citadel ; rex (regs), regis, king. 

1. Class I. includes, it will be remembered, nouns in e, s (with a few 
exceptions), and x. 

2. The Nominative Esding in this class is 

1) e in nouns in e: mare. 

2) s in nouna in s; but if r or i precedes, it may be es or is\ thus ii 
ic s in urbs, es in nubcs, and is in hosiis. 



I 



FORMATION OF Till] GENITIVK 



21 



rls, m. pain. 

;Iiii8, f. inKtffe, 

in, III. hroUtCK 

lut'is), 11. time. 



\y bo formed 

caso to tlio 

5 in 9ieuters : 
1, nubea. So 

1 case: Gen. 
'oris^ pastor, 
s. 



c s unite with it 
s, N. civltas (for 
d and i changed 

IS arc generally 
irffo (for virgin), 
[hr cnrmi^i). 
' changed to US : 
torpor). 



changing the 
; wrSs, vrbiSy 
T ; arx (arcs), 



1 c, s (with a few 



es or is \ thus it 



8) « in nouns in r: nn the double consonant x = cs oro^ tlic c or o 
lcl()n;;s t(» tlic .stem ami the a is the ending. *' 

above '"''""^'""'^ """' «'"''"'^' '-■''""«'-'•'* "'^' "'''<1'»«« e, •^, <•», nud «■< into »«, as 
». laiiKflULAUiTiKS AND ExcEMiONS.— Sec spccia! rules, 68-83. 
57. Class II. forms the genitive by adding ia to the 

nominative: sol, soils, mn\ career, career is, \)y\»o\\; ixistor, 

2Xistdris, shepherd; lien, lienis, 8i)leon. 

1. Class II. includes all nouns of tliis declension not embraced under 
Class I. 

2. CiiANaE3 AND iKKKGirLAKiTiKS. — Seo Special rules. 

ir. SPECIAL RULES. 

I. Words ending in a Vowel. 
Genitive Formation— Various. 

68. Nouns in a form the genitive in Stis; pocma, 
poetmii is, i>ocm. These are of Greek origin. 

B. 



sea. 



59. N'ouns in © form the genitive in is ; mcire, mdris^ 



r. 



60. Nouns in i form the genitive in is, or are indeclin- 
able : sindpi, sinajns, mustard. 

Exceptions.— The compounds of meli form it in itis: oxijmm, oxy 
mcl'ltis, oxymel. 

O. 

61. Nouns in o form the genitive in onis: ico, leonis, 
lion ; actio, actionis, action. 

Exceptions.— The following form it in 

1. 8ms:— most national names, Maccdo, Macedonis, Macedonian. 

2. ixdB:— Apollo; homo, man; nemo, nobody; <j<>-io, whirlwind ; and 

nouns in do and go : fjrando, grand^mis, hail ; lirgo, 
virgmis, maiden; except— /mrpa^ro, Onis ; ligo, onis; 
pracdo, onis, also comedo, cudo, mango, spddo, tmido, icdo. 

3. ids : — euro, carni.% flesh. 

4. enis:— ^»io, Anicnis, river Anio; ^^erio, XeriSms. 

5. US :— few Greeli feminines : Dido, Bidus. 

Y, 

62. Nouns in y form the genitive in yis (yos, ys),or 



22 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



'i 'I 



are indeclinable : i7iist/^ 7nispis (misyos, raisys) copperas. 
These are ol' Greek orijxin. 



11 :l 



!h ! 



II. Words ending in Mutes or Liquids : c, I, n, r, t. 

Genitive adds is. 

c. 

63. There arc two nouns in c : dlecy alccis, pickle ; lac, 
lactiSy milk. 

L. 

64. Nouns in 1 form the genitive by adding is : sol, 
soils, sun. 

1. 7k'o add lis :—fcl, fellis, gall ; mel, mellis, honey. 

2. Nouns in al Irngtlieu a in the tJeii. ; animal, afdmuHs, animal ; 
exeept sal, salt, and mascuHne proper names: Ilaiuubal, Ilannibdlis. 

N. 

65. Nouns in n form the genitive by adding is, but 
those in Sn form it in inis : jmea?!, 2^aednis, paean ; JlCimen, 
Jluininls, stream. 

1. The few nouns in en (e long), mostly Greek, add is : litn, licnis, 
eplcen. 

2. Noiais in an, on, in, yn are Greek, and sometimes have os for is 
in the Gen. : Pan, Punas for Pauls, god Pan. — Some in on have 07ds or 
ontis : aidon, aedOnis, nightinyido ; Xenbplion, Xcnophonlis. 

R. 

QQ. Nouns in r form tlie genitive by adding is : career, 
carccris, prison ; fulgur, fulguris, lightning. 

1. Nouns in ar geneni'Iy lengthen a in the Gen. : calcar, calcaris, 
spur ; bnt a few retain the short vowel. — Far, corn, has farris ; hcpar, 
liver, hcputis. 

2. Some nouns in er drop e iu the genitive : 

1) Those in ter : pater, patris, father ; except later, latcris, tile, and 
Greek nouns : crater, crattris, bowl. 

2) Imbcr and names of months in ber : imber, imbris, shower ; Sep- 
tember, Septembris. 

3. Iter, way, ha.s itineris ; Jupiter, Jovis. 

4. Noims in or have generally oris : pastor, pastoris, shepherd ; but 
a few retain the short vowel. Cor, heart, has cordis. 

5. Four in ur have Sris : ebur, ivory ; femur, thigh ; jlfcur, liver ; 
robur, strength; hnt femur has also fcmlnis, and jccur, jecinuris, jccinSris, 
and jocinerig. 



.1 



i) copperas. 
, n, r, t. 

pickle; lac, 
ing is : 50?, 



nulis, aTiimal ; 
annibalis. 

ling is, but 
in ; JlCimen^ 

1 : lien^ licnis, 

have OS for is 
1 have onis or 



IS : career, 

dear, calcdris, 
'rtrris ; hcpar, 

teris, tile, and 
shower ; Sep- 

ihepherd; but 

; jlfcui; liver ; 
uriSy jccinSriSy 



FORMATION OP THE GENITIVE. 



T. 



23 



67. Nouns in t form the genitive in itis : caput, cajn- 
tis, head. Cajmt and its compounds are the only nouns in t. 

III. Words ending in S preceded by a Vowel or Diph- 

Varlous. 



thong. 



Genitive Formation- 

AS. 

68. Nouns in as form the genitive iu atis: aetas, 
actutis, age ; civitas, civitutis, state. 
Exceptions.— The following form it in 

1. atis -.—unas, anutis, duck, and neuter Greek nouns. 

2. adi3;—ms-,t'dc/i's, surety ;^rcas, Arcadian, and fern. Greek nouns;' 

lampax, lampudiSy torch. 

3. aris : — wiav, mdris, a male. 

4. asis : — vas, vicsis, vessel. 

5. acsis :— fls, asxis, an as (a coin). 

6. antis :— only masc. Greek nouns ; adamas, antis, adamant. 

ES. 
G9. Nouns in cs (c long) form the genitive m is: 
fames, famis, liuno-or ; niihes, m(his, cloud. 
Exceptions.— TIic following form it in 

1. edis :— (1) edia : hcrcs, hcredin, heir; mcrce.% reward.— (2) edis: 

pr.% pedis, foot.— (.3) aedis : pmes, pracdis, surety. 

2. eris— (1) eria : Clres, Ccrens.—(2) aeris: aes, a<'m, copper. 

3. etis;— (1) etis: qtiics, rest, with compounds, inqnien, requies, 

and a few Greek words: llhes, tapes.— (2) etis: abics, fir 
tree; aries, ram; paries, wall. 

4. essis : — bcs, bessis, two thirds. 

R. i : — a few Greek proper names : A'crxcs, i. 

70. Nouns in ds (e short) form the genitive in itis : 
miles, militis, soldier. 

ExcKPTioNS.— The following form it in 

1. etis :—interpTes, interpreter; styes, crop; tSges, coveriug. 

2. idis -.—obses, hostage ; praeses, president. 

IS. 

71. Nouns in is form the genitive in is: dois, avis, 
bird ; ccmis, canis, dog. 



* Oreok nouna sometimes have ados for adis. 



"TT 



m I 



I 



13^ ^ 
Ml - 



1 



iiij 

' i L 



24 TIIIKD DECLEXSION. 

ExCKPTioNS.— Tlie following form it in 

1. eris : — chiis, cincfls, aslios ; cucu?nis, cucumber; pulvis, dust; 

voin/a, iilutigliKliare. 

2. idis: — ca/zi.s, cup; catmis, helmet; ciispis, ?poar; lupis, stone; 

pronndsix, antepast, and a few Greek ' words: as tyrannisy 
idls, tyranny. Sometimes ibis and ii(jris. 

3. inis : — pollis, flour ; ttaui/uis, blood. 

4. iris : — (/lis, gliris, dormouse. 

5. issis : — s('///i,s', sciiiissift, half an as. 

G. itis -.—lis, strife ; i)/*-, Qertn's, Samnls. 

OS. 

72. Nouns in os form the genitive in oris : J!os,Jt6ris, 
flower ; mo6', mom, custom. 

Exceptions.— The following form it in 

1. Otis : — cos, cniia, whetstone ; dos, dowry ; nepo!>, grandson ; sacer^ 

dos, priest ; and a few Greek words : rhinoceros, the rhi- 
noceros. 

2. odis : — cHstos, cusfodis, guardian. 

3. ois .-—few masc. Greek nouns : /u'rox, hero ; Minos, IVos, 

4. bris: — arbos for arbor, tree. 

5. ossis : — OS, ossis, bone {os, mouth, regular : oris). 



6. bvis : — bos, buvis, ox. 



US. 



73. Nouns in us form tlio genitive in gris or dris : 

Idtus^ latcris, side ; corpus, C07'p6ris, body. 

1. Genitive hi eris. — Acus, foedus, funus, g(~^nus, glomus, liitus, mu- 
mis, olus, onus, opus, pondus, rudus, scelus, sidus, ulcus, vellus, Vgnus, 
viscus, vulnus. 

2. Genitive in Sris. — Corpus, di'cus, dedccus, facinus, ft'nus, frigus, 
lepus, lltus, ncmus, pectus, prcus, penus, pignus, stercus, tenipuB, tergus. 

Exceptions. — The following form It in 

1. uris: — (l) uris: a-v.s, leg; jus, right; Jus, soup; mns, mouse; 

ptis, pus; rKs, country ; ^-<s (thus), incense ; ^t//M», earth. 
— (2) uris: Llgus, Licpms, Ligurian. 

2. uiia •.—juventus, youth; sahts, safety; senedus, old age; servlhis, 

servitude ; virtus, viitue. 

3. udia: — (1) udis: «»c«s, anvil; paltcs, marsh; stthscus, dovetail. — 

(2) iidis: picus, pccudis, a head of cattle. — (3) audis: 
fraus, fraiidis, i\-a.nd ; /a?/s, praise. 



1 Crock nouns somutimes have idos or even ios for idis; Salamia has Salamlnia • 
Siinois, Simoentis, 



FOIIMATIO])^ OF THE GENITIVE. 



25 



pulvis, (lust; 

liipis, stone ; 
s : as lyramiis, 



flos^Jioris, 



mdson ; sacev' 
ccros, the rhi- 



IVos. 



[s or dris : 

ms, liitus, niu- 
v'ollus, Vgnus, 

fOnus, frigus, 
upuB, tergus, 

mut, mouse ; 
; icllus, cartli. 

igc; servltiis, 

s, dovetail. — 
—(3) audis: 



las Salaminia ' 



4. uis •.—ff-nis, ffrms, crane ; sus, swine 

YS. 

74. Nouns in ys form the genitive in yig, yos vs- 

.^c/- !ir ''''"^' ^'^'" ' ^ "^^ ^^ ^'^^"^ '-^ y'^- ^^-.. c./a- 

IV. Words ending in .^preceded by a Consonant. 
Genitive in is or tis. 
Bs, MS, rs. 
75. Nouns in bs, ms, and pg form the genitive by 

ExcKPT.oss.— The folloiving form It in 

'■ *'" ^~"°Z '"fir;™"' "f ' ''"''"^' ^"«'''"' P*- Ate 
^ ^ uctcpi,^ tat ; Jorccps, lorccps. 

2. upis -.—anccps, aucii/jis, fowler, 

3. yphis:— ^ry/),9, ^ryyj/.is, g,.ifli„_ 

L8, JVS, ES. 

76. Nouns in Is, ns, and rs form the genitive bv 
changu.g s into tis: ,>./., ,,,,,,,, ^,,,^^ JnsTen^I 
mnid ; ars, artis, art. ' ' '''^''^'*' 

ExcEPTioNs.-Tho following form it in 

^■.~frons,fro,ull., leaf; ,/«., acorn ; ,V«,, ,,,,„, 

V. Words ending in X~Gen:tive in cis o. rfs. 



AX. 



77. Nouns in ax form tlie genitive in 'fri'a • 
peace. * ^ ^ ^" ^^^S : ^ra, j(?ac2X 

ExcKPT,oNs.-Tho following form it in 

2 acUs ~-^r'^""; *"'''^' '"^ * ^'"^ «^«^k nouns. 
'^<=t^« -few Greek names of men : A.st>,ana:c. 



tsmm 



"W»9S«»H>««!BBBi 



mi 



20 THIRD DECLENSION. 

Exceptions. — The iollowin:; form it in 

1. eels:— (1) ecis: alcx, pitklo; vcrvcx, wctlier.— (2) ecis: nex, 

murder ; fen'mex, mower. — (o) aecis : facx, faccis, lees. 

2. egis:— (1) egis : lex, law; rex, king, and their compounds.— (2) 

egis : (jrcx, flock ; aqudex, water-inspector. 

3. ectilis : — supcllcx, sujicllectllls, furniture. 

4. igis : — rcmex, rcmiyis, rower, 
fi. is : — sencx, senis, old man. 

IX. 

79. Nouns in ix form the genitive in icis : radix, ra- 

dlcis, root. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. icis -.—appendix, appendix ; culix, cup ; fornix, arch ; pix, pitch ; 

sulix, willow, and a few others. 

2, igis i—strix, screech owl ; and a few Gallic names : Dumnbrix, 

Orffelorix. 
8. ivis ; — nix, nicis, snow. 

OX. 

80. Xouns in oz arc : vox, vocis, voice ; nox, noctls, 

night. 

There arc also a few national names which form the genitive in (5ci3 
or bgis : Cappudox, CappadOcls ; AUObrox, Allobrofjis, 

ux. 

81 . Nouns in ux form tlic genitive in iicis : dux, ducis, 

leader. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. ucis:— (1) ucis: Inx, lucis, light; Pollux.— {1) aucifl : faux 

(dcf ), fancis, throat. 

2. ugis:— (1) vigis: fnix, frugis, fruit.— (2) ugis: cor.jvx, conjTigis, 

spouse. 

TX. 

82. Nouns in yx arc from the Greek, and form the 
genitive variously : ^rf/x, Errjcis, Eryx ; bomhyx, homhycis, 
silkworm ; Stijx, Strjgis, Styx ; coccyx, coccygis, cuckoo ; 
onyx, onjjchls, onyx. 

X PRECEDED BY A CONSONANT. 

83. Nouns in X preceded by a consonant change X into 
cis : arx, arcis, citadel. 



—(2) ecis: nex, 
acxjfaccis, lees, 
compounds. — (2) 
;tor. 



EXCE1>TI0XS.' 
phalanx. 



FORMATION OF CASES. 27 

-A few Greek nouns form it in gis : phalanx, phalmffis, 



is : radix, ra- 

arch ; pix, pitch ; 
mes : DumndriXy 

; 910X, noctls, 
2 genitive in Scia 

S : dux, diiclSy 

•(2) aucia: faux 
: conJKXy conjTigin, 



and form the 
byx, homhi/cis, 
cygis, cuckoo ; 



; change z into 



Dative Singular. 

84. Ending :— I : nrbs, itrhi, city. But 
Tiie old dative in e also occurs : acre, for ae.ri. 

Accusative Singular. 

85. Ending :— like Nom., gm, im. 

I. Ending :-like nom. in neuters: mare, mare, sea. 

tt'i ^'J:'^'^'«=~^™' "1 "lost masculines and fcminiues: nrbs, urbcm. 
m. LxDiNo :— im, in the following : 

„,.; .^: ^" "'""'' ^'" ;'/"'''^' ""^ /'^"^■'^'^ in ^'^^ not increasing in the genitive • 

_ 2. In amus.i, rule ; buris, plough-tail ; r«..-., hoarseness ; s^Uis 
thirst ; ^<A',s7,s-, cough ; rzN, force. ' 

Vocative Slngidar. 

86. Ending :— like nominative ; 7va?, rex. But 
Some Greek nouns d.op .: Pallas, Palla; Orpheus, Orphen. Bee 94. 

Ablative Si./gular. 

87. Ending : — g, L 

I. ExnixG :— e, in most nouns ; urbis, urbe, city. 

II. ExDixG :— i, in the following classes of words • 

1. In neuters in e, al, and ar: scdile, sedlll, seat"; vectigal, vcctinaU 
■ tax ; ca,car, calcari, spur. But ' ^ » ""y««, 

Kourin^'ni'T'l" '"^^>\ «=-(!) ^'ames of towns in e; Pracneste ~(2\ 
iNouns m al and ar with a ,s7/o>-/ in fion . ..-/ -; i. lutntme. — [^) 

ncctar.-{3) i-lir /am corn /i^ rl. i ii 'Z"^"' '"'^' '"'^""'^ "^'''"'•'^. 
times »/«m ' -^ ' ''^™— (*) (generally nYe, net, and in poetry some^ 

2. In adjectives in er and is used substantively: ^..^mi.r Ser,tem 
hrt, September ; ■ familiaris, familiurl, friend. But ' ^ 

^^., issi:: j:;::^^! p^'^^^^ "^'"^^' -'^>-"^. youth, have e ; ^.... 



^^^-Names of niontLs are adjectives used «„bstantlve.,. wit";:;:;;;—;^;;;^ 



28 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



t! 



3. In nouns in is with im in the accusative (85) : 2%cris, Tibtrim, 

Tibcri ; n^^-S *'*'*"^ ■''''^'• 

111. ExNUiNO :— e or i ; in nouns .vitli em or im in the Ace. ; <«cr*.s, 

tmrcm or tnrnm, tunc or turn. But 

1 Rcdh, Ace. rcdim, rarely cm, lias rede; while ndvis, navcm, rarely 

'■'"• T^::t!!l,::t ;.,, G. W^., gc„e,.ully have , o^n U,ougl, U,o Aco, 
.„..v l.ivp ha- Furls Ace. Fariiii or rarldcm, Abl. i «»•((/<?. 
'"' ^^sZe'eU^Tnotus occasionally form the Abl. in ^•._(l) several .n 
is- Lnh anauis, avis, bllis, civis, elassh, colhs ,pus orbis, postis, 
t.s amius, auffiu ', , '_„,'2^ some names ot towns, to denote the 

plaeJ in which: 6' . , at Carthage; 2cbun,^t libui.-(a) i/«6u, 

rus, sors, siipdkx, v.. -nl a few others. 

JSrominatlve, Accusative, and Vocative Plural 

88. Ending : — es, S, i^. 

I. Ending :— es in masculines and feminincs: urbs, urbes. 

II. Ending : — a, ia in neuters : 

1. a in most neuters : carmen, carmlna. 

2. ia in neuters which admit i in the ablative (8Y. II.): mure, maria. 

III. Rare Endings are 

1. The ancient endings— eia and is_in the Ace. Tlur. of masculines 
and fomiuines with inm iii the Gen. : civets, civ'is, lor elves. 

2. The Greek ctullncjs—ea, as, is, e. See 95 and 98. 

3. Vis, force, has Tlur. : vires, vlrium, virlbus, vires, vires, virlbus. 

Genitive Plural. 

89. Ending :— um, ium. 

I. Ending : — um in most nouns : Ico, lednum. 

II. Ending :— ium in the following classes of words : 

1. In neuters with ia in the plural, i. c., those in e, al, and ar {al and 
ar with a in Gen.); mure, maria, marlum ; animal, animulia, animalium, 

animal. 

2. In most nouns of more than one syllabic in ns and rs : ' clicns, 

clientium, client ; cohors, cohortium, cohort. 

3. In many nouns not incre:vsing in the genitive : 

1) Most nouns in es and is not increasing : ' niibes, nnbium ; iivis, 

avium. ,^ 

2) Caro, flesh ; imber, storm ; lintcr, boat ; utei', leathern sack ; vcn- | 

ier, belly, and generally Lisuhcr, Insubrian. 



> Some of these- ofton have um in poetry ami smnptiinea even in prose, as pdreni,, 

parent, generally has. , , • i 

a But ciinls, juvunis, strucs, vatcs, fiavo um; fipls, mensis, sGdes, volucrls, «tn or | 

itim ; compcs, ium. 



GEEEK PECULIARITIES. 



29 



the Ace. ; turris, 

iivis, navcnif rarely 

n though the Ace. 

ar'ide. 

. i. — (1) several in 

fnix, orbis, pitKtii<, 

wns, to denote the 

I'ibur. — (y) wila'f 

3 Plural. 
\ iirbes. 



II.): 7nurc, maria. 

?\m\ of masculines 
ivcfi, 
98. 
•es, vireSf virlbus. 



Is: 

, al, and ar (al and 

hnulia, anhnalium, 

ns and rs : ' cUcnSy 



'lies, nubhim ; uvh, 
leathern sack ; vcn- 

■en in prose, as pdrenn, 
, sGdes, volucrls, um or 






4. In monosjllables in s and x preceded by a consonant > and in a few 
m « and X preceded by a ^owd : » t.,-fo, ^.W^;;^, city ; arx, arcium, citadel • 
nox, nodium, night. "w^-i, 

5. In many nouns in as and is (Plur. «^cs and Ues). Thus 

-) In Uptimatcs and i^e««^f,s and occasionally iu other nouns iu as • 
civltas, ctuttaturn, sometimes civitalium. ' 

III. Kaue ENDiNGs.-i?o.9 has 6o«m: a few Greek words (especially 
titles of books) 071 : Metamorphoses, Metamorphoseon 

IV. WANTiNG.-Thc Gen. Plur. is often wanting in monosyllables. 

Dative and Ablative Plural. 

90. Ending :— ibiis : urbs, urblbus. 
Rare Endings are : 

1. is or ibus-in neuters in a: poema-.D. and A., poematis, or poe- 
malibus, poem. ' z' 

2. ubus-in 60s, Awii^,? (rare bobus for 6oi;?6ms), ox; sus, subua for 
siabus, swine. 

3. si, sin — in Greek words. See 97. 

GREEK PECULIARITIES. 

^91. Most Greek nouns of the third declension are entirely regular 

miclinable'^'''' '""'''" poculiarities of the Greek, and some are eudrely 

Greek Goiitive Singular. 

f T?^" .^,f^^^'J;-««™ct™^s OS or i (rare) for is-. Baphnis, Daphildos 

forDaphnidis; A'^rxcs, AemforXerxis. P<^niaos 

1. Ending:— OS. (1) Many nouns in m and is have ados and idot 

has P'L-Jf ^ ^^^ "" '"' ^''^'^ '^"'^ ^'•^''^"«' ^'?Aeos.-(4) Pau 

is: iM/':rj.'S/.-.''"P" """^^ ^'^ ^^' «^"- -' --^^"-^ have .' for 

GreeJc Accusative Singular. 
93. Ending :-oftcn a: sometimes im,in; sometimes en for em: 
Fencks Pcnclea ; poMs, poesim, or poe.m, poem ; Xerxes, Xerxen. 



.« 



m2{«< 



> Exrx.pt, («/,.) ,v->/s nmi tbe Greek non';,;;^;:^;;;;;;'^;;;^;;;^^^^ 

Naoiely, yaua., ,,««, ^/., ,„„,, «,>, „^, ,, (^^^j^^^ ^. .^^ generally /ra«» and 



I ! 






I ! 



Ml I ( 



^<lll 



t 



i' 



I : 



s >1 



m 

I'lji-. 



ill! t 



I iin 



i i ; 






i i 
llitll < 



30 



TIIIKD DECLENSIOJT. 



2. The Ending im or in ia used in Greek nouns in is, Gen. is, and 
Boractimed in a few in is, Gen. iciis : pocsis, pocsim, poiain ; Furis (Purl- 
dis), J'arldem, Parim, Parin. 

3. Tub: Ending en is often used in proper names in c«, Gen. is, and 
Bomctimcs in a lew in cs. Gen. itis'. Acschincs, Aencfiinen; Thules, Tha- 
Utcvi or llialcn. 

4. TiiK Ending yia or yn. — Greek nouns in ys have ym or yn: 
Othrys, Othrym or Othfyn. 

Greek Vocative Singular. 

94. Ending sometimes drops s : Orpheus, Orpheu. See 86. 

1. S is dropped, — (1) regularly in nouns in cms and ys, together with 
proper names in as. Gen. a7itis: Fcrseus, Pcrseu; Cotys, Coty ; Atlas, 
jitla, — (2) generally in nouns in is and sometimes in proper nouns in es : 
Daphnis, Daphni; Socriitcs, HocrutSs, :■' Soerute. 

2. Proper names in es shorten the ending to h, when s is retained : 
Socrates, Socriiti^s. 

Gree/c Nominative and Vocative .Plural. 

95. Ending : — sometimes Ss for es, especially in poetry : ArcMSs 

for Arcades. 

1. The Ending e is used in a few neuters in os : mi^los, mele, song ; 
these neuters are used only in the Nom. and Ace. 2'empe, the vale Tompe, 

is plural. ^ r, ... a i- e 

2. The Ending is for es occurs m a few names oi cities : bardis lor 

Sardcs. 

Greek Genitive Plural. 

96. Ending :— on : only in a few words, almost exclusively titles of 
books : Metamorphoses (title of a poem), Metamorphoseon. 

Greek Dative and Ablative Plural 

97. Ending :— si, before vowels sin, poetic : 2)'oadcs, Trousin. 

Greek Accusative Plural. 

98. Ending :— as : Macedones, Macedonas. 

1. The Ending e is used in a few neuters in os-. mSlos, mele; Tempe. 

See 95. 1. „ /■ •^- a t c 

2. The Ending is occurs in a few names of cities: bardis lor 

Sardes. 

GENDER m THIRD DECLENSION. 

99. The Gender of nouns of this declension, when not 
determined by the general rules (35), may be ascertained 
from their endin'!;s, as follows : ' 

>^See also 48. 



GENDER. 



31 



have ym or yw. 



hen « is letaincd ; 



cities : Sardis for 



I. Mascclinb Endings. 
o, or, OS, er, es mcreasl?ig in the genitive. 

o. 
100. Nouns in o are masculine : sermo^ discourse. 

ExCKPTiONS,— i?<;mi?u"nc, viz. : 

1. Nouns in o, Gen. hiis (i. e., most nouns in do and go, 61. 2), except 
cardo, or^o, turbo, masc, cup-ido and margo, masc. or fem. 

2. Curo, flesh, and the Grceli Argo, icho, an echo. 

8. Abstract and collective nouns in to : ratio, reason ; concio, an as- 
sembly ; except numeral nouns in io, which (except unio) 
are masc. ; ternio, quaternio. 

OK. 

101. Nouns in or are masculine : dolor ^ pain. 
Exceptions. 

1. Feminine : — arbor, tree. 

2. Neuter :—ndor, spelt; aequor, sea; cor, heart; marmor, marble. 

OS. 

102. Nouns in os arc masculine: moSj custom. 
Exceptions. 

1. Feminine .—arbos, tree; cos, whetstone; dos, dowry; eos, dawn. 

2. Muter:— OS, mouth; os, bone; and a few Greek words: chaos, 
epos, ethos, melos. 

EB. 

103. Nouns in er are masculine : agger, mound. 

Exceptions. 

1. i^cwimMc.'—^in^er, boat (sometimes masc.). 

2. Neuter :-{l) cadaver, corpse; \ter, way; tuber, tumor; uber, 
udder; wr, spring; verber, Bcourge,-(2) botanical names 
in er^ Gen. ens: iiccr, maple tree ; papaver, vop^y ; piper, 

ES INCREASING IN GENITIVE. 

104. Nouns in es increasing in the genitive are mas. 
eulme : pes, genitive pedis, foot. 

Exceptions. 

1. Feminine :-compcs, fetter; merccs, reward; merqes, sheaf- „vie, 
rest (with its comnound.s); .t<nr. crop; ;^^.., mat;' some-' 
times also «/c«, bird, and quadrupes, quadruped. 

^. Neuter -—acs, copper. 



"' 



III;! 



i 



il I 



'H< 



I 



F i 



Ml 



82 



TIllKU DECLENSION. 



II. Feminine Endings. 



es, is, ys, X, es not increasing in genitive^ s preceded hj 

a co7isonant. 

AS. 

105. Nouns in as arc feminine: aetas^ age. 
Exceptions. 

1. Masculine : — as, an as (a coin), vas, surety, and Greek nouns in as, 

G. antiSy as adiimas, adamant. 

2. Neuter : — vas, vessel, and Greek nouns in as, G. iltis, as erysipelas. 

IS. 

1 06. Nouns in is are feminine : ncivis, ship. 

Exceptions. — Masculine : 

1. Nouns in alls, ollis, cis, mis, nis, guis, quis : natalis, birthday; 

collis, hill ; fascis, bundle ; vOmis, ploughshare ; if/nis, 
fire ; sanguiSy blood ; torquis, collar. But a few with 
these endings are occasionally feminine : aqualis, canulis, 
cuniSy cluniny amnis, chiis, finiSy anguiSy torquis, 

2. AziSy axle; fustiSy club; pulvis, dust; 

glis, dormouse ; 
lapisy stone ; 
mensiSy month; 
orbis, circle ; 
postisy post; 



scrobis (f.), ditch ; 
scntiSy brier; 
%m(f.), tiger; 
torrisy brand ; 
vectisy lever.' 



burisy plough-tail ; 
callis (f ), path ; ' 
cassisy net; 
cauliSy stem ; 
corbis (f.), basket ; 
cvsisy sword; 
8. Compounds of as (a coin) : semisy dccussis. Also LucrctXliSy mdnea 
(pi.). 

TS. 

1 07. Nouns in ys are feminine : chldmys^ cloak. 

Exceptions. — 3fasculine : — names of mountains, Othrys. 

X. 

108. Nouns in x arc feminine : ^?aa;, peace. 

Exceptions. — Mascidine : 

1. Greek raasculinps : C'>rtar, raven; ^/torax, cuirass. 

2. Nouns in ex and unx ; except the six fcminines : fncXy forfcXy lcx\ 

ncxy (prcx), snpcllex, and such as are fern, by signification' 
35. II. 

' T!if» psamplcs marked (i.) nrp. r-nmctimcs fcmin'nn. Corbis and tigris arc often 
ffminine. 

' For nouns In ia ninsciilinc by signiflcation, see 85. I. 



GKNDKU. 



33 



preceded by 



E. 



cck nouns in as, 
is, a3 erysipetas. 



itdliSy birthday; 

iglishare ; i(/nis. 

But a few with 

aqudlis, ca7ta/w, 

torguis, 

, (lust ; 

f (f,), ditch ; 

brier ; 
[f.), tiger; 

brand ; 

lever.' 

LucrctXlis, manes 



cloak. 

njs. 





faex, forfcx, lex\ 
by signification 



nd tigris are often '^Sk 



8. Four in ix: cu/t>, cup; fornix, arch; phoenix, pliocnix; varU 

(!".), swollen vein. 
4. One in ux : irudux, vino-layor. 
, 6. Names of mountains in yx, and a few other words in yx. 
6. Sometimes : calx, heel ; calx, lime ; li/iix, a lynx. 

ES NOT INCREASING IN GENITIVE.. 

109. Nouns in es not increasing in genitive arc femi- 
nine : nubes^ cloud. 

EXCKI'TIONS. 

1, Masculine : — acinuces : somctimca palumbes and vcprca. 

2. Neuter :— a, few rare Greek nouns: cacocthes, hippomanea 

S PPwECEDED BY A CONSONANT. 

110. Nouns in s i)rccccled by a consonant are feminine: 
urbs, city. 

Exceptions.— J/<iscM/e^c : 

1. Dens, tooth, fons, fountain, mons, mountain, pons, bridge ; gen- 

erally adeps, fat, and rude7is, cable. 

2. Some nouns in ns, originally adjectives or participles with a masc. 

noun understood,— (1) oriens, occldens (sol), east, west,— (2) con- 
fluens, iorrens (amnis), confluence, torrent,— (3) bldens, trldens 
(raster), two-pronged hoe, trident,— (4) scxtajis, guadrans (as), 
parts of an as. 

8. Chahjhs, steel, hydrops, dropsy, and a few Greek names of ani- 
mals : epops, gryps, seps (f.). 

4. Sometimes : forceps, forceps ; serpens, serpent ; stirps, stock. 
Antmaiis, animal, originally participle, is masc, fern., or neuter. 

III. Neuter Endi s. 

a, e, 1, y, c, 1, n, t, ar, ur, us. 

A, E, I, Y, C, T^ AR. 

111. Nouns in a, e, i, y, c, t, ar are neuter : poema, 
poem ; mare, sea ; fee, milk ; caput, head. 

L. 

112. Nouns in 1 arc neuter: animal, animal. 
Exceptions. — Masculine : — mugil, mullet ; sal (also neuter in singu- 

lar), salt ; sol, sun. 

N. 

1 13. Nouns in n are neuter: carmen, song. 



* 



!i I 




: 1 



84 FOURTH DKCLEN8ION. 

EXCKPTIONS. 

1. MaHculinc:—pcctcn, comh; rr;,,, kidney; //en, spleen; and Greek 

miisiulintvs in an, en, in, on : pacaii, paoan ; ciinon, rule. 

2. Feminine:— aidnn, ni;i;litiii-,'alc ; alcyon (halcyon), kingfisher; Icun^ 

imago ; sindon^ muslin. 

UU. 

114. Nouns in ur are noutcr : fulgur, lio-ljtning. 
Kxi;kptions. — Masculine :—fuirfur, bran ; iurlur^ turtledove ; vultur, 

Tulture. 

US. 

115. Nouns in us are neuter : corpus^ body. 

Exceptions, 

1, Masculine : — lipm, hare ; mtis, mouse ; Greek nouna in pufl and 

a few others : Iripus, tripod. 

2. Feminine : — telluH, earth ; fraus, fraud ; laus^ praise ; and nouna 

in us, Gcu. utis or udia : virtus, virtue ; palm, marsh. 

, FOURTH DECLENSION. 

116. Nouns of the fourth declension end in 

us, — masculine ; u, — neuter. 
Tiiey are declined as follows : 
FructuSj/rwiY. Cornu, hor7i. Case-Endings. 

SINGULAR. 

N. fructiis corna Qa q 

G, fructiis corn as fls Qs 

J), fructiil coma ul 

A. fructam corna Qm fl 

V. fructas corna Qa fl 

A. fructa corna Q q 

PLITRAL. 

cornuii, 

corniiam 

cornibus 

cornutl 

cornuii 

cornibas. 



N. fructas 
G. fructuAm 
D. fructibas 
A. fructas 
V. fructas 
A. fructXbas. 

1. Case-Endings. — Nouns of this declension are declined with 
the case-endhig3 presented in tlie above table. 



Qs 

uura 

ibus (ubus) 

us 

Qs 

ibus (ubus). 



uum 
ibiis (ubiis) 

Uit 

ibus (ubus). 



i 



OliXDJiU, 



35 



;cn; and Greek 
XII ; C(inon, rule, 
iingfishcr; icon, 



itnillg. 
IcUovc; vultur, 



ma in pua and 

isc ; and nouns 
piilus, marsh. 



in 



idings. 



u 

us 

a 

u 

u 

u 

ua 

uum 

ibus (ubus) 

ujl 

Uii 

ibils (libiis). 

isclincd with 



2. Examples for Practice.— r./«^/.«, gong; eiirrua, chariot; eui^ 
»us, courso; vcmm, ver.so ; (jhnt^ kiico. 

S. Mo.Uflcation cf Third Doclension.-Tl.o fourtli declonsion \a but a 
modilication of tho third, produced by contruction : tliu.s fncdu.',, in the un- 
contracted form, was dedii.e.l lil;c y/v/^, ffruis, of Dccl. IFI. : N. fruvf,i8 « 
/nuf.^s =:/racfu.^,' U./ructni, A. fruUnci r. /,ucium,V. /rudus !' A. 
/rudue =Jrudu: I'hir. ^./ruduca =/rudus, etc. 

4. Irregular Case-Endings.— Tho following occur: 

1) Ubvis for ibuK, used regularly in the Dat. and Abl. Plur. of 

Acv^, needle; am/,9, bow ; «/•/!«, joint; lacm, Uka; partu.i, birth ; jo^fM, 
Cttttlo; qno'ois, oak; (>pecus, den ; trlhu,, tribe; vera, spit: occasiouully in a 
icw other words, aHportu/i, sinns, and to/ittrvn. 

2) Via, the uncontracted form for vs, in tho Oon. : fntduia for/rudus. 
o) U for vi, in tho Dat. by contraction : eqitUdtu for equitatui, cavalry. 

117. Second and Fourth Declensions.— Some nouns are 
partly of this declension uud i)artly of tho second, 

1. Ddmus, bouse, declined as follows : 



TlVTlAh. 

domus 

domuum, doraOrura 

dornibud 

doiuu-), domua 

doniils 

donilbiis. 



SING0LAR. 

JV. domus 

G. domns, domi 

I), doinul (domo) 

^. domum 

V. domu.s 

A. domO (domu) 

In this word there Is conorally a difference of monnin- between tho forms of 
♦te second Decl. and those of tho fourth ; thus, O. damm, of a bouse ; cloml, at homo : 
A. n.rfoOT us, houses; rfo7»o«, often, homeward ; to homes. 

though generally of Decl. 11., sometimes take those cases of the fourth 

I» /a /'" "' ^'"^ V ^- ^''"'■"•^■' ^^' '«"'■"*' ^- ^««'-«. A. laururn, V. 
laurm, A. Imtrn, &c. So also cdlux, distaff. 

.'5 A fow nouns, especially sendtun and tumuUun, though rcRularly of 
tumum.'' '°"'''^""'' ^^^ *^' e'^^'"^^ e'^ding i of the second: scndfi, 

118. Gexder in Fourth Declension. 

Masculme ending: us. 

Neuter ending : u. 

Exceptions. 

1. Feminine .—(l) Sens, needle; coin,, distaff; drmn.o, house; munus 
hand; ;,o,-«cm.s portico; Mbus, tribe,— (2) tdus, ides;' 
Quinquafms, feast of Jrinerva; gcnorallv -??««.., store, 
when of this decl. ; rarely spt-cus, den,-(3)'a few nouns 



stu 



FIFTH DECLENSION. 



Fem. by signification (35. II.): 7iurus, daughter-in-law; 
/iciis, tig tree.' 
2. Neuter :—si;cus {acxux), sex ; rarely, sp,ycus, den. 

PIPTII DECLENSION. 

119. Nouns of tlic fifth declension end in GQ^—femi- 
nme, and are declined as follows : 
Dies, dai/. 

JV. dies 
G. die! 
D. diei 
A. di^m 
V. diCis 
A. die 

N. dies 
G. dieriiin 

J), diebtis 
A. dies 
V. dies 
^. diebiis. 

1. Case-Endings. — Nouns of this declension are declined with 
tlie case-endings presented in tlie above table. 

^in ei is genorally short when preceded by a consonant, otherwise long. 

2. Examples for Practice. — Acies, battle array; effigies, eflfigy; 
fades, face ; series, series ; sjjecie.s, form ; spes, hope. 

3. Modification of Third Declension.— The fifth declension, like tho 
fourth, seems to be a modification of the third. It is produced by contraction 
{ees = es : eihus = ebus), except in the genitive, where ei comes from ei^, by 
dropping s, and erum fioui eum, by inserting r. 

i. Irregular Endings:— ^ or i for^: in the Gen. and Dat. : acie for aciei; 
pernicii i'or perniciei. 

5. Defoctive.— Nouns of this declension, except dies and res, want tho 
Gen., Dat,, and Abl. Plur., and many admit no plural whatever. 

120. Gexder in Fifth Declension. 

Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine. 

Exceptions. — Masculine : — dies, day, and meridies, midday, though 
dies is sometimes feminine in the singular. 

• Also Fem. when it u.eans^^. 



Res, thing. 


Case-Endings 


SINGULAR. 




res 


es 


r«4l 


ei 


r«I 


ei 


r£iii 


Sm 


r€s 


es 


re 


e 


PLURAL. 




res 


ea 


rerfiiu 


erum 


rebfts 


ebiis 


res 


es 


rCs 


es 


rebus. 


ebiis. 



COMPARATIVIiJ VIEW OF DECLENSIONS. 



37 



iughtcr-in-law ; 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE FIVE DECLEXSIOXS. 



121. Case-EiKlinf?s of Latin nouns.' 



eB,—fe7ni' 



1 clings. 



ra 

3 



is 

ii'um 

ibus 

'S 

■3 
ibus. 

eclixed with 

ise long. 

igies, eflfigy; 

isioD, like tlio 
by contraction 
es from eis, by 

; acie for aciei ; 

1 res, want tbo 
ir. 



idday, though 



Doc. I. 

Fein. 
N. a 
G. ae 
J), ae 
A. iim 
V. a 
A. a 



Dec. 11. 
Masc. Nciit. 



us - 
i 
f) 
uin 



2 V 
• UUl 

i 

o 

um 

um 

o 



SINGULAR. 

Dec. III. 
M. & F. Neut. 

s (es, is)' — (■; — 



IS 

I 

om (Tm) 

like iioni. 

e(l) 



K 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. ae 
A. is. 



ae 

ariiin 

Is 

US 



1 

Orura 

is 

OS 

i 

is 



a 


es 


orum 


um (iiim) 


Is 


ibiis 


a 


es 


it 


es 


Is. 


Ibus. 



IS 

i 

like nom. 
like nom. 
e (I) 

PLURAL. 

a (ia) 
um (ium) 
ibus 
ii (ia) 
a (ia) 
ibiis. 



De( 


3. IV 




D. V. 


Masc. 


Neut. 


Fem 


fis 


u 




OS 


us 


03 




el 


ul 


Q 




6i 


ura 


a 




Sm 


us 


tt 




ea 


a 


Q 




e 


Q3 


uS 




Ss 


uiim 


uiim 




eruna 


Ibus (ubiis) 


Ibus 


(ubus) 


ebus 


us 


Uil 




es 


Qg 


ua 




es 


Ibus (ubus) 


ibus 


(ubus). 


ebus. 



122. By a close analysis it will be found, 

1. That the five declensions are only five varieties of one gen- 
eral system of declension. 

2. That these varieties have been produced by the union of 
different final letters in the various sterns, with one general system 
of endings. 

123. According to this analysis, 

1. The stems in the five declensions end in the following 

letters : 

I. n. III. IV. 

a> o, consonant, u, 

(rarely i). 

2. The general case-ei/lhigs are as follows : * 



V. 
e. 



' Tlib table presents the endings of all nouns in tbc Latin language, except a few 
ocrived from the Greek. 

» The dash denotes that the casc-endin- is sometimes wanting ■ er and ir in DccI 
n. It will bo remembered, are not case-endings, but parts of the stem (45. 1). 
The inclosed endings are loss common than tlie others. 
* In this table observe, 

1) That different endings characteristic of different genders may bo found in one 
and the sarno declension. 

2) That a slight difference of declension is however apparent in the double forms 
in H l;esa\ um, nlm; IbUs, is; but tlint in each of tUeso double forma, tho flrat 
Booms to have boon tho original ending from which tho second was derived. 

o 



88 



COMPAKATIVE VIEW OF DECLENSIONS. 



3ftisc. and Fern. 

N. 8 — 

G. IS, i 
J). I 

A. vm, m 
V. like nom. 
A. e (i) 

iV. f'S, I 
G. lim, rum 
D. ibus, is 
A. es 

V. like nom. 
A. Ibus, is. 



SINGULAR. 



PLURAI,. 



e, m — 

is, i 

1 

like nom. 

e(i) 

a (i<i) 
urn, rum 
Ibus, is 
like nom. 

ibus, is. 



3. The manuer in which these endings unite with the different 
stems so as to produce the five declensions may be seen in the 
following 

COMPARATIVE VIEW OF DECLENSIONS. 



I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Mensa. 


Servo. 


lieg. 


Fructu. 


Re. 




SIxXGULAR. 






jy j mcnsa- 


scrvO'S 


reg-s 


fruciu-s 


rc-s 


' I mensa 


servus 


rex 


i'ructus 


rC'S 


fy ( mensa-i 


scrvo-i 


rcff-is 


fructu-is 


re-i{ii) 


' I meusae 


servi 


regis 


fructus 


rei 


j^ ( mcnsa-i 


scrvo-i 


reg-i 


fnictU'i 


re-i 


■ ( mcnsac 


servo 


regi 


fructui 


rei 


J 5 7nensa-m 


servo-m 


rcg-cm 


fructu-{i.')m 


re-{e)m 


' \ mensam 


servum 


regem 


fruetum 


rem 


Y j menaa- 


servo-e ' 


rcg-s 


fnictu-s 


res 


' \ niensii 


serve 


rex 


fructus 


res 


A ( mcnsa-e 
' \ mcnsa 


serro-e 


rcg-e 


fructu-e 


re-e 


servo 


roge 


fructu 


ro 




PL 


CUAL. 






jT ( mcnm-i 


scrw-i 


reg-cs 


frucbi-es . 


re-cs 


' \ meiisae 


servl 


reges 


fructus 


res 


Q ( mcnsa-um 


servo-um 


rcg-um 


fructu-um 


re-um 


' ( mcnsanlm 


scrvurura 


rogiira 


fructuum 


reriim 


j^ J mejisa-is 


scrvo-is 


rcg-ibus 


frnctii-ibus 


re-ibns 


' l mcnsis 


scrvis 


regibiis 


fructibus 


rebus 


A j menm-€s 


scrvo-cs 


rcg-es 


fructiies 


rc-cs 


' ( mensas 


servos 


regC'S 


fructus 


res 


Y j mcnsa-i 


scri'o-i 


rcg-cH 


frnctu-es 


re-es 


' { mensae 


servi 


reges 


fructus 


res 


1 j ynenm-h 


ncrvu Is 


rcg-ihus 


fnictu-ihus 


rc-iius 


■ ( mensls. 


servls. 


rcgibus. 


iructibiis. 


rebus. 



' Nouns ill U8 of Di>c. II. have e in.stead of ,■(. 



ill . 



mmmm 



i. 



GENDEK. 



the different 
seen in tlie 



NS. 



I Re. 

rc-s 

rc-i{s) 
rei 

re-i 
rei 

?'e-(e)?n 
rem 
rc-s 
rG3 

re-e 
re 

re.-cs 
rGs 

rc-um 
rGrura 

re-ibus 
rt'bus 

rc-cs 
rC'S 

re-es 
res 

rvilua 
rC'bus. 



39 



124. General Table of Gender. 



I. Gender independent of ending.' Common to all 
declensions. 



Masculine, 
Names of Males, of 
EivEKS, Winds, and 
Months. 



Feminine. 
Names of Females, of 
CouNTRiGs, Towns, 
Islands, and Tuees. 



Neuter. 

Indeclinable Nouns, 
and Words and 
Clauses used as In- 
declinable Nouns. 

II. Gender determined by Nominative Ending.^ 

Declension I. 

^'^^^""°°- I ren:i„ine. l Neuter. 

as> es. I a, e. | 

Declension II. 
er,ir,us,os. [ | urn, on. 

Declension III. 



o, or, OS, er, es in- 
creasing in the geni- 
tive. 



as, is, ys, x, es no* 

increasing in the 
geiiitive, 3 preceded 
by a co7isonant. 

Declension IV. 



a> e, i, y, c, I, n, t, 
ar, ur, us. 



us. 



11. 



Declension V. 
I es. I 

DECLENSION OF COMPOUND AND IRREGULAR NOUNS. 
COMPOUND NOUNS. 

125. Compounds present in general no peculiarities of 
declension. But 

1. If two nominatives unite, they are both declined: resmUha 
Tandni, T' ^'^P^^^^^' ^^^® P^^^^'^ *^^'^"ff 5 jusjurandum = juaju- 

. 2. If a nominative unites with an oblique case, only the nom- 
niative IS dechned: jmf erf amiUas = paterfamilias (42. 3), or 
pater famihae, the father of a family, ^ ^ ^ ^h ^^ 



' For exceptions, see 36. 

» For exceptions, ace under the several declensions. 



40 



COMPOUND AND IRTJEGULAR NOUNS. 



126. Pakadigms. 



N. respublica 
G. reipublioae 
D. rt'Ipublicae 
A. rempublicara 
V. respublica 
A. republica 



JV. respublicae 

G. rC'runipuljlicarum 

J), rebuspublicis 

A. respublTcas 

V. respublicae 

A. rebuspubllcls. 



SINGULAR. 

jusjurandura 

jurisjurandi 

jurijurandO 

jusjurandum 

jusjuiandiira 

jurcjurando 

PLI7KAL. 

jurajurandii 



jura.juranda 
jurajuranda. 



putcrfamilia': 

patrist'amiliaa 

patril'amilias 

patrcinrauiilias 

pateifamilias 

patrGi'amilias 



r".tre.sfamiliag 

l)atruinfamiiiad 

patribust'air.ili!^3 

patresramilias 

patrcsfaniiliaa 

patrlbusl'amilias. 



1. The parts which compose these and similar words are ofteu and perhr.pa 
more correctly written separately : nspublica ; paterfamilias ov/amiliae. 

2. The parts of respublica are res of the 6th Decl. audyj«/Wita of the 1st. 

3. The parts oi jusjurandum are Jus of the 3d Decl. auii J urarulu?/!. of th« 
2d. Jusjurandum wants the Gen., Dat., and Abl. Piur. 

4. The parts oi paterfamilias i re pixter of the od Decl. au^familias (42. 
S), the old Gen. oi familia, of the ist. fcoinetimus, though rarely, the Geu 
familidrum is used in the plural : patre&famiUdrum iov pairesfamilias. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

127. Irregular nouns may be divided into four classes* 

I. Indeclinable Nouns have but one form for all cases 

II. Defective Nouns want certain parts. 

III. IIeteroclites {heterodita ') are partly of one do* 
clension and partly of another. 

IV. Heterogeneous Nouns {heterogeiiea'^) are parti) 
of one gender and partly of another. 

I. Indeclinable Nouns. 

128. The Latin has but fe^v indeclinable nounS. 
1. The principal examples are: 

}) ^'^^i I'.^lit; nefas, wrong; instar, equality; mane, momin!: ; nihil 
notliiiig ; pondo, pound ; sScus, .sox. 

2) The letters of the alphabet, a, b, c, alpha, heta, etc. 

3) Foreign w oids : Jacob, Ilhbtrri : though these are ofteu declined ; 

» From 'firepos, u7iother, and K\((ris, inflection, i. c, of diflForcnt declensions. 
» From 'irepoSf another, and y^voy, gunder, i. e.. of ditfureut genders. 



DEFECTIVE NOUNS. 



41 



Jdcobug, Jacdhi ; Illeberris, Illeberri. Jesus has Jesum iu the accusative and 
Jesu iu the other cases. 

2. Some indeclinable nouns are also defective : mane wants the Gen. and 
Dat. ; fas and nefas, the Gen., Dat., and Abl. 

II. Defective Nouns. 

129. Nouns may be defective in Number^ in Case^ or 
in both Number and Case. 

I. Nouns defective in Number. 

1 30. Plural wanting.— Many nouns from the nature of their 
signification want the plural : liuma, Kome ; jastitia, justice ; au- 
rum, gold. 

1. The principal nouns of this class are : 

1) Proper names (except those used only in the plural) : Cicero, Homa, 

2) Abstract Nouns : fides, faith ; justitia, justice. 

3) Names of materials : aurum, gold ; ferrum, iron. 

4) A few others: meridies, midday; s^ptcimen, example; supellex, furni- 
ture; ver, spring; vespera, evening, etc. 

2. Proper names admit the plural to designate /awii^ies, classes; names *)f mate- 
rials, to designate pieces of the material or articles made of it ; and abstract noima, 
to designate instances, or kinds, of the quality; Scipiones, the Sciplos; aeru, vesseli 
of copper ; avaritiae, instances of avarice ; odia, liatrods. 

In the poets, the 2)lw. of abstracts occurs in the sense of the sing. 

131. Singular wanting. — Many nouns want the singular. 

1. The most important of these arc : 

1) Certain personal appellatives applicable to classes : majdrcs, fore- 
fathers ; postcri, descendants ; gcmmi, twins ; liberi, children, etc. 

2) Many names of cities : Alhcnae, Athens ; Thibae, Thebes ; Delphi, 
Delphi ; Argi, Argos, though the Sing. Ai-ffos occurs in Nom. and Ace. 

5) Many names of festivals: UaccJianaliii, Olympia, Saturnalia. 
4) Many names not included in these classes. Such are : 
Arma,a,rm%\ divitiae, riches; ecwegjtzV/e, funeral rites; evuriae, e,xi()\\s\ Idus, 

Ides; indutiae, truce; itisidiae, auibusc;u1e: manes, shades of the dead; mlaae, 
threats; moenia,v!aX\&', J««7^^■(^, duties; nvptiae, nuptials; rcliq^iiae, remtans. 

2. An individual member of a class designated by these plurals may be denoted 
by unus ex with the plural : iinus ex liMris, one of th3 children, or a child. 

3. The plural in names of cities may have reference to the several parts o! thi5 
city, especially as ancient cities were often made up of separate viUnges. So in th'j 
mimes of festivals, the plural may n.'fer to the various games and exercises which to- 
gether constituted the festival. 

132. Plural with Charge of Meaning.— Some nouns hr.ve 
one signification in the singular and ai.other in the phu-iil: Tims 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Aedes, fi'mplti • nodes, (1) temples^ (^2) a lionsp.^ 

Aqua, water ; aquae, (1) waters, {'?.) mineral sprin as 

• jUdcttimiX some other words in this list, it will be observed, have in the plural 
two significations, one corresponding to that of the singular, ao-J the other distinct 
from tt. 



il'!» 



42 



DEFECTIVE NOUNS. 



Auxiliuni, hel^^ ; 
lioiiuiii, « ijoud tiling, Ihssing ; 
Career, j)?-t{io/i, barrier ; 
Custruin, cadle, hut ; 
Coniitium, name of apart of the 

lioman forum ; 
COpia, plenty, force ; 
Facultas, ability ; 
Finis, end ; 
Fortuau,foriu7ie ; 
Gratia, gratitude, favor ,' 
Ilortus, garden; 
Impediuieutum, hindrance; 

Iiittt?ra, letter of alphabet ; 

Ludus, play, sport ; 

Mos, custom ; 

Natalis (dies), birth-day ; 

OpPra, work, service ; 

Pars, 2mrt: 

Rostrum, beak of ship ; 

Sal, salt ; 



aiixilia, auxiliaries, 

boiiu, rich IS, goods. 

carci'res, barriers of a race-course. 

castra, camp. 

coruitia, the asse7nbly held in the comu 
tium. 

copiae, (1) stores, (2) troops. 

facilitates, tvealth, means. 

fines, borders, territory. 

fortunae, possessions, wealth. 

giatiae, thanks. 

fiorti, (1 ) gardens, (2)pleasvre grounds. 

luipedimeuta, (1) hindrances, {'H) bag- 
gage. 

Utterae, (1) letters of alphabet, (2) epis- 
tle, writing, letters, literature. 

ludi, {!) plays, (2) public spectacle. 

iriorcs, manners, character. 

naf ales, pedigree, pareidage. 

0[)eiae, workmen. 

partes, {\) parts, (2) a party. 

rostra, (1) beaks, (2) the rostra or tri- 
bvne in Home (adorned with 
beaks). 

sales, witty sayings. 

, It- Nouns defective in Case. 

133. Some nonns are defective in case. Tims 

^ _ 1. Some want the nominative, dative, and vocative singular • (Ops) 
opis, help ; (vix or vicis), viols, change. v i /» 

2. Some want the nominative and vocative singular: (Daps), diipis, 
food; (ditio), ditionis, sway; (frux), frugis, /Vwe^- (internccio), iuternc- 
cionis, dcstr^iction ; (pollis), polllnis, four. 

3. Some want the genitive, dative, and ablative plural: thus most 
nouns of the fifth declension. See 119. 5. 

So also many neuters : far, fel, mcl, pus, nts, tus ; especially Greek 
neuters m os, which want these cases in the singular also : epos, melos. 

4. Some want the genitive plural : thus many nouns others ise entire 
especially monosyllables : nex, pax, pix ; cor, cos, ros ; sal, sol, lux. 

III. Kouns defective in Number and Case. 

^34. Some nouns want one entire number and certain cases 
of the other: fors, chance, has only fors and forte; lues, pesti- 
lence, has lues, Inem, lue. Many verbal nouns in u have only the 
ablative singular: jussu, by order; manddtii, by command: rood, 
tu, by request. 

III. IIeteroclites. — Two Classes. 

I. IIeteroclites with one form in the nominative sin- 
gular. 

II. IIeteroclites with diffu-cnt forms in the nominative 
singular. 



IIETEEOCLITES. 



43 



Class First. 

135. Of Declensions II. and IV. aro a fow nouns in ua. 
See 117. 

136. Of Declensions II. and III. are 

1. JugSrum, an .acre; regularly of the second Decl., except in the 
Gen, Plur., which is juyuruniy according to the third. Otlier forms of the 
third are rare. 

2. Fas, a vessel ; of the third Decl. in the Sing., and of the second in 
the Plur. : ras, vdsis ; plural, vusa, vasorum. 

3. Plural names of festivals in alia : Bacchanalia, Saturnalia ; which 
arc regularly of the third Decl., but sometimes form the Gen. Plur. iu 
orwn of the second. Anc'de^ a shield, and a few other words also occur. 

137. Of Declensions III. and V. are 

1. Hcquies, rest; wliich is regularly of the third Decl, but also takea 
the forms requiem and reqnic of tho fifth. 

2. Fames, hunger ; regularly of the third Decl., except in the ablative, 
fame, of the fifth {not faint', of the third). 

Class Second.^ 

138. Forms in ia and ies.— Many words of four syllables 
have one form in ia of Decl. I., and one In ies of Docl. V. : barha- 
ria, barharies, barbarism; durHia, durities, hardness; luxuria, 
luxuries, luxury; luateria, materies, material; 7nollitia, mollities, 
softness. 

139. Forms in ns and um.— Many nouns derived from verbs 
have one form in us of Decl. IV., and one in mn of Decl. II. : 
conatus, condtum, an attempt ; eventus, eventum, event ; praetextus^ 
praetextiim, pretext. 

140. Many othei- Examples might be added. Many words which 
have but one approved ,<brm in prose, admit another in poetry: juvenilis 
(utie), youth ; poetic, juvcnta (ae) : senedus (fitis), old age ; poetic, senecta 
(ae) : paupcrtas (atis), poverty ; poetic, pauperies (ei). 

IV. Heterogeneous Nouns.— Two Classes. 

I. With one form in the nominative singular. 

II. With different forms in the nominative singular. 

Class First. 

141. Masculine and Neuter.— Some masculines take in the 
plural an addilional form of the neuter gender: 

Jdcus, a jest ; plur., jod audjoca. 

loem, place ; " lod, topics, passages in books, places ; loca, places. 

sibllm, hissmg ; " sibili ; poetic, sib'ila. 

142. Feminine and NEUTER.—Some feminines take in the 
plural ;iu addition; J fonu of the neuter gender: 






» aoiuctimts called liedundant nouns, or abundantUu 




i'l 



44 



ADJECTIVES. 



Carhasus, linen ; plural, carbasi. and cnrbasa, sails, &c. 
margantUy pearl ; " mavyarilae and murqarUa, Onm. 
06<rett, oyster; " ostrvae aii^X ostrea, oVum. 

143. Neuter and Masculine oe Feminine.— Some neuten 
take m tlie plural a ditferent gender ; thus 

1. Sonic neuters become masculhie lu the filural : 

Coeltim, heaven ; jjlural, eoelL 

2. Some iieutcrs generally become masculine in the plural, but some- 
tunes remaui neuter : 

i'rewtwi, bridle ; plur.,/rewj, sometimes /rena. 
rastrum, rake ; " rmtri, " rastra. 

8. Some neuters become feminine in the plural : 

Ji'pulum, public feast ; plur., epulae, meal, banquet. 

Class Second. 

, 144. Forms in us and um.— Some nonns of the second 
aeclen.sion have one form in vs masculine and one in vm neuter ; 
clipeus, ciipeum, shield ; commenturh/s, comment arhim^ comment- 
ary; cubitus, cuhitmn, cubit; jvgulus, jugulum, throat. 

145. IIeterogeneous Heteroclites.— Some heterochtes are 
also heterogeneous : co/ultus (us), conatnm (i), effort ; menda (ae) 
mendicm (i), fault. W7 > v y? 



-•♦>' ■ 




M 



CHAPTER II. 

ADJECTIVES. 

146. The adjective is that part of speech which is used 
to qualify nouns : bonus, good ; magnus, great. 

The form of the adjective in Latin depends in part upon the gender 
of the noun which it qualifies; bonus /jwcr, a good bov; bona puella, a 
good gul ; bonum tectum, a good house. Thus bnmis is the form of the 
acjjective when used with masculine nouns, bona with feminine, and bonum 
with neuter. 

147. Soi^e adjectives are partly of the first declen- 
sion and partly of the second, while all the rest are entirely 
of the third declension. 

I. FIIIST AND SECOXD DECLENSIONS. 

148. Adjectives of this class have in the nominative 
singular the endings : 



FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 



45 





Masc, Deo. II. 


Fem., Doc. I. 


Nout., Deo. II. 




US'-, 


a, 


um. 


J'hey are declined 


as follows : 








Bonus, ffood. 








SINGULAR. 






Maso. 


Fem. 


mut. 


Norn. 


buiijis 


bunji 


bonam 


Gen. 


boiil 


bonae 


bonI 


Bat. 


bono 


bonac 


bono 


Ace. 


bonftm 


bonftnt 


bonam 


Vvc. 


bonfi 


bonii 


bonam 


Abl. 


bono 


bona 

PLURAL. 


bouO 


j^lom. 


boni 


bonac 


bona 


Gen. 


bonOrttm 


bonurikm 


bonOrana 


Dat. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonds 


bonas 


bona 


Voc. 


bonI 


bonae 


bona 


Abl. 


bonis 


bonis 
Liber, free. 

SINGULAR. 


bonis. 




JUasc. 


Fem. 


mut. 


Jf^^om. 


libor 


libera 


liberaiu 


Gen. 


liberl 


liberac 


liberl 


. J)at. 


liboro 


liberac 


liberO 


Ace. 


lib(:r&ini 


liberftitt 


liberam 


Voc. 


liber 


libera 


liber am 


Abl. 


libeiO 


libera 
PLURAL. 


liberO 


Xom. 


liberl 


liberae 


libera 


Gen. 


libcruriim 


libeiariiin 


liberOram 


Dat. 


liberls 


liberls 


liberls 


Aec. 


liberos 


liberas 


libera 


Voc. 


liberl 


liberae 


libera 


Abl. 


liberls 


liberls 


liberls. 



i 1 









' The dash indicates that the ending Is sometimes wanting. See 45. 1. 




€6 



ADJECTIVES. 



■ 







Aegcr, 8ick. 








SINGULAR. 




Nom. 


aogcjr 


aogril 


acgrttm 


Gen. 


aegri 


acgrao 


aegrl 


Dat. 


ncgrO 


aegrac 


acgro 


Ace. 


aegrtim 


ac'gi-iim 


aogitim 


Voc. 


aogcr 


acgiil 


ucgiikm 


Abl. 


acgro 


acgi-a 

PLUnAL. 


aogiO ; 


Nom. 


acgri 


aegrae 


aogrft 


Gen. 


acgiOriiin 


aegrarilm 


ucgiOrttm 


Dat. 


aegrlsj 


aogrls 


aogrls 


A ce. 


aogros 


aegrfts 


acgiii 


Voc. 


acgrI 


aegrac 


aogra 


Abl. 


aogrls 


ai'grls 


acgils. 



1. J]oniis is declined in tlic Masc. like serrm of Dccl. II. (\:,) in tlia 
Fom. like mcnm of Decl. I. (1-), and iu the Ncut. like tcmplum of Deel. II 
(4o). 

2. Llher diflcrs in daclcnsion from bonus only in dropping vs and e in 
the ^o.n. uud Voc. ^io. ■^, 1). Ae^/o- diObrs frosi //i,/- only in dropping e 
before r (io. 3, 2). ^ 1 1 o «> 

3. Most adjectives in er are declined like aef/er, but the following in er 
and «/• are declined like liber : 

1) Aspe,, rough; Wm-, torn; w?.w, .wretched ; prosper, prosperous; 
iener, tender; but asper sometimes drops the e, and dexter, right, sometimes 
retams it : dejter, dcxtera or dt.rtra. 

2) .Sa^'/r, sated ; sati/r, satura, safitn/m. 

3) Compounds in for and ger : morUfcr, deadly; ff/f^^er, winged. 

149. Irregularities.— These nine ndjectives have iu the 
singular ius in the genitive and i in llie dative . 

Alius, another; nullus, no one; solxs, alone; totus, whole; 
ullns, any; iinus, one; aZ^tr, -tera, -terum, the other; i^^er, -tra, 
-trvm, wliich (of two) ; neuter, -tra, -tnnn, neither. 

1. The Hegulnr Forms occasionally occur in some of these adjectives: 
allae, nvlll, for alius, nullius ; altero, alterae, for alteri. 

2. /in ius in poetry is sometimes short; generally so in altmvs. 

a. Alius ban allud {or alium in the neuter, and shortens the "-oiiitivo 
allius into alius. ^ 

4. Like nterare declined its compounds : vterque, vtervis, nterlibet, uter- 
cvnqv.f.. In filtfr^dcr sometimes both parts are decHucd, as alterlm ulAux ; 
und sometimes only the latter, as alterutriHs, 



THIRD DECLliNSlON. 



47 



II. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIllD DECLENSION. 



150. Adjectives of the third declension may be divided 
into three chisses : 

I. Those which have in the nominative singular three 
different forms — one f(^i* cadi gender. 

II. Those which have two forms — the masculine and 
feminine being the same. 

III. Those which have but one form — the same for all 
genders. 

151. I. Vdjectives op Three Endings of this declen- 
sion have in the nominative sinjiular: 

Moso. Film. Ncnt 

er, is, e. 

They arc declined as follows: 

Acer, sharp. 

SINGULAR. 





Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


N. 


acor 


ficrls 


aerC 


O. 


acris 


acrls 


acris 


D. 


acrl 


acrl 


acrl 


A. 


aciCm 


acr^m 


aerC 


V. 


acer 


acrisj 


acrfi 


A. 


acil 


acrl 

PLURAL. • 


acrl ; 


N. 


acres 


acres 


acri& 


G. 


acri filial 


acriiiiii 


acriAm 


D. 


awibfiis 


acriljiks 


acrll»ft,s 


A. 


acres 


acr^s 


acriti 


V. 


acres 


aces 


aciisi 


A. 


acriSnTis 


acril>iks 


acrXbJjis 



1. Like ^tw are declined : 

1) AUicer, lively; cmt'pci^ter, level; cricber, famous; ciJler,^ R-wifb ; 
equcxtcr, e(|uostrian; pahisier, niarsliy ; pcdcsicr, pedestriun ; pi'/fer, putrifl; 
uilubcr, hoiilllii'ul; Silvester, woody; terrester, terrestrial; volUccr, winfod. 

'1) Aiijectlvcs in er dosignatitig tlic months : Odobcr, bns? 

2. The Jhisculino in is, liivc the Tern., idc^o occurs : satubrhi, sllvcstrix, 
for salubcr, Silvester, 



1 This retains e in doclcnsion: cekr, celiris, celire ; and has urn In the Con. Plur. 
9 See also 87. 2. 



• 



r ■■* I 



i !; 1 




f -i 




48 



ADJKCTIVES. 



.1. Tlip.sc forms in er «ro nnnlop;ou.s to tlinso in rr (wliotlior nouns or 
««ljO('tivos) of Di'c. II. in diopiiin-; the ciidin;' in tlio Noni. luid Voc. SinL'. 
und ui m.MMtmg « Ixdoio n Tim.s rtyr/-, oii-inally o<,nis, dioiw h,v, Kivinc 
«///•, and tiicn la^fitH p to facilitatu pronunciiitidn, '-iviii'' t^wr : eo accr, 
onginuilyucm, drops is and inserts f; (ur, «,v/-. ° ""^ ' 

152. IT. Ad.tkctives op Two Exdings have in the 
nominative singular: 

M. ftml R Neiit. 

^* *^ ©, for i)o.sitivos. 

2. ior (or) ius (us), Ibr compurativos. 

They are ileclinecl as follows: 



Tristi.s, sad. 



Tristior, ?nore sad. * 



M. and F, 

N. tristis 

G. ti'iritis 

J), triritl 

yl. tri.sttSm 

K. tristSiS 

A. tristi 

iV. tri.stCs 
G. tristifim 
D. tristibels 
A. tristes 
V. tri.stC's 
A. tri.sf?biis 



tri.st4 
tristlis 
tristi 
tri.st«S 
tristfi ' 
trititi ; 

tristia, 

tristiitni 

tristlbils 

tristiii 

tristiii 

tristibjiisi. 



BiNoiaAn. 

M anil F. 
N. triatior 
G. tristiuris 
D. tristiurl 
A. tri.stiurCm 
V. tristior 
A. tristiOri' (i) 
TLURAL. 

N. tristiorCs 
6'. tristioriim 
D. tri.stioribiis 
A. tristiorCs 
V. tristiort'S 
A. tristiorlbits 



tristi U3 
tristiorls 
tristiCjI 
tristius 
tristi '3 
tristiOrC (I) $ 

trislinril 

tristiririiiu 

tristi(jrlbu» 

tri.sti lii 

tristiijrii 

trlstioril»tt<«i. 



153. III. Adjectites op One Ending.— All other arl- 
joctives have but one form in the nominative singular for 
all genders. They generally end in s or x, sometfmes in I 
or r, and are declined in the main like nouns of the same 
endings. The following arc examples: 



Felix, Iiapjyy. 



Prudcns, prudent. 



M. (iTtrl F. 
N. felix 
G. felTcis 
D. fclici 



Kfiut. 
folix 
follcis 
felfc'I 

iiparati^ 



SINGCLAR, 

M. and F, 
-/V^. prudons 
G. prndentis 
I), pvndcutl 



Nent. 
prudens 
pnidontis 
priidontl 



Tlllltl) DKCLKNSION. 



40 



A. fclic^m fclix 

V. Mix. fclix 

A. fullce, or 1 follc^i jr 1 j 



A. prn(Ioiit<5ia prudcna 

V. prudcn3 prudcna 

A. pnidente, ©>• 1 prudent6,orl; 

PLURAL. 



JV. 


folTcCtI 


fellclA 


N. 


prudontCw 


prudontlil 


0. 


fellciam 


fcllciara 


G. 


prudontijkiit 


prudciilitlin 


D. 


foliflbtts 


fc'liclbikff 


D. 


prudontlbaH 


prudcutlbdiM 


A. 


felk'CN 


fuIiflA 


A. 


prudcntC» 


pruduntiji 


V. 


felicCs* 


rciiciA 


V. 


prudontCH 


piudontlA 


A. 


fuliclbft^ 


foiiuibas. 


A. 


prudeullbJiM 


prudonilbiiiM, 



FORMATION OF CASES OF ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD 

DECLENSIOxN". 

1 54. Adjectives of the tliii-a aeclension form their cases 
ill general like nouns of the same endings, but i^rescnt the 
Ibllowing peculiarities : 

I. Genitive Singular. 

155. Tliis presents a few irrcgidaritics, but in general the same as 
in nouns (58-83). Tlius 

1. The following in ^s form tlie genitive not in the regular itis, but in 

' ? .* ■■—liChcii, indiffcs, praepcs, tens. 
2) idis ; — dvKcs, raes. 

2. The following in es form it in 

1) edis :— compounds of pes, foot, as, alrpcs, b1pes, tripes. 
. < ?"^ •■—pfiOas, mpubcH (sometimes is). 
;i) etlS : — bu/nics, loettplrs. 
S. Adjectives in ceps i'oiin it in 

1) cipis, if compounded ofcapio: princrps, prindpis. 

2) cipitis, il compounded of caput: anccps, ancipttis 

4. Four m or lorm it in Sris :-nu',n<,r, immanor, bu-orpor, iricorpor. 

5. Other examples.— (1) Compos and impos form it in 6tis.~0^) Com- 
pounds in eo;-. from cor have cordis: concors, dlscors.-{'.i) Caelcbs bus 
cadibis; dis, ddis; tntcrcus, intcrcutis ; praccox, praccocis; vetus, vcteris. 

II. Ahlatiue Singular. 

156. I. Ending:—^ or i, in comparatives and adjectives of one 
ending : tristiOrS or rl ; aiiducS or ci. 
^' " J. in other adjectives : acrT, tristh 

1. Comparatives generally have e, and adjectives of one ending, generally 
J ; out participles in ans and ens have only e, except when used adjcctivclv. 



50 



IKKEGULAK ADJECl'IVES. 



r'f : f. 



■ 



2. The Ablative in e m many adjectives of one ending cannot he veri, 
ficd horn ancient authors.-Tlie ablative in i is in general preferable. 

6. borne have only e in general U30.-(1) I\i>rpcr, paupare, r>oov- 
pubc,, pubcre niatui-e ;-(2) those in es, G. itis or idis; ales, dcsc^, divcl 
sospes, mperstes /— (3) cadebs, compos, wipos, princcps 

4. The Ablative in e sometimes occurs in poetry in positives of more 
than one ending : cognomme lor cognomUl, like named. 

III. JSrominatlve^ Accusative and Vocative Plural of 

I/euters. 

lo7. I. Ending :—ia in positives : acriU, triHtiH. 
J^- " a iu comparatives : trisdOra. 

h Vclus, old, has vcfira ; complurcs, several, has compluria or com. 

pi ill it, 

2 The neuter plural is wanting in most adjectives of one endin"- ex- 
cept those lu a«, ?is, j-s, ax, zx, oa-, and numerals in ;;/ta;. °' 

IV. Genitive Plural. 

loo. I. ExniNG: iyim in positives : acrium, trlstium. 
II. " iim iu comparatives : tristionim. 

1. Some adjectives want the genitive plural. 

2. PUires, moie, and complarn, several, have ium. 

3. Tlie following have um: 

1) Adjectives of one ending with only e iu the ablative singular (156 
S): pauper, paupcrum. ° ^" Viou. 

^ 2) Those with the genitive in eris, orisj uris : vctus, veth-um, old • 
niemor, rncmorwn, imndinl; c\cur,cicurtim, tame, 
'd) Those in ceps : anccps, ancipitum, doubtful 
^ 4) Those comin)uuded with subsLautives which have um: imps fops 
opuni), iuOpum, helpless. ' *- ' ' 

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 
159. Irregular adjectives may be 

I. Indeclinable: /ruffi, frugal, good; ncquam, worthless; milk, 
thousand. 

II. Defective: (ectSrus) cetera, ceterum, the other, the rest; (sons) 
soniis, guilty. 

III. Heteroclites.— Many adjectives have two distinct forms, one in vs, 
a, mn, of tlie first and second dedonsions, and one in is and e of tlie third: 
Marus and hilaris, joyful ; exanimus and exanimis, lifeless. 

1. Tlie Latin has but few indeclinable adjectives, except numerals (17,-). 

2. tSoine adjectives want 

1) The nominative smgular masculine : (cctcrus) cetera, ceih-um, the 
other; (Itidicer) ludicra, ludicrum, sportive. 

2) One or more cases in full : (seminex) seminecis, half dead, defective 
in the nominative; e.a<2m, hopeless, only usod iu the nominative; exkx, law 






COMrARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 61 

/ess, only in nominative and accusative ; pevnox, through the night, only in 
nouiuritivo and ablative. ^ ' ^ 

3) The neuter gender or genitive plural. See 157. 2 and L'S 1 

.Unl '-r" "V ^T'' '''' ^' '"'^^ ' ^^^'■^"^"^' *^° "^°^t J the lut'ter" wants 

also the genitive plural, supplied hy plurlmi. The singular of J^ 

occurs, but IS very rare. In good prose....V.. wants the LguL^j'ltll 
ferns, superus .udposterus are used in the singular only in particular expres. 
sions : mare ^nferum, the lower sea. i.e., south of Italy ; Lre supr-rlTZ 
upper sea .. e.. north of Italy, the Adriatic ; posterns in expressions ofle 
^.m^..^...;., the following day; node posiera, on the fullowin " nilht 
_ 3 In most heteroclites only one form is in common use in cla:sic ^ose • 
m a few, as .n the examples under 159. III., both forms are approved ' 

COMPAPJSO:^ OF ADJECTIVES 

more learned, or too learned ; docUssunJ, rsU^tS, orvTry 'letS? 

161. The Latin, like the English, has two modes of 
comparison: 

I. Termmational Comparlsoti—hy endings. 

II. Adverbial Comparison — by adverbs. 

I. Tekminatioxal Compaeisox. 

1 62. Adjectives are regularly compared by adding to 
the stem of the positive the endino-s: 

Compnrative. e i .. 

' ._ Superlative. 

■"• F- N. 

issimus, issimS, issimiim. 



rctrii 



^r. F. jv 
ior, ior, iiis. 

Examples. 
Altus, altior, altissimus: high, higher, highest. 
levis, levior, levissfmus: light, lighter, lightest. 

Irregular Terminatlonal Comparison. 
5. Irregular Superlatives.— Many adjectives 
comparatives have irregular su-)erlatives. Th 



II ; 



with 
us 



i % -I'l 

~ f 



52 



IKREGULAR COMPAKISOX. 



I, 




1. Adjectives in er add rimus to the positive : deer 
acriorj acerr'wnus^ sharp. ' 

.^c'^'^.r^JSto!'^""'"'"'"*'' "'"^"'■"*' ^""^^ ^^turrimus and maturi^XmuB', 

2. Six in ills add limus to the stem : 

Facilis, diflicilis; easjf, difficult. 
similis, dissiinilis ; like, unlike. 
gracilis, humilis; sleiukr, low; 
11.113 : fncUls, facUlo}-, faciUimus. ImbeciUls has imbecilUmus, but imbecU- 

3. Four in rus have two irregular superlatives : 

Exterus, exterior, extremus and extimus, outward. 

iiilcrus, inferior, infinius and Iinus, lower. 

supr-rus, aupeiior, suprrmiis and suminus, upper. 

posterns, posterior, postromus and postumus, next. 

164. Corapoundsin dicus, ficus, and vclus are compared with the 
endings entior and entissimus, as if from forms in ens: 

MaledTcus, malcdicentior, maledicentissimus, slanderous. 
muniticus, numificontior, nuuiificentisslmus, liberal. 
beuevolud, bcnevolentior, bonevolentissimus, benevolent. 

suneriaS?fmm"ir''^r' ^"""r^ ''"'? pnulcnt), form the comparative and 
superlative fp.m ^'./cvm and providens : hence eqentior, eoeniissunvs, etc. 

i' £nV-'wWfi'"''"'r''' ^'>« superlative o\ mlri/icm, wonderful, 
live 'iJj'^ctives m dicus and Jieus want the comparative and superla- 

1 65. Special Irregularities of Comparison. 

Bonus, nielior, optimus, 
mahis, pejor, pe.sslmus, 

magniis, mnjor, maximus, 

parvus, minor, minimus, 

multus, plus, plurimus, 

«;,-,.Vo ^^T\^ ^■^'^f^v find has in the sinor„Iar onlv X. and A. plus, and G. 

ft:x and i';;sL::^^ ^- -''^^ -'- ^^^- ^- -^ ^^. /'^^'-^"o: g. piu- 

2. DU'eSf/ruffi, nhpintn: 

Dives. i 'Ij^'t'oi', divKissimus, ) . , 

\'^^' Iditior, dilissimns. f'"^^^- 

fru'jri, frnsxalior, frugalissimus, fnmal. 

Luquani, ucquior, nequissinius, worthless. 

Defective Termmatlonal Compeirison. 



(jood. 

bad. 

(jreat. 

small. 

much. 



166. Positive Wanting : 

Citcrior, citimus, nearer. 
deterior, deterrimus, rvorsc. 
interior, intunus, inner. 
oeior, ocissimus, swi/tcr. 



prior, primus, former. 

propior, proximus, nearer. 
ulterior, ultimus, farther.^ 



' These acljcctivcs aro formed from citra, de, intra, Greek ^^h, prae or pro, 
pr»pe, ultra, ' 



m 



ADYEKBIAL COMPARISON. 



53 



ive: dcer^ 

turissimus ; 



but imbecil' 



m-d. 
i\ 

:r. 

d with the 

oils. 

•nt. 

xrative ancj 
s, etc. 
lerfiil. 
id supcila- 



us, and G. 

1.), a.plti- 



•er. 
her.' 



'ae or pro, 



serving 



167. Comparative Wanting.-The comparative is wanting 

1. in a low participles used adjectively : mentus, meritk^imus. de. 



2. In these adjectives : 

Diversus, diversissimus, different. 

lulsus, falsisslmus, fake. 

luclytus, iuclytissimiis, renowned. 



nf'vus, novissimus, new. 
sSccr, sacerrii' is, sacred. 
vutus, veterrli • old. 



young, 
young, 
old. 



168. Superlative Wanting.-Thc superlative is want - 
6i/is, o/>^aii/ior, desirable. But of these -^ 

ciJ: ^^ 7 -'"^ ''^^r"''' ^'^ ^' '"'^ "^^ ^ ^"^^■^«^"' '<'P^'<^^i'>^'^ «^Pital ; 
ctviits, civihor, cixil. > f 1 

3. Three adjectives supply the superlative thus : 
Adolescens, adolescentior, minimus nfitu ' 
juvenis, junior, minimus natu, 
senex, senior, maximus nutu,' oca. 

4. A few other adjectives want the superlative • amr<ih-<i al^,^^.. 

1 69. Both Comparative and Superlative Wanting.-Many adjectives 
nave no terminational comparison : 

esnpJi- U^'^Jr"' *',''' "•?*"''° °^*^^''' si.a:nification, admitting no comparison • 
especi Hy such as denote material, possession, or the relations of t^W .?n,i 
time.' am-em, golden; adamantlnus, adaman i e L/™ n^^^^^^^^^ T^ 

2. Manv others.— Thus 
^77';/^ mhnii *• "* '^ ^'^^^ "' '•"" ''*"'e <''e superlative: a.sW,/M,M 

-of nouns: ^a./uv^. (capio), sharing ; W^a.^^^TS^^fLf^:,!!! 

lus, 'iti" &f ssretc!'^"' •^''•"' ^"^"^' ^'^''■^"^' ^--^' ->-' --^^ 

n.— Adverbial Comparisoi^. 

170. Adjectives avIucIi want the terminational comparison 

form the compamtive and superlative, when their signiHcation re- 

l.nres ,t, by prefacing the adverbs mdgis, more, and maxlme, most, 

to the positive : ' ' 



i 






C4 



NUMERALS. 



ill 



Arduus, magia arciuus, maxiuie arduus, arduous. 
1 Other adverbs are so.iicti.nes used with the positive to denote differ- 

prme, .n the h.ghest degree; mhus, less; mintme, least: valde magna 
very great Ar and prae in composition with adjectives have the force of 
veri/ i perdijicihs, very difficult ; prauldru!, vei y illustrious 
^rJ' ^/'""Sthening Particles are sometimes used.-(l) With the compar- 
at vo: eUam j.^a multo, longe, much, fur: etiam, diUgentior, even nL-e 
Itr L"" t ^^,^''^f-' "^^'^ "^^''e diligent.-(2) With the superlative: 
mut, by lar the most dUigeut; quam dlUgtntmimm, as diligent as possible. 

NUMERALS. 

171. Numerals comprise numeral adjectives and nu- 
meral adverbs. 

I. Numeral Adjectives. 

172. Numeral adjectives comi^rise three principal 
classes : ^ 

1. Cardinal Numbers: unus, one; duo, two. 

2. Ordinal Numbers :^rzmw6-, first; secmifZw^, second. 

3. Distributives : singm, one by one ; Uni, two by 
two, two each, two apiece. 

1 73. To these may be added 

so manv'fn'7''.-'^7''^'-~T'''''^^''f '^■''*^*'^'^ ''^ ^^'''' ^- ^^^'^^'^ denoting 
so many fo.d : nmpUx, single ; duplex, double ; <,-i;,/cx, three-fold. 

2 Proportionals— These are declined like bonm, and denote so 
many times as great : duplu,, twice as great ; triplu,^ three times as great? 

174. Table of Numeral Adjectives. 



Cardinals. 

1. fmu3, una, nmim, 

2. duo, duae, duo, 

3. tres, tria, 

4. quattuor, 
6. quinque, 
fi. sex, 

T. septera, 

8. octo, 

9. novem, 

10. decern, 

11. undScim, 



Oedinals. 
primus, 'j^)vs^, 
sccundua,\wconJ, 
tertius, third, 
quartus, fourth, 
quintus,j?/KA, 
scxtus, 
Septimus, 
octavus, 
nonus, 
decimus, 
undeeimufl. 



Distributives. 
singrdi, one hf one. 
bini, two hi two. 
terni (triui). 
quatcrni. 
quini. 
sGni. 
septeni. 
octuni. 
novoni. 
denj. 
undeni. 



» Prior is used in speaking of two, and alter is often used for secundu<,. 



NUMEEALS. 



55 



Cardinals. 
duodrciin, 
tredecim or decern 

et tres, 
quattuordeeim, 
qiiiiidOcim, 
scdiJcim or sexdc- 

17. scptcnd('cim/ 

18. duodeviginti," 



12. 
13. 

14. 
15. 
16. 



Okdinals. 
diiodec'Iimis, 
tcrtius decimus," 

qiiartus decimus, 
qiiiiitus dociimiH, 
sextus decimus, ' 



19. undcviginti,' 

20. vigiuti, 

21 (viginti Qnus, 
■(Linus ct vigmti,^ 

22 (vigiuti duo, 
^-(duo et viginti, 
SO. triginta, 

40. quadraginta, 
50. quiiujuaginta, 
fiO. sexaginta, 
70. septuaginta, 
80. octoginta, 
90. nonaginta, 
100. centum, 
101 |^^"'i^ra finui3, 

"(centum et Qnus,* 
200. ducenti, ae, a, 
300. trecenti, 
400, quadringcnti, 
500. quingenti, 
600. scxceuti, 
700. septingenti, 
800. octingenti, 
900. nongenti, 
1,000. mille, 
2,000. duo millia,» 



Septimus decimus, 
duodevicesimus,' 
' undovicesimus,' 
vicesimus,'' 
vicesimus primus, 
unus et vicesunus,''' 
vicesimus secundus, 
alter et vicesimus, ' 
I tricesimus,'" 
quadragcsimus, 
I quinquageslmus, 
sexagesimus, 
sei)tuagesrmu3, 
octogesimus, 
nonagesimus, 
contesunus, 
ccntesimus primus, 
ccntosimus et primus 
ducentesinnis, 
trecentcsimus, 
quadringentesimus, 
quingentesimus, 
sexcentesimus, 
septingentesimus, 
octingentesimus, 
nongenteslmus, 
millesimus, 
bis millesimus, 



DlSTEIBtTTlVEB. 

duodeni. 
tend dC'ui. 

quaterni deui. 
(luini dC'iii. 
seni dOui. 

scpteni deni. 

duodeviceni. 

undevicGui. 

viceni. 

viceni siiigfili. 

singuli et vicOiiL 

viceni bini. 

bini et viceni. 

tricGni. 

quadragCni. 

quinquageni. 

sexageni. 

septuageni. 

octogeui, 

nonageni. 

centeni, 

centOni singuli, 

centeni et siugulL 

duceni. 

treceni. 

quadringeni. 

quingGni. 

sexcGni. 

septingGni. 

octingeni. 

nongeni. 

singula millia. 

bina millia. 

"c,...l,„r bys„b,r.«l„„i;m tZTJT' rV """• '» *'•»: 38.8,,, 

..J;\rsi"rb;:r.\?„„tr:;',::',^sr?r^''---™''-^ 

two highest (ion.,rrinati„ns- mmrTJf ''"^«y «"""«!, or used only between the 
^^^ « Soaietluies .eC... ,receae. with or without e^:,ee^„^us et terUus or ... ,nu. 

« SoDietinies written with g: vige>>imus; trigeulmu,. 



I i 




I « 



56 



DECLENSION OF NUMERALS. 






Cardinals. 
10,000. doconi millia, 
100,000. centum luillia, 
1,000,000. decies cciitGiia mil- 
lia,' 



DlSTllIBUTITM. 

dena millia. 
ceutfina millia. 
decies ccntcnamillia. 



Obdinals. 
decies milleaimus, 
centies millesimus, 
decies centies millc- 
suuus, 

1. Ordinals with Pars, part, expressed or understood, may be used to 

2. Distributives are used 

l.v nilJ" f o;^tl'e 7mmber of objects taken at a time, often best rendered 
vLowt ° J !r «^''f'"a^f«'"'^ or apiece: ternos denarios acccperunt, they 
received cac/t three denarii, or three apiece. Hence 

h,,.Ji?u^^^^%^^ ^^l'/j¥icaiion: decies ccntc7ia millia, ten times a 
Hundred thousand, a million. 

c.. ^^ Ji'stead of Cardinals, with nouns plural in form, but sincular in 
arP nJoH '^'^'^r.^' ^^^^ '^""PS- Here for sinr,m and tcrni, uni and trini 
are used, unac htterae, one letter; ^nV/ae littcrae, three letters, 
n .^o- p^™f J'™*'^ 'f^ reference to objects spoken of in pairs : hlni scmfn, 
L two steals '"^ "'^ ^"""^^ '''^^' ^^'^ ^''"''^ of cardinals: blna /iLti- 

hoJ'Z"^^^ f « ""™^™^ '^d^e'-bs (181) very freely in compounding num- 
bers: ks sex, for duodecim ; bis scptem, for quattuordecim. 

4. ^m-e«^j and mille are sometimes used indefinitely for any lar^e 
nuroi)cr. as one thousand is iu English. ^ ° 

DECLENSION OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

175. On the declension of cardinals observe 

1. That the units, umis, duo, and tres, are declined. 

2. That the other units, all the tens, and centum are indeclinahle. 

3. That the hundreds are declined. 

4. That mille is sometimes declined. 

1 76. The first three cardinals are declined as follows : 
1. Unus, one. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 
A. 



G. 



Siiiffida): 



unus, 

uniiis, 

uul, 

ununi, 

unc, 

uuo, 

2. 

duo, 
duOriira, 



una. 



unlus, 

unl, 

unam, 

unit, 

una, 

Duo, tico. 

duae, duo, 
duarum, duuriira," 



iinum, 

uniiis, 

uni, 

uniim, 

unum, 

uno : 



Plural, 
Qni, unae, 

unorum, unfirum, 
unis, 
unus, 



unis, 
Unas, 



unff, 
unorum, 
unis, 
una. 



unis 



unis, unis. 
3. Tres, three. 
trC'S, m. andf. 



triuni. 



tria, n, 
triiiiu, 



Literally ten times a hundred tlionsaiul; tlie table might be carried up to any 
.icsirod number by using tlie proper numeral adverb -^ufh eentena milUa: cenVes 
eenthm viillia, 10,000,000; sometimes in such oombir. ?.!!-.., ce.nU>i" wVlia is uadei- 
stood and only the adverb is expressed, and soinetinu-. ventum millia is used, 
a Duoiuin and duarum are sometimes shortenou to duum. 



NUMEllAL SYMBOLS. 



67 



I). diiObufl, (luabSs, diiobas, 
A. duOs.duo, duiia, duo, 
A. duGbus, duabus, duobus. 



trtbfis, 

trC'S, 

trfbus, 



trtbCs, 

trifi, 

tilbus. 



«nl.v witli such nouns L/though , fun m forT'!^^ sense of o«., i/js u^ed 
m.^;.a, one camp ; vnae /-/«<nKe iJlter ' ''"^"''''' '° "'"^'^ = ^«« 
q i) ;/ ^"^ '" declined aw6o, both. ' 

sense o{%uan^ a] ;««/L L^a^^man/a victtr''^ '^' ''"^- "^''"^^ '" *^« 

r,lur.7oI/"""'^'l'^''^".''''' '"'''^''' '*«•' «^^ ^^^li«e<l like tho 
plural ol bonua: duccnti, ae, a. 

178. mile is nsed both as an adjective and as a substantive. 
As nn adjective it is indeclinable; as a substantive it is used in thi 
s.ngu ar ouly in the nominative and accusative, but in the plural 
it^.s^declmed like the plural of mare (50): .nllia, millij, J. 

fh. ^J^'^fi^^^' are declined like Jon./, and distributives like 
the_^;..« of lonus, but the latter often have nm for orum in th. 
genitive; imum for UnOnm. 



I I 



180. Numeral Sym 



ARAnro. 

1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



nOMAJf. 

I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XIL 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 



ARABIC. 

16. 
17. 

18. 
1<.>. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
80. 
40. 
60. 
60. 
70. 
80, 
90. 
100. 



ROMAlf. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXX. 

XL. 

L. 

LX. 

LXX. 

LXXX. 

XC. 

c. 



AliiULS. 

ARABIC. 
101. 

200. 

800. 

400. 

600. 

COO. 

700. 

800. 

900. 

1,000. 

2,000. 

10,000. 

100,000. 

1,000,000. 



ROltAH. 

CI. 

cc. 

ccc. 

cccc. 

10, or D. 

DC. 

Dec. 

DCCC. 

DCCCC. 

CIO, or xAf . 

CIOCIO, or MM. 

CCIOO. 

CCCIOOO. 

CCCCIDOOO 



1. Latin Numeral Sjrmbols are combinations of- I — i ■ V - K- Y 
10; L = 60; C = 100; I J or D = 500 ; CIO o. MVi,OOo7 ' 



^^•nousands aro sometlmoa denoted by a lino over tho symbol: 11 = 2,000; V 



68 



NUMERAL SYMBOLS. 



lie '!.S 



2. In the Combination of these symbols, except 10, observe 

1 ) Tluvt the repetition of a symbol doubles the value : 11 = 2 : XX = 
20; CO = 200. 

2) That any symbol standinp^ before one of greater value, subtracts ita 
own viltie, but tiiat after one of •,neatcr value, it adds its own value: V = 
6; IV = 4(0^1); VI = ti(5 4-l). 

3. In the Combination of 10 observe 

1) That each (inverted C) after L) increases the value ten-fold : 10 
- 500; IJO = 500 X 10 = 5,oOO; 1000 - 5,000 x 10 = 50,000. 

2) That these numbers are doubled by placing C the same number of 
times before I as stands after it: 10 =: 500; CIO = 500 x 2 = 1 OOO- 
UJ = 5,000; CCIOO = 5,000x2 = 10,000. ' ' 

3) That smaller symbols standing after these add their value : 10 = 
500; lOC = COO; lOCC = 700. 




II. Numeral Adverbs. 

181. To numerals belong also numeral adverbs, 
venioiico of reference we add the following table : 

1. s'mel, once 

2. bis, twice 

3. ter, three times 
quater 
quin([uie3 
sexics 



For 



<on- 



4. 

5. 
6. 
1. 
8. 
9. 



septies 

octies 

novies 

10. dociea 

11. nndecies 

12. duodecies 
j terdecies 

■ I tredecies 
J, j quaterdeoies 

■ I quattuordecies 



13. 



jg fquinquiesdecies 
(quindecios 



jg fscxiesdecies 

■ ] sedecies 
17. septiesdecies 
j duodevicies 



■ ] octiesdoeiea 
jn jundevicies 
■(noviesdecics 

20. vicies 

21. semcl et vicies 

22. bis ct vicies 
30, tricies 



80. 

90. 
100. 
101. 



oetoffics 



nonagics 
centies 
centies serael 
200. dueonties 
3o0. trecenties 
400. quadringenties 
500. quingcnties 
600. sexcenties 
700. scptingenties 
800. octingenties 
900. noningcutits ' 
1,0()0. millies 
2,000. bis millios 
10,000. decies millies 
100 000. centies millies 
1,000,000. millies millies. 



40. quadragics 

50. quinquagies 

60. sexagics 

70. septuagies _ ^ _ ^^^ 

1. In CompoundH of units and tens, the unit with et generally pre- 
cedes, as ni the table : bis et vicies ; the tens however with or without et 
sometimes precede : vicies et bis or vicie.^ bis, but not his vicies. 

2. Another Class of numeral adverbs in urn or o is formed from the 
ordinals : primum, prwio, for the first time, in the first place ; tertium, 
tertio, for the third time. 



^ Also written nongenties, 

« Millies is often used indefinitely like the English a thousand timet, 



rilONOUNS. 



69 



ClIAPTER III. 



10 = 



PRONOUNS. 

182. The Pronoun is tliat part of speech which prop- 
erly supplies the place of nouns: Hcjo^ I; tu, thou. 

183. Pronouns are divided into six classes: 

1. Personal Pronouns : ^«, thou. 

2. Possessive Pronouns : nieus^ my. 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns; /a'c, this. 

4. Relative Pronouns : qui^ who. 

5. Interrogative Pronouns : quis^ who ? 

G. Indefinite Pronouns : uliquL% some one. 



I' i 



I. Personal Pronouns. 

184. Personal Pronouns, so called becauP' they desif»"- 
nate the person of the noun which they represent, are cgo^ 
I; tu, thou; sui (Norn, not used), of himself, herself, itself. 

They are declined as follows : 



G. mei 
D. mihi 
A. me 

F. 
A. mo; 

N". nos 
fi nosti 
^' nostr 
D. nobis 
A. no3 
F. 
A. nobis. 



?P| 



SINGULAR. 

ta 

til! 

tib! 

te 

ta 

te; 

PLURAL. 

vos 

vestriim \ 

vestri * J 

vobis 

vos 

vOs 

vobls. 



sui 

sibi 

se 



sui- 

se 
se. 



1. Substantive Pronouns,— Personal pronouns arc also caW^A Suhstantive 
pronouns, because they are always used as substantives. 

2. Reflexive Pronoun.— ,9k«', from its reflexive sic;nification. nf Jnm^elf 
•tc, IS oilea called the Eeflexive pronoun. ' " " ' 



111 



i;3; 



1 : 



i ' 






iJ 



J On the use of these two forms see 446. a 




00 



rilONOLWS. 



8. Emplwtic Forms in met ocpur, c.vcopt in the fJon. rim-. ; fff6iiief. I 
niy.sfll; mihhiut, t'tttut, t'lc. Jjul Hit- Noui. ta bus liiU uud tulemU, lor ta- 

4. Reduplicated Forms :- fl?.sa, m?, mhnP, for so, <e, me. 
/>. Ancient uiui Kaie Forms:— w//,s fornni; tin lortui: wiJ and ml for 
inini; nuke^imil, luid /«f/>Ci Cor nic- /, </ lur to. 

(I. Cum. V, I, on ii.sed vvilh tiic aOlatUc ol' those pronouns, is nppcndod to 



tbuui : 



'( , <' I ii/ii. 



II. Possi:ssiv£ Puoxoi'xs. 

185. From Personal pronouns arc formed the I^ossess' 
ives : 

mens, my, nostcr, imr, 

tuns, t/nj, yow\ vester, your, 

suns, his, her, its, siuis, their. 

They are decUnod as adjectives of the first and second 
declensions : mens, mea, meum ; nostcr, nostra, nostrum ; 
but tneus has in the vocative singular masculine generally 
mi, sometimes meits, 

1. Emphatic Forms, in j^t'i and vid occur, especially in the Abl. Sint'. ; 
iunj)h', a nil met. 

2. The PatrialSj nostras, of our couptry, and vedras, of vonr coiuitrv, are 
also possos.sivos. Thov have the goaitive ui diiK, and are (foclined us adjec- 
tives of Docl, III., but are little used. 

3. Cujus and Cuiaa.—Cujus (a, um, whose?) and the patrial cvjas (Htis, 
of what country?) also belong to possessivcs, though, not like other possees- 
ivos, formed from personal pronouns, but from the interrogative sms, cujus. 
See 188. 



III. Demonstrative Pkonouns. 

186. Demonstrative Pronouns, so called Lccauso they 
specify the objects to which they refer, are 
Ilic, ille, iste, 'ipse, is, idem. 
They are declined as follows : 

Hie, fJiis. 





SINGULAR 






PLURAL. 




M. 


F. 


N. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


K hfc 


haec 


h.->c 


hi 


ll.'lG 


haec 


(r. hujUS 


Inijiis 


hnjus 


horiim 


hfiriim 


horiim 


R hi-.c 


Imic 


liulc 


his 


Ills 


Ills 


A. hunc 


hanc 


h5c 


ho3 


has 


haec 



A. hoc 



lific 



hoc; 



hl3 



his 



his. 



rUONOlTNS. 



01 



M. 

G. illiils 

7A illi 

A. iJlilm 
V. 

A. iUa 



SINaULAK. 

F. 
ilht 
illiCifl 
illi 
ill.'ira 

ill-i 



Illr, he or //m^ 



N. 
illud 
illius 
illi 
illud 

illu; 



M. 

illi 

illrn-iim 
illis 
illOs 



1st 



illis 
', that. 



PL i: UAL. 

F. 

illuo 
illarum 
illis 
illus 

illls 



m 

illil 

illnrfira 
ill.s 
illii 

illis. 



Tstc^ that, is declined like ille. It usually refers to objects 

Jpse, self, he. 



m 
a. 

D. 
A. 
V. 

A. 



ipsi3 
ipsliis 
ipsi 
ipsuiu 

ipso 



M. 

J^. Is 
G. ejfts 
D. el 
A. eum 
V. 
A. eO 



SINGULAR. 

F. 

ipsu 
ipHiiis 
ipsi 
ipsum 

ipsi 

SINGCLAB. 



ipsum 
ipsi us 
ipsi 
ipstim 



ipso; 



M. 

ipsi 

iljsdriim 
ijjsis 
ipsOs 

ipsis 



F. 

eit 

ejiis 

ei 

eiiiu 

ed 



ejiis 

ei 

Id 

0(3; 



Is, he, that. 

M. 

il 

edrum 
iis (eis) 
eOs 



PLCRAL. 

F. 
ipsae 
ipsfirum 
ipsis 
ipsas 

ipsis 

PLUUAL. 

F. 
cae 
earum 
iis (eis) 
eus 



K 
ips;"l 

ipsorruu 
ipsis 
ipsa 

ipsis. 



2r. 

Oil 

eOriim 
iis (eis) 
eu 



iis (eis) lis (els) iis (els). 
Idem, the same. 
Idem, compounded of /. and dem, is declined like is hut shnrf 
ei.ding7l\"'thus :"^ '^^'"' '" ''^""' ""^ ^'^""^^^ ''' ^^ "' ^^^^''^^^ 



SINGULAR. 

^ F. N. 

K Id-m eudem idem 
G. ojusdem qjusdom ojusd-m 
D. eidem cdem e'ldt'iu 
A. eundcm eandom Idem 

A. eodi^m ead«jm eodi'-m; 






PLURAL. 

1 clOm oaodera eadom 
eonindt^m eririindfra cOruiidem 
iisdc'in iisdrra iisdcm ' 
eosdera easdem eadem 



iisde 



~1U. 



iiouum 



iisdo 



■m. 



• Sometime. .„dem \n all genders. lidem and iisdem are in poetry di^^^HaU;: 
1 are ymetimes written Idem and isdoui ^ Oissyiiaoies, 



md are Dmetimes written idem and isdom 

4 



I 




OJ 



moxouNs. 



1. Emphatic Fornu in .v occur in tiie Hcvcrni cnsos of hie nnd sometimes 
ill other de.noM.t.ui.yca: hkr,; luucc, hocvc (also /ruy. //aur o. ZTt cT 

lido o the .nten-o^rut.ve ne, ce becomes ci : l.iccli.e, ImsJino. ^ "'"I'l'^'^^ 

.liL-n „f 'V" "'"/"•. Mthic ''"• 'V^c unci Ue occur. They are decliuwl 
ulikc, and ure used only ui ccitaiii coses. Tims " "'•^"""» 

Sing., Awn. illlc, ilhiec, illuc or illuc, 
Ace. ilhinc, illanc, illdc, 
-<4W. illoc, illuc, illoc; 

1) V/ Ii-LK uiid iste: iin, mae,!.lli, Gen. for illiiis; utC ixtue idi for 

s?^;/S//rie':t^'-'"^"'-^"'''"^ ""^ ^^^^^ "'- iwn.;i^;.;'^£ S 

form^,^- ^A J''**?;.>?I""P*'""'^'''' f.f ""'^^*' (•'■I''*« = M'^--'^ ; *'"' imcontructed 
P« T.L" r ^" "^^ «/«'''/«'{'^'''«'. Abl. eop,e, mim ; with re: r« fa/yw, m/Wd lor 

8> 01 Is : til, eae, en, Dat. for ei ; iihiin {ihiin), id/jus, iibiis (ihus) for iis. 
" «f ,1 ^^^^^^^^.'^'^'^^ FOKMS compounded of ecee or en, lo, see, and some ca.scs 
of demonstratives, especially the Ace. of i7/, and n; mriim for ecce eum: 

fli'm?. // *''*'^'^ '■'•i'." ' ''''■'Z *'""' "''^.V. *^^"^ > «^'^«^^"W, ecce ilium, ecciUam, ecce 
Ulam; t//w7», en ilhim; f^//a//i, en illam. 

•n .nt'n?^^"^**^^® Adjectives: /cj//.., e, su,!i ; iantus, a, nm, so sreat; tot, 
so many ; Mu>^ «.,,„,, so jr, eat. 7r.^ is indeclinable ; the rest rcL^ular. ' 

nrr. W?nif u") ft' ^*'"- "' '' .'''''"9n?trative with two,// (Gen. of vm/us, mcas- 










IV. Relative Pkonouns. 

187. The Relative qui, mIio, so called because it relates 
to some noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, called 
its antecedent, is declined as follows : 



M. 
N. qui 
O. cujtis 
D. cui 
A. quom 
V. 
A. quo 



SINGULAR. 
F. 

quae 
ciijus 
cui 
quiim 

qufl 



quild 
Ciijus 
cui 
quod 

quo; 



qui 

quorum 
quibus 
quos 



PLURAL. 
F. 

quae 
quarum 
quibus 
quus 



N. 
quae 
quoriira 
qui I) lis 
quae 



qutbiis quibus quibus. 



f^r.}' ■^°"®°* '^"^ ?^fe Forms: qmjus and quoi for cujus and cui; qui 
for quo, qua, quo; quu (queis^ for quibus. ' ^ 

ed to it^^^zwr' ^""^ '""^ "*^"''''^ "^''^^ ''''''^'' '' g^"^^'^"^ "PP'^^'l- 
Bometim^ScuVr' "'''"''' ''^ ^ P°^«^«siYe formed from the genitive a^jus, 

„.„i';^^^?-°^"® /?•? Quisquis, ?^7ioei;«r, are called from their sif,niification 
general relatives Qmcunque_ (quicumque) is declined like qni. thim,vis is 
rare except in the forms : qmsqms, quidquid (quicquid), quOquo; but an old 
genitive cuicui for ciijuscujus occurs. " ^ i > 

5. Compounds resolved.— (^Mitt/ra(7«« and similar componnds are some- 
times resolved una iLcir parts separated by one or more words : gm re cun- 




II 



I Rometitne<i 

Im<'C, etc.), 

[e Uio])i)t'(J j, 

re dccliuiid 



tae, idi for 
111 oUu8 I'ur 

icontructed 
, rea^ine lor 

us) for iis. 
some cases 
eeci; euiu ; 
lllam, ecco 

great; tot, 
;ular. 

i(/«.s', nicas- 
iUiusmodi, 



t relates 
:1, called 



N. 
lae 

Klrura 
111 (lis 
lao 

ubiis. 
1 cui; qnl 

y appcnd- 

Live cvjjts, 

jnification 
hiivjvis is 
Jut an old 

ire some- 
la re cun- 



riioNouxs. 



63 



of rebtK^e? ""^ Utorcunque, wU-h aud w/uchmr, also occur with the force 
cline;^;1;ft;;tlL':;:l;^^l'::;;;;;;;','';'!'-'<''«r double n,r,n8 boU. mns „rede. 

V. Interrogative Pronouns. 

tions. The most important are 

<2«/5 and qui with their compounds. 

fivou"'"' i'-'^"; 'r"'l'' '"^"'^^^ ^'^ ^'"^^'^"^^ ^«^^ «"tstan- 
tively, and is declined as follows : 



M. 
iV; quia 
G' cuj&s 
i?. cul 
A. (juc-m 
PI 
-4. quo 



SINGULAR. 

F. 

qUcio 
cujus 
cui 
quiizn 

qua 



qntd 

ClljllS 

cui 
quid 

quo; 



Jf. 

qui 

quoriim 
quibus 
quOs 



PLURAL. 

F. 

quae 
quariim 
quibiis 
quas 



quae 
quorum 
quibtia 
quae 



quibus quibus quibtis. 



^^^i (which, what ?) is generally used adjectively, and is 
declined like the re/a^2ve ^^^^. 

1. Quia and Quem sometimes occur as feminine forms 

BO JuSeLiluTs. "ihe^othS andent'fhl''"' 'Z'' "^ *''^ «^"«« '' ^«'-' 
1«7. 1. ancient forms are the same as in the relative, 

VI. Indefinite Pronouns. 

189. Indefinite Pronouns do not refer to any definite 
persons or Ihmgs. The most important are 

Quis and qui with their compounds. 






l| 



M |il 



I !^^ 
IP 



V, 



64 



PRONOUNS. 



190. Quis, any one, and qui, any one, any, are the same in 
form and declension as the intcrrof,'atives qids and qui. 

1. Quis and Qui are generally used after «i, nm, ne, and num ; si quis, 
si qui. iUit they also occur without such acconipaniinent. 

2. Qua for Quae.— After d, nisi, ne, and nam, the l-'om. Sing, and Aeut. 
riur. have quae or qua : si quae, si qua, 

191. From *72i/s and 2'^' i are formed 

I. The Indefinites : 

nliquis, aliqna, aliquid or aliquod, some, some one. 
quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam ' or qiiodpiam, so7ne, some one. 
qitldam, quaedam, quiddam or quoddam, certain, certairi one. 
quisquam, quaoquam quidquam,* anyone. 

II. The General Indefinites : 

quisque, qnaoque, quidque' or quodqiie, every, every one. 
qiilvis, quaevis, quidvis or quodvis, any one you please. 
qnilibet, quaelibct, quidlibet or quodlibet, any one you please. 

1. Declension.— It may be remarked 

_ 1) That tlicse compounds are jrenerally declined like the simple qnis and 
qui, but have in the Neut. Sing, both quod and quid, the former used adjec- 
tively, the latter subfitantireh/. 

2) That aliquis has aliq'ua instead oialiquae'm the Fem. Sing, and Ncut 
Plur. Aliqui for aliquis occurs. 

3) That quldam generally changes m to ii before d: quendam for queni' 
dam. 

4) That quisquam generally vrants the Fem. and the Plur. 

_ 5) That unus prefixed to p'isque does not afl'ect its declension : vnus- 
quisque, unaqiii:eque, etc. 

2. Other Indefinites are : idius, alter, uter, alteruter, neuter, ullus, nul- 
I us, nemo. 

3. Other General Indefinites may be formed from uter: uterque, both, 
each; utenix, uterUhd, either you i)lease. 

4. Indefinite Pronominal Adjectives : ^wa^M?**^ qualelibet, ofany sort; 
aliquantus, a, um, of some size ; aliquot (indeclinable), several. 

For qvalislihut the Gen. of an indefinite pronoun with modi may be used: 
tujiisdammSdi, of some kind. 




CIIArTEE lY. 
VEUBS. 

192. Verbs in Latin, as in English, express existence, 
condition, or action : est^ he is ; clormit^ he is sleeping ; 
legit, lie reads. 

> Sometimes written resijoctively, quippiam and quicquain. 
* Sometimes written quicque. 



VERBS. 



65 



193. Verbs comprise two principal classes: 

I. Traxsitive Verbs, — vvhicli admit a direct object of 
tlieir action : sermim verberai, he beats the slave. 

II. Intransitive Verbs, — wliich do not admit such an 
object : pwer currit^ the boy runs. 

194. Verbs have Volce^ Mood^ Tc?ise^ JVumber, and 
Person. 

I. Voices. 

1 95. There are two Voices : 

I. The Active Voice, — which represents the subject as 
acting or existing : jxj7cr Jilium amat, the father loves his 
son ; est, he is. 

II. The Passive Voice, — which represents the subject 
as acted uj^on by some other person or thing : JiUus a jiutre 
amdtur, the son is loved by his father. 

1. Passive Wanting. — Intransitive Verbs generally have only the 
active voice, but are Sometimes used impersouuUy in the passive. See 
301. 3. 

2. Active Wanting. — Deponent Verbs ' arc Passive in form, but not 
in sense: /5</«or, to speak. But see 221. 

II. MoODS. 

1 96. Moods are either Definite or Indefinite : 

I. The Definite or Finite Moods make up the Finite 
Verb ; thoy are : 

1. The Indicative Mood, — which either asserts some- 
thing as a fact or inquires after the fact : tegit, he is read- 
ing ; legitne, is he reading ? 

2. The Subjunctive Mood, — which expresses not an 
actual fact, but a possibility or conception,, often rendered 
by may, can, etc. : Ugat, he may read, let him read. 

«3. The Imperative Mood, — which expresses a cc;>2mrt;2f? 
or an entreaty : Uye, read thou. 

II. The Indefinite Moods e press the meaning of the 
verb in the form of nouns or adjectives ; they are : 



m 



i 



• So t-nlled from ili'pi'ino, to lay aside, as tliey dispense, in gencrnl, with the actlv« 
forra and tlie passive iheaniug. 



66 



VERBS. 



if 



li 



^ 1. The lNFiNiTivE,-whicl., like the English Infinitive, 
gives the simple meaning of the verb without any necessal 
ly reference to person or number : lecjcre, to read 

2. The GERuND,-which gives the meaning of the verb 
m the form of a verbal noun of the second declension, used 
only m the genitwe, dative, accusatice, and ablative singn- 
lav. I corresponds to the English participial noun in mo: 
ctmamh of lovn.g; amandl causa, for the sake of loving. 
. ,f- ,.'^ ^uPiNE,_which gives the meaning of the verb 
m the form of a verbal noun of the fourth declension, used 
only m the accusative and ablative singular: amdtum, to 
love, for loving ; amcitu, to be loved, in loving 

^ 4. The PARTicirLE,-which, like the English participle, 
gives the meaning of the verb in the form of an adjective 

the Passive, the PcS a d ^ut.n. '" v' ""^T' '!" ^«^« ^-^"d two in 
to be loved. -•ntmv-amuins, loved; ama«c/«s, deserving 

in. Texses. 
197. There are six tenses : 
I. Three Tenses for Incomplete Action: 

1. Present: amo, I love. 

2. Imperfect ; amdbam, I was loving. 

3. Future ; amdbo, I shall love. 

II. Three Tenses for Completed Action: 

1. Perfect : amdvi, I have loved, I loved. 

2. Pluperfect : amaveram, I had loved. 

3. Future Perfect : amavero, I shall have loved. 

198. Remarks on Texses. 

1. Present Perfect and Historical Perfect—The Latin Perfect some- 
times corresponds to our Perfect with have {have loved), and is called the 
Present Perfect or Perfect Definite ; and sometimes to onr Imperfect or 
Past (W), and is called the Ilhtorieal Perfect or Perfect Indefinite. 

2. Principal and Historical. -Tenses are also distin'r„i.l,(.d'as 

1 /V,.c.y,«/.-P,.osent, Present Perft.ct, Future, and Future Perfect. 
I) Historual .—Imperfect, Historical Perfect, and Pluperfect 



VERBS. 



67 



I 



3. Tenses Wanting.— The Subjunctive wants the Future and Futur* 
Perfect ; the Imperative has only the Present and Future ; the Infinitive, 
only the Present,, Perfect, and Future. 

IV. Numbers. 

199. There are two numbers: SiJfGULAR and Plural.' 

V. Persons. 

200. There are three persons : First, Second, and 
Third.' 

CONJUGATION. 

201. Regular verbs are mflected, or conjugated, in 
four diiforent ways, and are .accordingly divided into Four 
Conjugations, distinguished from each other by the 

INFINITIVE ENDINGS. 

1 Conj. r. Conj. II. Conj. IIL Conj. IV. 

are, ere, Sre, ire. 

202. Principal Farts. — Four forms of the verb, — the 
Present Indicative, Present Infinitive, Perfect Indicative, 

j and Supine, — are called from their importance the Princi- 

pal Parts of the verb. 

203. Entire Conjugation.— In any regular verb 

1. The Present Stem " may be found by dropping the 
infinitive ending : amare ; stem, ««?. 

2. The Principal Parts may be formed from this stem 
by means of proper endings. 

3. Tiie Entire Conjugation of the verb through all 
its parts may be readily formed from these Principal 
Parts by means of proper endings.' 

* As in Nouns. See 87. 

' For fuller treatment of stems, see 241. 242. 

' In the Paradigms of regular veibs, the entlings, both those which distinguish 
the Principal Parts nnd those which distinguish tlie forms derived from those iJiula, 
are separately indicated, and should be carefully noticed. 






I 



i 'W 




1 f^; 




i ' 'i 


38 


B ,' * 41 




p ' '■' f 




1 i p ■'! 




'j li-^i 




••f iv^l ■■' 




■• r; *' 


ver 



VERBS. 



204. Sum, lam. 

Sum is used as an auxiliary iu tlie passive voice of regular 
verbs. Accordingly its conjugatiou, though quito irregular, must 
be given at the outset. 



PKINCIPAL TAETS. 
rrcB. Ind. pres. Inf. Terf. lad. 

sum, esse, fui, 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Jam. 



Supine. 



sQin, 

es, 
est, 



*ram, 

eras, 

crjit, 



drS, 
eris, 

erit, 



fuT, 
fuistl, 

fuit, 



fui'mm, 

fu("rris, 

fuerut, 



fu(^ro, 
fucTis, 
fuerit, 



SINGULAR. 
I am, 
thou art,^ 
lie is : 



PLURAL. 

we are, 
you are, 
they are. 



I was, 
thou wast, 
he was ; 



I shall he, 
thou wilt be, 
he will be ; 



we were, 
you were, 
they were. 



we shall be, 
you will be, 
they will be. 



sumiis, 

estis, 

sunt, 

Impep.fect. 
I was. 

eramiis, 
eratis, 
erant, 
Future. 
/ shall or will be. 
erimiis, 
eritis, 
eruut, 

Perfect. 

I have been, was, 

Ihavcbecd, fuimiig, tee have been, 

thou hast been. fuistia, you have been, 

fuere, ' \ ^^^^V ^'^^'^ ^^^"' 
Pluperfect. 
/ had been, 

fu('ramiig, we had been, 
fiu'nltis, you had been, 
fuerant, they had been. 
FtTTUUE Perfect. 
/ shall or will iiare been. 



he has been; 



I had been, 
thou hadst been 
he had been ; 



I shall have becfi, 
thou wilt have been, 
he will have been ; 



fuoiiruus, tec shall have been, 
fueritis, you will have been, 
fuerint, they toill have been. 



1 Or jfon are; thov is confin,..i ,n..;.tly to solo.nnTliscourse; hi ordinary Ec^lLV 
you are is used both in the singular and iu the plural, ° ' 



VEEBS. 



69 



' regular 
ar, must 



le. 



film, 
sis, 

8lt 



esscm, 

essef?, 
essct, 



fuonm, 

fueris, 

fuerit, 



fuissem, 

fuissOs, 

fuissCt, 



SINGULAR. 
/ 7naif be, 
Ihou majitit he, 
he tnay he ; 



Subjunctive. 

Phesent. 
I may or can be. 



Hiraus, 
sitis. 



siut, 

Impeufect. 
I mir/ht, could, would, or should be. 



rtUKAL. 

v;c may be, 
you may be, 
they may be. 



[might he, 
Uiou miiihtut be, 
he mi(/ht be ; 



essGmiis, we miyht be, 
essOtis, you miyht be, 
esscut, they might be. 

Perfect. 
/ may or can have been. 



/ may have been, 
Ihou niayst have been, 
he may have been ; 



fm'rimua, we may have been, 
fuoritlfs, you may have been, 
fuerint, tJtcy may have been. 



Pluperfect. 
I might, could, would, or should haee been. 



/might have been, 
thou mightst have been, 
he might have been; 



fuissciuus, wo might have been, 
fuissGtIs, yoii might have been. 
fuisscnt, they viight have been. 



I AlPE R A TI VE. 

j esto, be ye, 

cstOti', ye shall be, 
suiilu, they shall bo. 

Participl:b3, 



cglish. 



Pres. es, he thmi, 

FuT. esto, thou shall hc,^ 
esto, he shall he^; 

Infinitive. 

Pres. esse, to be, 
Perf. fuissi", to have been, 
FuT. luturus* esse, to be about to 
be. 

1. Bare Forms are: fur em, fores, fSret, forent, and f6r?, for ef.smt,, 
essen, (•■•■if, essent, m\i\ fidurus esse. See 207. III. 2. 

i. ^..itiquated Forms are : siem, sies, siSt, sient, for sitn, sis, sit, siiit ; 
&hi fiirn, fuas, fuut, fuant, for the same. 

' The Flit, may also Le rendered like the Pres. or with let: be thou ; let him be. 
* Futurus 's declined like bonus. So in the Infinitive; /utfmtB, a, am ease. 



FuT. futurus," abcut to be. 



70 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 




Tros. Iiid 

anid, 



SI 



lUUiit, 



iinifiilntin, 
ilinsi ''ifi!?!. 



ania1>d, 
unisiblS, 



airnlvT, 

amavistl, 

finiavif. 



airifivitraiii, 

aiiiaveras, 

amaverut. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

205. Aino, I love. 

PIlINCirAL TARTS. 

rree. Iiif. ivrf Ii,d. 

ainarg, aiuavi, 

Indicative JMood. 

Present Tense, 
/ love, am loving, do love. 

NGt'LAU. 

/ love, 
thou lovcst, 

Jic loves ; 



Supine, 

amatura. 



rumAL, 

' amamtts, ^cclove, 
amatis, yoa love, 

ainaBit, ihctj love. 



Imperfect, 
/ loved, was lovinrj, did love. 



I was loriiif/, 
thou ivast lovliKj, 
he was loving ; 



FuTlTRE, 

/ i<hall or will love. 



ainabaiiitli^, tee were loving, 
ainabaiis, i/ou were loving, 
amabasit, they were loving. 



I shall love, 
thou w:lt love, 
he will love ; 



aniablmils, ve shall love, 
i/ou will love, 
thcg will love. 



amabltl 



I have loved, 
thon hast loved, 
he has loved ; 



aiiiabuMf, 

Perfect, 
/ loved, have loved. 



we have loved, 
you have loved, 



arnav^rfs. 



ainavisBifts, 
aina visits, 

JiiuaversaBit, CrC, they have 'hvcd- 

Pr-UPERFECT, 

/ had loved. 

ainavi^rfimus, tve had loved, 
.Imaveratls, you had loved, 
aniaverant, they had loved. 

FPTURE PERFECT, 

/ shall or will have loved. 



I had loved, 
thou hadst loved, 
he had loved ; 



I shall have loved, 
thou wilt have loved, 
he will have loved; 



amav«rf miis, we shall have loved, 
amav^rftls, you will have loved, 
amav6rint, they will have loved. 



i 



ACTIVE VOICE. 



ri 






/ 



amCs, 



ainares, 
£(iuar£t. 



SUBTUNCTIVE. 

Present. 

/ may or can love. 
SINGULAH. 

1 may love, amCmtts, 

thou mayst lovs, ametls, 

he may love ; anient. 



Imperfect. 
/ iniffht, could, would, or should love. 



PLURAL. 

we may love, 
you may love, 
they may love. 



I might love, 
thou miyhtat love, 
he mifjht love ; 



JimavCrlm, I may have loved, 
jiiuaverf s, thou tnayKt nave loved, 
amaverit, he may have loved; 



Perfect. 
/ may or can have loved. 



amarcmtts, rve might love, 
amaretls, you might love, 
amarcnt, they might love. 



amav^rtmiis, we 7nay have loved, 
aniaverSt Is, you may have loved, 
amriv6rint, they 7nay have loved. 



Plttperfect. 
/ 7night, could, would, or shoidd have loved. 



nmrixiss^m, I might have loved, 
aiuavisses, thou mightmt have 

loved, 
amaviss«5t, he might have loved; 



I M r E R A T I V E. 



amuvisseimls, ive might have 

loved, 
aiiJavissCtIs,//o?< might have lovcd^ 
aixiavisscntjif/ic^ might have loved. 



PRES. ^ima, love thou ; 
FcT. anifito, thou xhalt love, 
aniatd, he shall love ; 

Infinitive. 

Pres. aniar^, to love. 
Perf. rimrivif«s«^, to have loved. 
Fl-t. ainfitflrus " esse, to 
about to love. 

Gerund. 

ainaiMlI, of loving, 
JiniandO, for loving, 
Aec. araaudiim, loving, 
All. amandO, by loving. 

' Decline like pmdem, 15:3. 



Gen. 
JDat. 



a 111 ate, love i/e. 

aniatot«5, ye shall love, 
aiiianto, they shall love. 

Participle. 

Pres. amans,' loving. 

FcT. amatiirfis,' about to love. 
S U r I N E . 



Ace. Smatfim, to love, 

Ahl. itmatfi, to love, be loved' 



* Decline like bonus, 143. 



^ 



i iJ 



I f 



72 



M 



FIRST CONJUGAnojf. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

206. Amor, I am loved. 



rfilNCIPAL TARTS. 

Pres. Inf. 



Pcif. Ind. 



Pres. Ind, 

«»ior, aniarl, amatus sum. 

Indicative JMood. 

PnESENT Tknse, 
/ am loved. 



SINGULAR. 

fiiiiaris, or r«5 



{iniabilr 

Jlniabarlfs, orrH. 
amabatiir ; 



Lmperfect. 
/ teas loved. 



PMTRAL. 

amamjtr 
nmainlnl 
juiiantiir. 



aniabamiir 
aniabaiiiiuX 
itmabantijir. 



^mabor 

JimabCrls, or r« 
amablfikr ; 



iiniatiis siim ' 
aniiltjliii i':s 
Smatiks est; 



JJmatiis ^ram ' 
amatiis £ras 
amatii* £rat ; 



FfTcnE,, 
/ nfiall or tf'zY/ 6e loved. 

itmabimikr 
atiiabiiiiini 

amabuutjtr. 

Pkkfect. 

/ //aw it'C7t or «'rts loved. 

amatl siiiuiis 
Jiinfitl Cimis 
iimuti siiut. 



Plupeufect. 
/ had been loved. 



Smattts «r6 * 
Jiniatfis £rit; 



Fptche Perfect. 
/ «/<a^/ or W277 have been loved 



^matl dramtls 
Jlmatl Gratis 
amatl ^rant. 



amati ^rYmiis 
amatl f-vitls 
amatl £runt. 



for ^.0, iris, e^r^"''^""' ■^"^'•«*' *^'°-' f'>'- ^'^««*. ^'•«., etc. ; also fuiro, fuiL, Z, 



Pri 



Prf 
Peb 

FUT 



/e«'8i 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



78 



SINGULAH. 

{ImCrls, or riS 
timet ur ; 



3mardr 
Jimarerls, or tH 
^arCtiir ; 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 
/ may or can be loved. 

PlPRAt. 

SmCinlnl 
Smcutftr. 

Imperfect. 

/ might, could, would, or should be loved. 



itmar^^mttr 
ilmarCniXnl 
(imarciitiir* 



{(matiis sYm < 
amatiis sis 
Sinutfis sit ; 



Perfect. 
/ may have been loved. 

amati sTmiisi 
uinfiti sltls 
Smati »int. 

Pluperfect. 
/ might, coidd, woidd, or shoidd have been loved. 

V ,>, I amatl cssSmiis 

amatus esses I x -^. 

- -.w '-**^* I aniutl essetis 

amatus cssCt : I -.^-i- 

» ' amatl csscnt. 

Imteeative. 

VmB. u.m^TiS, be thou loved : | umamXnl, i. y. W./. 
Put. amator, thou ?i>alt be loved, 
amatdr, he shall be loved; 

Infinitive. 



Pres. amarl, to be loved. 

Perf. amatiis ess«i to have been 

loved. 
Put. araatilm Irl, to be about to 

be loved. 



amantdr, they shall be loved. 
Participle. 



Perf. amattts, having been loved. 
Put. amandus, to be loved. 



» FiiMm,fums, etc., are sometimes used for ^m, sis, etc. So also/wmm 
fumes, etc., for essem, esses, etc. ; rarely /«.«8e for c«se. «iw/wi««m, 



1' 



74 



bECOND CONJUGATION. 



moiiitum. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

207. Monco, I ail else. 

rniNCIPAL TARTS. 
Prca. Ind, Prcs. Inf. Perf. Ind. 

m6ned, moiierS, mouui, 

Indicative jMood. 

Present Te.nse. 
/ advise. 

SINGCLAR. PLURAL. 

niuiied monCmiks 

™t)n<is monetls 

nionCt ; moucnt. 

Imperfect. 
/ was advising. 

nionCbamils 

nionCbatIs 

munvbant. 

FuTrnE. 
/ shall or will advise. 

tnunf;binitts 

munebltis 
munebunt. 

Perfect. 
/ advised or have advised. 

munufmits 
tnonuistis 

monueriint, or Sr^, 
Plcpekfect. 
/ had advised. 

monu^ramtts 
inonuCratls 
monuiSrant, 
FcTcnE Perfect. 
/ shall or ivill have advised. 

inumi^rfmiis 

montierflis 

monu^riiit. 



munCbam, 
mun^bas 
munebut ; 



monCbO 
monCbis 
muu^blt ; 



moniil 
mmiuiiiitl 
nioiinit ; 



monui^ram 
monu^ras 
mOnu^jrat ; 



monuero 
muinwrls 
niunuCrit ; 



PRES 

Put. 



Pres. 
Perf, 
Put. 



Gen. 
Bat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



ACTIVB VOICE. 



76 



muncAiu 
mot) oil iH 

Dii at ; 



Subjunctive, 

PHESENT. 

/ may or can advhe. 



moncllmfttt 

mOncaut. 
Imperfect. 
/ mir,^,t^ could, i^dd, or should advise. 






inSnuei iin 
monu<4pit ; 

/ mif/h(, cotdd, 

nioiuiiss^Bii 
nioniiisses 



monCrCmiis 
nionCrCtls 
mouCrcut, 
Perfect. 
/ tnay have advised. 

monndpfmils 

nionudrllls 

moiui^rint. 

PtrPEnFECT. 

>dd, or s/iould have advised. 

mrmuissemils 

momiissclls 

mouuissciU. 



PRES. 
FUT. 



Imperative. 

monC, advise thou ; | muuetd, advise ye. 

monCtO, tho.. Shalt advise, I monCtOtC, ye shall advise, 
mcnetO, /.. ./,«// a./.^s•e ; | munciitO, they shall advise. 



Pres. 
Perf. 
Ffjt. 



Gen, 
Bat. 
Ace. 
Ahl. 



Infinitive. 

monCri*. to advise, 
immuimsii^ to have advised. 
moiuturas essiS, to be 
about to advise. 

Gerund. 

nionendl, of advising, 
nioneiMld, for advising, 
tnonendjini, advisitig, 
moncndo, by advising. 



Particitle. 

Pres. rauncns, advisiiig. 

Fl-t. monTtfir&s, about to advise. 
Supine. 



Ace. monttiim, to advise, 

Abl. monlta, to advise, be advised. 



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70 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 




SECOND CONJUGATION. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

208. Moneor, I am adolsed. 

PKINCIPAL PARTS. 
Pres. Ind. Pros. Inf. Perf. Ind. 



moneSr, 



moueri. 



monitus siim. 



Indicative JMood. 



SINGULAR. 

monedr 
monCrls, or rS 
monetitr ; 



monCbarls, or r6 
mun^batikr ; < 



monCbdr 
monCbiirls, or r6 
monebltiir ; 



mdnittis est ; 



monitiis drilin ' 
monitiis ^rfts 
tnonitiis ^r^t ; 



monitiis t^rd * 
momttts UriH 
mc5nitiis ^rXt ; 



Pkesent Tense. 
/ am advised. 

PLTTRAr,. 

nionemttr 
monCiniuI 

moncntttr. 
Imperfect. 
I was advised. 

monebamiir 
munebaminl 
mun^bautiir. 
Future. 
/ shall or will be advised. 

monebimiir 
mdnebiminl 
mdn4&buiitilr« 
Perfect. 
/ have been or was advised. 

moiutl sikmiis 
monitl cstXs 
muiutl sunt. 
Pluperfect. 
/ had been advised. 

moiiTtl ^ramils 
monitl Gratis 
monitl ^rant. 
Future Perfect. 
/ shall or will have been advised. 



monitl ^rlmiis 
monitl iritis 
monitl ^ritnt. 



• Sec 206, foot notes. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



77 



moneftr* 

monearls, or r& 
moncatttr ; 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 
/ may or can he advised. 

SINGULAR. VLV1KJ.U 



mdnejlnijiir 
mducaminl 

nidneantjir. 



monCrdr 
monCrerXs, or rH 



Imperfect. 
/ might, could, would, or shoiild be advised. 



mdnerCminI 

m6n€rentilr. 



Perfect. 
/ may have b«en advised. 



monitT sTmiis 
moniti sitis 
monltl sint. 



monitiis sim ' 
mouitfis »ls 
monitiis sXt ; 

Pluperfect. 

/ miffht, could, would, or should have been advised. 
monitiis essoin' r«-x„-fw » ^ 

monitiis essCs 
monitiis css^t ; 



monitl essetis 
monitl essent. 



Impeeative. 

Pres. n.6n€r«, be thou advised ; \ mon^n^m, be ye advised. 
Put. monetdr, </to« sAa/^ 6e arf- 

monCtdr, he shall be ad- 
vised; 



Infinitive. 

Pres. monCpl, to be advised, 
Fi&F. monitfts css«^ to have been 

advised, 
Put. momtiim Irl, to be about 

to be advised. 



monentdr, they shall be advised 

Participle. 



Perf. monitiis, advised. 
Put. moneudtts, to be advised. 



' Set 206, foot notes. 



78 



rres. Ind. 

regd, 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 

THIRD CONJUGATION". 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

209. Rego, I rule. 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 
Pres. Inf. Per£ Ind. 

reggrS, rexi, 

Indicative Mood. 



Supine. 

rectum. 





Present Tense. 






/ rule. 




SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


regd 






r^glniils 


regis 






regitis 


rggit ; 


\ 

Imperfect. 
/ was ruling. 


rggunt* 


rSgCb&m. 






rSgSbamiis 


rCgCbas 


\ 




regCbatls 


rcgeb&t ; 






regebant. 




FnxuRE. 






/ shall or will rule. \ 


reg&m. 






r^gSmtts 


regCs 






rfgetls 


regCt 5 






regent. 




Perfect. 






/ ruled or have ruled. |' 


rexl 






rexXmiis 


rexisti 






rexistXs 


rexit ; 






rexeruut, or €r6. 




Pluperfect. 






/ had ruled. 




rex£r&m 






rexdramiis 


rex^ras 






rex^ratXs 


rexSrat ; 






rex^rant. 




Future Perfect. 




/ shall or xdll have ruled. \ 


rex^rd 






rex^rfmiis 


rcx^rts 






rex^rltXs 


rexdpit ; 






rex^rint. 



Pres 
Put. 



Pres 
Perb 
Put. 



Gen. 
Pat, 
Ace^ 
Abl. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 



19 



SUBJUKCTIVK. 

Present. 
/ may or can rule. 



SINOCtAR. 

reglls 
Tdg&t ; 



PLURAL. 

regamtiLS 

rc'gatis 

rugant. 



r^g^rdiu 

regCres 
regCr^t ; 



rcx(grliii 

rex^rts 
rex^rit ; 



Imperfect. 
/ miffht, could., would, or should rule. 



. Perfect. 
/ may have ruled. 



ri^g^rSmiis 

regCretls 
regfireut. 



rexdrfnttis 

rex^rttis 
rex^rint. 



Pluperfect. 
/ might, could, would, or should have ruled. 



rcxissSiu 
rexissSs 
rexiss^t ; 



rcxiss^miis 

rexis<!ietls 
rexissent. 



Imperative. 



Pres. rSgd, rule thou ; 

FuT. rggltd, thou shalt rule, 
rSgitd, he shall rule ; 

Infinitive. 

Pres. rgg«$r«, to rule. 
Perf. rexiss^, to have ruled. 
Fdt. rectOrtts ess«, to be about 
to rule. 

G E E IT N D . 

Gen. rggendl, of ruling, 

Dat, rggendd, for ruling, 

Ace^ rggcndttm, ruling, 

Abl. rggendo, by ruling. 



I rSgIt«, rule ye. 

I r^gitStd, ye sAa?/ rule, 
I r^guntd, <Aey sAa// rule. 

Participle. 

Pres. rggens, rw^my. 

FuT. rectlliriis, about to rJe. 
Supine. 



Ace. rectilm, to rule, 

Abl. rectOi, to rule, be ruled. 



80 



TIIIED CONJUGATIOX. 




TUIRD OplTJUGATION. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

210. Regor, I am ruled. 

rEINCU'AL PARTS. 
rro8.Ind. Prcs.Inf. Pcrf. Ind. 

regdr, regl, rectild stim. 

Indicative Mood 



SINGULAR. 

rggdr 

reg^ris, or rd 
rggitttr ; 



regCbftr 

regCbarfs, or r<5 
rgg^batftr ; 



Present Tense. 
I am ruled. 

PLURAL. 

reglinar 
, rcgXmXnl 



Imperfect. 
/ was ruled. 



regiuitjkr. 



rdgSbamiir 

rt^gebantXnl 

reg^liautilr. 



regilr 

reg€ris, or r6 
regetilr ; 



rcct jls sikm ' 
rcctiis 4is 
rectiis est ; 



recttts ^riim* 

recttiis £ras 
rcctfts £rat ; 



Future. 
/ shall or will be ruled. 

regCmilr 

regCmlnl 

regenttir. 

Perfect. 
/ have been or was ruled. 

recti silmiis 
recti cstXs 
recti sunt. 
Pluperfect. 
/ had been ruled. 

recti dramiiii 
recti Gratis 
recti ^rant. 
Future Perfect. 
/ shall or will have been ruled. 



rcctils <<r© * 
rectiis j^rX$9 
rectiis ^rXt ; 



recti ^rXmiis 
recti £rltli$ 
recti £runt. 



1 See 200, foot notes. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



SI 



S UBJUNCTI VE. 

PUESENT, 

/ may or can be ruled. 



SINGULAR. 

regarls, or riS 
rcgatiir ; 



PLCRAt. 

rogftmilr 
regamlnl 
rugantjir. 



Imperfect. 
/ iniyht, could, would, or should he ruled. 



rgg^rdr 

reg^rCrls, or rH 
r6g^r€tilr ; 



r(?g^r€miir 
ri'^g^rSinXnl 
r^g^rentiir. 

Perfect. 

/ may have been ruled. 

recti slmiis 
recti sitXs 
recti slut. 

Pluperfect. 

/ might, could, would, or should have been ruled. 



rectils stna* 

rcctiis sis 
rectiis sit ; 



rcctits essoin' 
rcctiis cssSs 
rectus css£t ; 



recti essSmiis 
recti essetXs 
recti essent. 



Imperative. 

Pees, r (5g^r^, be thou ruled ; | regXmXnl, be ye ruled. 

FuT. f 6gXt6r, thou shalt be ruled, I 

regitdr, he shall be rtded ; \ regumtdr, they shall be rided. 



Infinitive. 

Pres. regl, to be ruled. 

Perf. rectiis ess^^ to have been 

ruled. 
FuT. rectiiiu Iri, to be about to 

be ruled. 



Participle. 

Perf. rectiie, ruled. 
FuT. rSgcndtis, to be nded. 



> See 206, foot notes. 



82 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

211. Audio, I hear. 

PEINCIPAL PAETS. 
Pros. Ind. Pros. Inf. Perf. Ind. 

audi5, audirS, audivi, 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
/ hear. 



Snplno. 

auditum. 



SINQULAR. 

audid 
audls 
audit ; 



audisbilm 

audiebas 
audiebAt ; 



Imperfect. 
/ was hearing. 



audiiim 
audits 
audlSt ; 



audlvl 
audlvisti 
audlrXt ; 



audlT^rJim 
audivCras 
audlverjlt ; 



FtJTPRE. 

/ shall or will hear. 



PLURAt. 

audliutts 
audit! s 
audiunt. 



audiebamiis 

audij^batXs 
audiebaut. 



audlemils 

audi«tXgi 

audieut. 



Perfect. 
/ heard or have heard. 



Pluperfect. 
/ had heard. 



audlvXmjis 
audlvistis 
audiverunt, or €rd. 



audiv(6rd 
audlv^rts 
audiv45rXt ; 



audlv^ramtts 
audlv^ratls 
audlv^raut. 
Future Perfect. 
/ shall or will have heard. 

audlvdrSmiis 

audiv^ritis 

audivdrint. 



PRI 

FcQ 



Pre 
Per 

FUT, 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Ahl. 






active voice. 
Subjunctive. 



88 



SINGULAR. 

audiiiin 
audias 
audljit ; 



Present. 
/ may or can hear. 



PLCRAt. 

audiamils 

audiatiN 

audiaut. 



nudlr^iu 
audlrCs 
audlrdt ; 



Imperfect. 
/ might, cmdd, would, or should hear. 



audlv^rlm 
audiv<;rt» 
audiv^rlt ; 



Perfect. 
/ may have heard. 



andlrCmtts 

audlretSs 

audlrent. 



audiv^rttls 
audiv^rint. 
Pluperfect. 
/ miffht, could, would, or should have heard 
audlvi.««™ . audlvis«€mtt« 

audivisses audivissetis 

audivissetj I audivisscnt. 

Imperative. 

audltd, hear ye. 

audlt«t«, ye shall hear, 
audiuntd, t/iey shall hear. 

Pabticiple. 

Pres. audicns, hcarinff. 



Pres. audi, hear thou; 

Put. audlto, thou shalt hear, 
audltd, he shall hear; 

Infinitive. 

Pres. audlr«, to hear. 
Perf. aud!viss«, to have heard. 
FcT. auditfiptts css6, to be 
about to hear. 

Gerund. 

Gen. audlendl, of hearing. 

Bat. audiendO, for hearing. 

Ace. atidiendiini, hearing. 

Abl. audiendd, by hearing. 



Put. audittapiis, about to hear. 

Supine. 



Ace. audltilm, to hear. 

Abl. audita, to hear, be heard. 



84 



FOURTU CONJUGATION. 



B. i'i 



FOURTH CONJUOATION. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

212. Audior, I am heard 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 
Pres. Ind. Pros. Inf. rerf. lud. 

audidr, aiidirf, auditiis siim. 

Indicative Mood, 

Present Tense. 
/ am heard. 

SINOrLAR. 

aiididr 
nudlrlH, or r<5 

audltjkr ; 

Imperfect. 
/ was heard. 
audicl»jlr 
audiebarls, or rd 
audi^bat jlr ; 

Future. 
/ shall or will he heard. 



PLURAL. 

audlinilr 
aiullminl 
aiuliuntikr. 



aiidil^bilniiir 
audiebamliil 
audliSbantfiir, 



audijir 
audiCrls, or rd 
audistjir ; 



auditiis stkm ' 
auditi&s £s 
auditiis est ; 



Perfect. 
/ have been heard. 



auditiis dr&in ^ 
auditiis ^rUs 
auditiis ^rdt ; 



Pluperfect. 
/ had been heard. 



audlemiir 
audiCmluI 

audientiir. 



auditi siimiis 
audltl cstis 
audltl sunt. 



auditi ^rflmiis 
auditi Gratis 
auditi ^rant. 



Future Perfect. 
/ shall or will have been heard. 
auditiis «rd » auditi ^rlmiis 



auditiis £rXs 
auditiis £rit ; 



nuditi ^rXtXs 
auditi ^rnut. 



Pre 

FUT 



Pre 
Per 

FuT. 



* See 206, foot notes. 






PASSIVE VOICE. 



85 



SUBJUNCTI VE. 

Present. 
/ may or can be heard. 

BINOULAn. PLURAL. 

audl&r audlamftr 

audiarlH, or rd audiaiiiliil 

audlatdii* ; audiuutAr. 

Impeufkct. 
/ mighty could, would, or should be heard. 



audlrdr 

audlrCrls, or rd 
audlrCtJir ; 



audlrCmiir 
audlrCmlnl 
audlrcutttr. 



Perfect. 
/ mat/ have been heard. 



auditiis slni ' 
audltjis sis 
audltiks sit ; 



auditl sliniis 
audltl sitXs 
audltl sint* 



Pluperfect. 
/ tnight, could, would, or shoidd have been heard. 



auditjis essoin ' 
auditjis esses 
auditiis essdt ; 



auditl essSmtkd 
audltl cssjitis 
audltl esscut. 



Imperative. 

Pres. audire, be thou heard; | audliuXnl, be ye heard. 

Put. audltdr, thou nhalt be heard, 
audltdr, he shall be heard ; 



Infinitive. 

Pres. audlrl, to be heard. 

Perp. audlt&s ess*J to have been 

heard. 
Put. audltttm Irl, to be about 

to be heard. 



audiuntdr, they shall be heard, 

Paeticiple. 

Perf. auditfis, heard. 

Put. audiendtks, to be heard. 



'• 



5 



' See 206, foot notes, 



00 



VKUIW IN 10. 



'It 



Pi . ■■« 



II t 



t 



IlL. 



VERBS IN 10 OF THE 



213. J^crbs in io ar 



THIRD CONJUGATION, 
■e generally of tlio fourth conjugal 



Hon, aiul even tho low ivliioh are of tho third aru inllcctud 



witii tho enUings of tljo Iburth wherever thosio eudiniis 
have two successivo vowels, aa follows : 



Pre*. Tnd. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
214. Cai)io, I ta/ce. 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 

Pits. Inf. Perf. Ind, 



capere, 



cej 



)i. 



Bnplne. 

captum. 



SINOtJLAR. 

cSpiS, capis, cupit ; 



Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

PLURAL. 

I CiJpTmus, capitis, capiunt. 
Imperfect. 
capiebam, -iGbas, -iCbSt ; | ciJpiobamus, -iebatia, -iebani 

Future. 
capiitm, -ies, -ict ; | citpigmus, .iGtla, -ient. 

Perfect. 
cC'pI, -isti, -it ; I cepimus, -istis, -Srunt, or erd. 

Pluperfect. 
cCpCram, -eras, -erat ; | cepCnlmus, -gratia, -grant. 

Future Perfect. 
cCperS, -grls, -grit; | ceperfraus, -grltfo, -grint. 

Subjunctive. 

Present. 
capiilm, -ias, -iut ; | capiumus, -iatla, -iant. 

• Imperfect. 

ciipgrgm, -grgg, grgt; | caperemus, -grStla, -grent. 

Perfect. 
cCpgriTm, ^rfs, ^rlt ; | cepgrimus, -giitis, -grint. 

Pluperfect. 
cepissgm, -iases, -issSt ; | cepiasemiis, -issgtis, -iss^t. 



f 



(UNOIJLAR. 
PiiES. ciTpc!; 

Fir. c;ii)ft8, 
cdpito; 



VEIUW IX 10. 

Ikperativf 

I 



87 



InPIXITI VE. 

I'ltEs, citpffrC. 
I'UHt. oepitisfi. 
FvT. cuptQriia esafi. 

Gerund. 

Oen. Cifpicndl. 

■Oa<. CflpiendS. 

■^cc. cUpiendum. 

Abl. cJSpicndo. 



PLURAL. 

CilpUtJ. 

cjlplt6t(5, 
ctii)iuiit8. 

Participle. 
Pbks. cflpiens. 

FuT. captOrus. 

Supine. 



Ace. cnptum. 
Abl. captQ. 



e to 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
215. Capior, I am taken. 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 

, capior, capl, captus sum. 

Indicative JVIood. 

Present Tensk. 

c2pior, caperls, c3prtur ; | capxmur, caprmml, c^tpiuntflr. 

Imperfect. 
capiObar. -iebans, -iobatSr ; | capiebamur, -iebuminl, -iebantQn 

FtJTCRE. 

capiar, -ierls, -ietur ; | c^pig^Q,^ ..,^j^.^ ..^^^^^^ 

Perfect. ^ 

cantua sum. ^a est • i ^-^i- - v ^ 

1 °uui, ta, esi , J capti suratis, estls, sunt. 

Pluperfect. 

captus eram. erHs. Mt ; | capti «ramQs, gratis, grant 

FcTDRE Perfect. 

captus Cr5, 5r&, grit ; j capti grlmu^ gritis, gnint 



>^ V/*- 



88 



VEKBS IN lO. 



SINGULAR. 

c3) itir, -iaris, -iatilr ; 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 

PLURAL. 

I c3piamQr, -iumini, -iantur. 
Imperfsct, 
cSpergr, -grerts, -grgtar ; | cSpcrerour, -ereminl, -grentur. 

Perfect. 
captus Sim, sis, sit ; | capti simus, sitis, sint. 

Pluperfect. 
captfis essera, esses, esset ; | capti essGrnQs, esaetis, essent. 

Imperative. 

Pres. capSrS; j caprmini. 

I'uT. capitor, 
cSpitor ; 

Infinitive. 

Pres. cSpi. 
Perf. captus essS.' 
Put. captuin iri. 



c3piuEtor. 

Paeticiplb. 

Perf captus. 
Put. capiendiia. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONJUGATION. 

216. FIRST CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 

amare, aroavl, amatum. 

2. Moods and Tenses.' 



amo, 



SCBJUNCTIVE. 

amargrn 



IMFEB. 

Urns, 
3tnato 



ISDICATITE. 

Pres. amo 
Imp. fimab'^.m 
J^i't. 3ma,b6 
Perf. amavi 
Plup. amaverjim 
F. P. amavero 

(Gerund, gmandl, dS, etc. Supine, amatum, u 



umavenm 
araavissem 



INFINITIVE. 

amarS 

amatiiriis ess6 
amaviss6 



PARTICIPl,a, 

amans. 
iimatui'us. 



Those tables, it ^y^l be ohserved, are so m. nfrcd as to exhibit not onlv tho 
synopsis of each mood th.- )ugh tb. diflTerent tenses, as, iNnio. aircc, amdham, etc but 
alao the synopsis of each tense thiOURh the differenC moods, as, Phcs arno amem 
ama, etc. The pupil should make himself so familiar with the verbs, m thev occur 

' " •' ''"""". S' w fx^ »"ie to give tno synopsis of auy mood through al' tl»e 

tenses, or of any tense through all the mouds. 



,. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONJUGATION. 
II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. Peincipal Pakts. 
amor, amarl, araatus sQm. 



IND.OATIVK. 

Pres. amor 
Imp. amubar 
Fut. araabor 
Perf. Smatiis sum 
Plup. amatuser3m 
F. P. Smatus ero 



2. Moods and Tenses. 



BUBJUNCTIVK. 

jimer 
flmarer 

Smatus Sim 
amatus essSm 



iMPEn. 
arc irS 

3mat6r 



INFINITIVE. 

amaii 

jtm.ltum Iri 
amatus ess5 



89 



PARTICIPLa 



amandus. 
amatus. 



217. SECOND CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Pkincipal Parts. 

moneo, monere, monuT, monitum. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



Pres. 

Imp, 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Plup. 

F.P. 



moneo 
mouebam 
monebo 
monui 



mouuero 



moneam 
monOrem 

monufrim 
monuissem 



moue 



raoueto 



monucram 

ero 

Gerund, monendl, do, etc. Supine, monitum, Q. 



monerS 

moniturus ess6 
monuissS 



iponens. 
mouiturua. 



II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. PuiNciPAL Parts. 

mdneor, moneri, monitus sura. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



Pres. mdncfir 
Imp. monebar 
Fut. monebor 



monear 
monerer 



Perf. m-jnitua siim i rnnnitiis sTm 
Piui). monTtna f^ram inonTfiiafiaaii 



Plup. monitus Sram 
F. P. monitus ero 



monitus essem 



moaOrfi 
mongtor 



moneri 

monitiim Iri 

Jnonitus essS 



monendua 
monitus. 



i 



i 



90 



SYNOPSIS OF CONJUGATION. 

218. THIED CONJUGATION-. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. PRINCIPAL Parts. 



reg6, 



regere, rexl, 



rectum. 



INDICATIVE. 

Pres. rego 

Imp. regebam 

T^it. regiim 

Perf. rexi 

Plup. rexeram 

F. P. rexero 



2. Moods and Tenses. 



firBJUNCTIVE. 

ri'gara 
regerem 

rexerim 
rexissera 



IMPEE. 

r6g6 



rSgito 



INFINITIVE. 

rCgfirg 

recturus ess6 
rexissfi 



PAr.TIClPLK. 

rfigens. 
recturua. 



Gerund, regendi, d6, etc. Supine, rectum, u. 

II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 

•regbr,. regl, rectus sum. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



Pres. rggor 
Imp. regefaSr 
Put. regar 
Perf. rectus siim 
Plnp. rectus erara 
F. P. rectus Sro 



regar 
regerSr 

rectfis Sim 
rectus essem 



rSgSrS 



rSgitor 



rggi 

rectum Iri 
rectus essg 



rSgendus. 
rectus. 



I 



219. VERBS IN 10 OF THE THIED CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 

capiS, capere, cepi, captum. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



capTto 



Pres. capio capiam 

Imp. capiebam caperem 

Fut. capiam 

Perf. cepi ceperim 

Plnp. cf'pcTara ccpissem 

F. P. cepero 

Gerund, capicndl, dg, etc. Supine, captum, n. 



capfirfi 

capturtis essfi 
cepissfi 



capif.ns. 
"•apturus. 



STNOrsIS OF CONJUGATION. 



91 



nciPLK. 

;ens. 
Jturiis. 



ndus. 
is. 



^. 



ns. 
ru3. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Per/. 

Plnp. 

F.P, 



INDIOATIVB. 

capior 



Citpiobar 
Ciipiiir 
captus sura 
captus Oram 
captus ero 



II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Paets. 

capior, capT, captus sum. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 

IMPEB, I INFINITrVE. 

cap«i6 capi 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

capiar 
oaperdr 



captus sira 
captus essom 



capitor 



captum irl 

captus ess6 



PAKTICIPLB. 



Citpiendus. 
captus. 



220. FOUETH CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

I. Pkincipal Parts. 

audi5, audire, audlvi, auditum. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Phip. 

F.P. 



2. Moodl and Tenses. 



audi 
audits 



audi(i audiara 

audiebam audiigm 

audiam 

audivi audiv^rim 

audiveram audlvissem 

audlvero I 

Gerund, audiendl, dg, etc. Supine, auditum, Q. 



audirS 

auditurus ess8 
audlvissfi 



audicDs. 
audlturug. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Plup. 

F.P. 



II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 

audior, audiri, auditus sum 

2. Moods and Tenses. 

audIrS I audirl 



audior 
audiebSr 
audiar 
auditus Slim 
auditus eiam 
auditus ero 



audiar 
audirer 

auditus sTm 
auditus cssem 



auditor 



auditum Tri 

auditus ess6 



audiendus. 
auditus. 



DEPONENT VERBS. 



.-.-_ Deponent Verbs have in general the forms of the 
I assive Voice with the signification of the Active. But 



02 



DEPONENT VEEBS. 



2. The Future passive participle generally has the passive si-niifion 
PCS""'''' '"'^"''^^ ^"*^'^"' /->/«.c/.MobecXrte°afS: 

form is gJL%" usef""" °' *'^ ^^"^^^ ''^"^ ^^ --' «« *^« ^<^^^^ 

SYNOPSIS OF OOI^JUGATIOK 

FIRST COXJUGATION. 

222. Ilortor, I exhort. 

I. Principal Paets. 
hortor, hoitaii, hortatus sum. 

II. Moods and Tenses. 



INDICATIVE. 

Pres. hortor ' 
/m/>. hortabar 

Fut. hortabor 

Per/, hortatus sura 
Plup. hortatus cram 
P. P. hortatus ero 



I SUBJUNCTIVE. 

I horter 
hortaror 



hortatus sun 
hortatusessem 



IMPEK. I INFINITIVE. 

hortarS hortaii 



hortator 



hortaturus esse 
hortatus es66 



PARTICIPUt 

hortans.- 

j hortaturus. 
I hortandus. 
hortatus. 



Pres. vc'^reor 
Imp. verebar 

Put. verebor 

Per/, veritus siim 
Plup. veritus eram 
P. P. veritus ero 



Gerund, hortandl, d5, etc. Supine, hortatum, Q. 

SECOND COXJUGATION. 

223. Vereor, I fear. 

I. Principal Paets. 
vereor, vereri, veritus sum. 

II. Moods and Tenses. 



vereSr 
vererer 



vorttus Sim 
veritus essem 



vfirgrS 



vSretor 



vSr 



I'eri 



vCrituriis ess6 
v6ritus esse 



vSrena. 

( vSriturug. 
( v6rendus. 
vfirltiis. 



Gerund, TgrendT, do. Supine, verTtum, Q. 






loJ-W'TZ^'l '"""''*"' rejrularly through the persons and nu'^;^;;:^;;:^^ 
hortarls, hortatUr, horiamUr, horiamlni, hortantUr' ' ' 

All the forms in this synopsis h.ave tl,e active meaning, / exhort I was exhort 
.... etc., except the Part, in .us, which has the passive f.fr'ce, a.ontto ZZT'Z' 

7'2Z ""'TI' ' '■"'" ^'''''''''" '"'■"'' ^^'' ^''"'- ^••^"""^ J>o '^sed In intransitive Dep' 
> erbs,oscept in an impersonal sense. See 301, 2 and 8. 



iJ » 



SYNOPSIS OP CONJUGATION. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 

224. Sequor, I follow. 

I. Pkincipal Parts. 

sequor, sequi, secutus sum. 

II. jVIoods and Tenses. 



98 



INFIMTIVK. 

sfiqui 

sficuturus essfi 
sScutus essS 



INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. IMPEK. 

Pres. sequor sequar sgqu5i6 

im]p. sequC'bar sequurer 

Perf. secutus sum secutus sim 
PLup. secutus eram sOeutus cssem 
F. P. secutus eio 

Gerund, scqucudl, do, etc. Supine, s6cutum, Q 

225. Patior, / suffer, 

I. Peincipal Parts. 

patior, pati, passus sum. 

II. Moods and Tenses. 

pati 



PARTICIPLE. 

sfequeus. 

j sficuturus. 
(s6(iuondu3. 
secutus. 



Pres. 
Imp. 

Put. 

Perf. 
Plan. 
P.P. 



patior 
patiebar 

patiar 



piitiar 
paterei 



pat6i6 
patitor 



passurus ess6 
passus ess6 



Pres. 

Imp. 

Put. 

Perf. 

Plup. 

P.P. 



passus sum passus sim 
passus eram passus essem 
passus ero 

Qerund, patiendi, do, etc. Supine, passum, Q. 
FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

226. Blanclior, I flatter. 

I. Peincipal Parts. 

blanclior, blandhi, blanditus sum. 

II. Moods and Tenses. 



patiens. 

(passfirufl. 
( piitiendus. 
passus. 



blandior j blanoi.lr 
blandiC'bar | blaudirer 
blaudiar 



blanditus sim 

blanditus es- 
eem 



blanditus 

sum 
blanditus 

enlm 
blanditus 

dro 

Gerund, blaudiendi, dg, etc. Supine, blandltum, Q 



blandlifi 

blandl- 
tor 



blandiri 



blandlturus es- 
bLanditus css6 



blandiens. 

( blandlturus 
{ blandiendiia 
blanditus. 



94 



PEEIPIIEASTIC CONJUGATION. 




1 " "f!) 



PEPJPIIRASTIO CONJUGATION. 

227. The Latin has also two Periphrastic coniuo-ation<? 
formed respectively from the two re-Har futuro limt h ' 
com^...d with the various tenses ofthe'auS/rr^'^^ 

rTbout"to lov^ "* '"'r '^''^" ^^' «^^^^ = «mai^:r;;m: 

229 Tf. tin ' r^'"^''''^^ ^^^' I ^'n about to advise.' 

con^^;.S;^rfJJ^^^^^ 

p. esses necessity or duty : amandussum, I must beTo'ved: 

I. Active Pekipiieastic Conjugation. 

230. Amatarus sum, I am about to love. 



INDICATIVE. 

amfiturus sum ' 
aiiiatfirus finun 
amatui'us oro, 
Sinatilius fui 
Hmatuius fu6r;tm 



Pres, 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Plup. 

Fut. Per/, jiniatuius fu6r6 " 



SUDJUNCTIVB. 

{imaturus Sim 
aiuaturus ess6m 

amntiirus fugnra 
aiuaturus fuissem 



INFINITIVE. 

amaturus css6. 
amaturiis fuissS. 



II. Passive Peripheastic Conjugation. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Plup. 



231. Amandus sura, I must he loved.' 

amandus ess8. 



amandus sum 
amandus grSra 
amandus ero 
amandus lui 
amandus fu6rum 



amandus eim 
amandus essgm 



amandus fuissS. 



amandus fuCrim 

A';// P.../ 7"— "r;.""'t*'" amandus l'uiss6m 

.i'<«. y c?/. amandus Iu6r0 | 

inciu^^fi ^rsj^s^rSii;^^''^^^ ^^"^« «^ ^^- *-™. 

loving; amatura, est, he is about to Iovp ^ il T^ 'T/ f"'''''' '< ^'^ '« 
««*anrf«s esA he is to be loved or mn^f ll7"^ f 'n' ''" ^'^^ ^'^^'" '«^'«J; 
with «^^,« i« equivalent to IhePerindJ.r- ?"' "' *'^? ^^'''^^- P^''^' 

gen^u, ,imi^^^K:!;;s^j^ss::^,^ ^^'- ^-^^"-^^ ^^ 

transftfvr JtfaSth^ler^rS^^^ \' '^^"^^ ^^^ ^'*- 

except in au impersonal sen^o' See 3052 "" *'""'''''' "^^"^^ ""'^'' 

bora «,,i„,„„,, ,u,n, e., e,t. Tho x at. Perf. is exceedingly rare 
» Or, I deserve (ought) ^o Je loved. ^ 



" 



PECULIARITIES IN CONJUGATION. 



95 






CONTEACTIOra AND PECULIAEITIES IN CONJUGATION, 
234. Perfects in avl, Svi, Ivl, and the tenses derived 

ra."::!:: ~r:::i;2^^^^^^^ — ■■ «'"'-- (-«- 

(neefj^rt™,'"""'" ' ' ""^ <'° *'-"' '""'■'« <"-">, ««<<; ».».«„, 
a.*",'""""'' '' ■"*'■'" '""'""">■ ""•'**■•• ""«*« (""^""^n.), 

rcrl. 1 1,(1. Act., is common in the lustoiiuns. 

Tbc form In ,,, ,,„,, „„, d„p ,, j„ p„,^^ j,,,^, __^^^^^ 

1. I^ice, duce, mdfuce occur in poetry. 

2. Compounds follow the simple verbs exc-it thn«„ .f ^ • v • 
change a into i: con/ic^e. ^^ "'"^ of facto which 

the ^,?^P ""i> "' '"^, ""'^ ^'' '"^"^ "^"^ '""^^ ""''^^ ^ *e endings of 
the Put. Pass. Part, and of the Gerund of Conj. III. and IV • dlcuLZ 
fromdico, to say; j,,tiundus, from potior, to obtain. " 

^ 239 Ancient and Rare FonMs.-Various other forms belon<^in- 
in the mam to the earlier Latin, occur in the poets, even of Le « 
penod, and oecasionally also in prose, to impart to 'the style an ai Jl 
tiquity or solemnity. Thus forms in 

Imp.'of";1r '" "° '""■ '"'• °"'°''^' '^- ^ '*» "•' -■*»•■ See 
2. iSo, ihor, for /a/ra, iar, in the Fiif nf Pnn; tv -i i> 

cpperlbor for o;,;,W. See Fut. of Ilof '^ '^^ = ""'^^^ '°^ ''''''"' ' 
-6 tm tor a,« or em, in the Pres. Subj. : edim, edis, etc., for edam as etc • 



96 



TEEBS. 



f ' ' iT ^'''■^"'"-'' ' '"^'^ ^^^ Occident ; taxis for tetiaerii 
"^Jf ": '.l'"'- ' "" '^"'^ ^''P- = "-'''^-''O' -'-^i^raniao for «,«.^„.; 
.id^. "" '" ' '" "" '''''' ^''''' ^"^fi"- «'««^^''^'- for amar*-; .,W.;w for 



?^^^ FORMATION OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE VERB. 

para^dt?ms^?/''''-ri PARTs.-From an inspection of the 
in^r- conjugations with the fbllowing end- 



o. 



are, 



II. 



III.- 



IV. 



1. In a few verbs: 
eo, ere, 

2. /« most verbs : 
. eo, ere, 

1. In consonant sterns : 
o» ei-e, 

2. /tt vowel utems : 
O) ere, 

io, Ire, 



fivi, 



evi. 



Hi, 



SI. 



ivi. 



Examples. 



II. 

III. 
IV. 



11- 



Amo, 

Deleo, 
Moneo, 

Carpo, 
Acuo, 

Audio, 



anifiro, 
dclere, 
monei-e, 

carpSre, 
acufiro, 

audire, 



amavi, 
delGvi, 
monui, 

carpsi, 
acui, 

audivi, 



utum. 
etum. 
itum. 

turn. 

turn. 
It urn. 



amatuni, to love. 
deletuin, io destroy. 
moiutum, to advise. 
carptum, to pluck. 
acutum, to sharpen. 
auditum, to hear. 









FORMATION OF TAIITS. 



•7 



1. The Present System, with the Present Inf5nitivfl 
as Its basis, comprises Annniiive 

Passh-e^^'' ^'''"'^' ^'"^''•^''^^ "'^^ ^''^'''' ^'^<iicaUve-ActWe and 

2. The Present and Imperfect Suhjimctive- Active and Passive 

3. 1 he Imperative-Active and Passive. '^®- 

4. Ihe Pme?tJ InJiniliM- Active and Passive. 

6.* The Geruml """^ ^''^"'■' ^"*'''' ■^"'•'^'^^?^- 

These parts are all formed from the Present Stem 
found m the Present Infinitive of the several lor^nUtlZ' 
by dropping the endings-«r., ere, ^ere. Ire of the Active 
or-a.,, eri, ^, iri, of the Passive :' amare, pre enf s em* 
AM ; monere, mon ; regtre, reg ; auiXlre, audI ' 

II. The Perfect System, with the Perfect Indicative 
Active as its basis, comprises in the Active voice ^""^'^^^"^^ 

\' '^^^ ^^'^J"^' P^^Pe^fect, and Future Perfect Indicathc 

2. The Perfect and Pluperfect Suhjunctive. ^'^^^'«^^^^- 

3. I^he Perfect Infinitive. 

, Those parts are all formed from the Perfect Stem fnnn^ 
in the Perfect Indicative Active by droS/?;;^^"- 
perfect stem AMAv; mom«, monu. ^^ ' ' 

comprise?' ^''^'''^ ^^''^''^ ^^^^ '^' S"P^»^ ^« its basis, 

AMAT ; motlltum, MONIT. ou^^iuc siym, 

242. Verb SrEM.-The true basis of all verbal inflec- 
tions IS the Verb Stem; but this is generally identical 
with the Present Stem. Accordingly in nearly all verba 
the Present Stem is also the Verb Stem. Thus am, the 
rresent Stem of amo, is also its Verb Stem. 

not. ]lV':i7Z^''l''rTi «^?- J^- assumed one or ™ore letters 
. _---"•- -n .no , e.b ^icm. Thus in J undo, vinco, the Verb Stems are 

i. We add the following table of verbal inflections. 



II 



08 



VERBS. 




Am 

nioti 

aud 

2m 
nioti 
r6g 
uud 

2m 

mon 

aud 



■6 

-e8, 

-0 

•abnm, 
-obum, 
-ebSin, 
-iebain, 

-ab8, 

-ebo, 
-am, 
-iaiu. 



2m -gra, 

mon -earn, 

r6g -am, 

aud -iain. 



am -arfim, 

mon -erem, 

r^g -Si 6m, 

aud -ir6m, 



PRESENT SYST 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mood 

Present. 
•2t ; -am tig, 

-t't ; -eniu3, 

-ft ; -imfis, 

•ft ; -Inms, 

Imperfect. 
-jlbat ; -abamfig, 
-Gbat; -C'baiiiiis, 

-pbat ; -C'biTnius, 

-iubat ; -iObamus, 

Future, 
-abi t ; -abimug, 

-Gbit ; -t'bimu3, 

•^t ; -emfis, 

-i^t ; -iemus. 

Subjunctive. 

Present. 



TABLE OP 
EM. 



■as, 

-Gs, 

-rs, 

-is. 



•abas, 

-Gbag, 
-Gbas, 
-iObas, 

-abi8, 
-Gbis, 
-Ss, 
-it's. 



-atis, 

•Gtis, 

-itis, 

-itls, 

-abatia, 
-Gbat 18, 
-Gbfitis, 
-iebatls, 

-abitia, 
■Gbitis, 
■Gtis, 

■ietis. 



•58, 

-eas, 

-as, 

-ias. 



-ares, 
-Grea, 
•eres, 
-ires. 



Present. 



-St ; -Gmiig, 

-eat; -eriinug, 

■•it ; -amus, 

-lat ; -iamus. 

Imperfect. 

-arfit ; -arGraiis, 

-GrSt ; -GrGmus, 

-erSt ; -erGraus, 

-irSt ; -iremus. 

Imperative. 



-etig, 
-catis, 
-atis, 
-iatis, 

-arGtrs, 
-erGtig, 
-erGtia, 
-iretis, 



Future. 



SINO. 

2m -a. 



mon 

r«g 

aud 



-5, 
-6, 



PLUR. 

-fits ; 
-Gt6; 
•itS; 
-itg; 



Pres. Infij^itive. 

am -arg ; 

mon -erg ; 

T&g -«r6 ; 

aud -irg ; 



SINGULAR. 

-ato, -at(1 ; 

-«ito, -eto ; 
-ito, -it(> ; 
-ito, -ito ; 

Participle. 

-ans; 
-ens; 
-ens; 
-iens ; 



PLURAL. 

-atotg, 

-gtote, 
-itote, 
-itote. 



•ant. 
-ent. 
-unt. 
•iuut. 

-abant. 
-Gbat it. 
-Ol/atit. 
-iGbaut. 

-abnnt. 
-Gbunt. 
-ent, 
-ieut. 



-ent. 
■eant, 
-ant, 
-iant. 

-Sreiit. 
-erout. 
-^rent. 
-irent. 



-an to. 
-entd. 
-unto, 
-iunto. 



Gerund. 



-andi. 
-endl. 
-endl. 

-lend!. 






Verbs in io of Conj. III. have certain endings of Conj. IV. .See 213 



OF 



VE 



lim 

in on 

rvg 

aud 

8m 
mou 
rgg 
aud 



VERBS. 

KBAL INFLECTIONS. 
PRESENT SYST 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mood 

Present. 



09 



EM. 



-eor, 

-or, 

-ior, 



-Giis or Crd, 
-I'l'is or t^rg, 
■iris or ird, 



•fiWr ; 
■etur; 
■iiwr ; 
■itiir ; 



iMPEnFECT. 



-eniur, 
•iiiiiir, 
-iiuur, 



itbJr, -lobans oriebard, -iebntfir; .icbim^, 



&m 

tnCm 

reg 

aud 



-abor, 
'C'bor, 
-ar, 
•iar, 



■ftb^rTs or ab^rS 
-ubilris or eberu,' 
-eris or ere, 
-iC'ris or ierd, 



Future. 
■ai)rtur; -abimiir, 
-ebitur; -oblinur, 
"f tur ; -emur, 
-iGtiir ; -iOiuur, 



Um 6r, 
»iou .ear, 
r6g -iXr, 
aud -iar, 



-eri's or erg, 
■eilrls or efire, 
-arls or are, 
-iarls or iare, 



Subjunctive. 

Pkesent. 



-flminl, 
-emlnl, 
•Iminl, 
-imini, 

-fibamini, 
-ebarulul, 
•^bamlnl, 
•iebaniiui, 

-abtminl, 
-ebimlui, 
•Cmiui, 
-iemlui, 



-anttir. 
-entur. 
-untur. 
■iuntiir. 

-abantur. 
-C'bantfir. 
■ebantur, 
■iebantiir. 

•abuntflr. 
-Cbuiitur, 
-entiir. 
-ieutur. 



3m -arer, -argrig or Srgrg, 

mon -erSr, -ereris or Crere, 

fgg -6r6r, -eroris or erere, 

aud -ugr, -irGris or irere, 



-gtiir ; 
-eatiir ; 
-atur ; 
-iatur ; 

Imperfect. 
-aretur ; 
■eretOr ; 
•eretur; 
-irotur ; 



-emur, 
•eamiir, 
-aniur, 
-iumur. 



-aremflr, 
■ereiDur, 
-fireniur, 
-iremiir, 



Im 



-6mini, 
-eamini, 
-aminJ, 
■iamlul, 

•arGmini, 
■Cremtnl, 
-firctniiii, 
-iromlui, 



-entur. 
-eantiir. 
-antur. 
-iauttir. 

-arentur. 
-ereiitiir. 
•drentiir. 
-irentiir. 



Present. 



PER ATI VE 



SING. 

Sm -arS, 
mon -erg, 
rSg -gr6, 
aud -irg. 



P--UR. 

-amml ; 
-emini ; 
-iminl ; 
-iminI ; 



Future. 



Pees. IjirriNiTivE. 



SINGULAR, 
-ator, -ator ; 
-Gtor, -Gtor ; 
-itor, -rtor ; 
■itor, -itor ; 



PLURAL. 

-antor. 

— - -en tor. 

■ -untor. 

■ -iuntor. 



am 
mon 
rgg 
aud 



-firl; 
-6ri; 
-i; 



FuT. Participle. 



-Mi 



-and us. 
•endus. 
-endiis. 
-iendiis. 



II 



100 



VERBS. 



^n\[ 



jtmav 
inuuu 
rex 
aucliv 

iiiunu 

rex 

audiv 

Hm&v 
moau 
rex 
audiv 



{imflv 
monu 
rex 
audiv 

fimav 
monu 
rex 
audiv 



TABLE OF 
PERFECT SYSTEM. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mood. 
Perfect. 



Smav 
monu 
rex 
audiv 



Subjunctive. 

Perfect. 

PtrPERFECT. 

-issem, -isses, -iasgt; . .issCmQs, ^issCtfe, -ksent. 
Infinitive Perfect. 



Supine System. 
Infinitive Put. p^rj. Put. 

amat 

monit 

rect '^^^ essd. .jiriis, 

audit 



Supine, 
-iim, -Q. 



•I, 


-istI, 


•It; -Imus, 
Pluperfect. 


-istlfl, 


-Crunt, -Sre. 


Srim, 


•ffrSs, 


■Srilt ; -dramus, 
Future Perfect. 


■Gratis, 


•Srant. 


gr«, 


-Cris, 


-«5rit; -erimua, 


■Sritis, 


-Sriot. 1 



V£IIBS. 



101 



VERBAL INFLECTIONS. 

SUPINE SYSTEM. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mood. 



iim.lt -iig I 

niuait -lis 

rcct -u8 

audit -ua 



siSm, 



timilt -us 

monit -fla 

rect -63 ^'"3™. 

audit -iia 



amat -fla 
monit -us ^ V 
rcct -ua *-''"> 
audit -fia 



jtmat -tia 
monlt -fla 
rect -Qs ^'™) 
audit -ua 



Pkrfkct. 
^3» est; Biimua, 

Pluperfect. 

«ras, drat; gramua, 

FcTURE Perfect. 

^"s, grit; grrmds, 

Subjunctive. 

Perfect. 

sis, sit; elmQs, 

Plpperfect. 



estjs, sunt. 



grat&, grant. 



dritis, A'jnt. 



sitra, Binl 



Smat -fis 
inonit -iia 



esaS. 



Smat -tig 

TlOlUt -lis 

rcct -Gs 
audit -iia 

Infinitive Fpt. 

Smat 

monit 

rect •'itti Irl. 

audit 



Infinitite Perfect. 



Part. Terp. 
-fis. 





; ^^ 



H 

i 



102 



COMPAEATIVE VIEW OP CONJUGATIONS. 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 

^ifT.^f ^' ^^'', ^T *^°"J"S^^'««^' it ^i" te seen fro.ii this table, 
and in the endings of the Premit System. 

244. But by a close analysis it will be found 
and^hat'tlT'' t^^^^e differences in a great measure disappear, 
and that the four conjugations become only varieties of one gen- 
eral system of conjugation. ^ 

of?ndiagf '' '"^ *^'' various stems with one general system 

245. According to this analysis 
letter's -^^^ '^'°'' '"^ "'' four conjugations end in the following 

'■ "• ni. IV. 

*' e> consonant or u,' i. 

2. The general endings are 

1) For Frincipal Farts : 

o^ 77T ^ , „ ^''®' «i (i)' ^i. turn, 

.nn-^^ 5''' ^/^^^^«^^-«*-~the endings given above for the third 
conjugation, but in the Future, lo and Ur are regular endings as 
^eh as a^ and ar, and in the Infinitive Passive, eri as well at i. 

6 Ihe manner in which these endings unite with the differ- 
ent stems may be seen in the foUowing 

COMPARATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS. 



PEINCIPAL PARTS. 



II. 

in. 

IV 



f Ama-0 
\ Amo,* 

( Mone-o 
{ Moneo, 

( Reg-o 
i Rego, 
j Audi-o 
\ Audio, 



ama-ere 
amare, 

mone-^re 
monere, 

reg-Sre 
rcgore, 

audi-Sre 
audire. 



ama-vi 
amavi, 

( mone-vi 
■i mon-vi 
{ moiiui, 

reff-si 
rexi, 

audi-vi 
audivi, 



mna-tum 
amatum. 

mone-tum * 
mon-tiim 
monitum. * 

reg-tum 
rectum. 

audl-tum 
auditum. 



' Rarely o, 

' By contraction : ama-o = omo. 

* Like deleo, delire, delevi, deletum. 

* For changes see 247. 1. 



See 240. II. 






COMPARATIVE VIEW OP CONJITGATIONS. 



103 



noNs. 

is table, 
al Parts 



^appear, 
ine gen- 

nion of 
system 



lowing 



> third 
ngs as 
as i. 
differ- 



I: 



H 



ama-o^ 
amo 

ama-is 
amua 

ama-it 
amat 

ama-Xmus 
amfimua 

ama-Uis 
amutia 

ama-imt 
amaut. 



ama-ebam 
amabam. 



ama-ebo 
amabo. 



ama-am 
amem." 



ama-erem 
amarem 



ama-e 
ama 

ama-)te 
ainate. 



PEESENT SYSTEM.— Active Voice.' 

Indicative. 



Present. 



II. 



mone-o 
moneo 

mone-is 
mones 

mone-it 
monet 

mone-lmus 
mouemu3 

mone-itis 
monetia 

mone-unt 
monent. 



III. 

reg-o 
rego 

reg-is 
regis 

reg-it 
regit 

reg-lmus 
reglmus 
reg-ltis 
regitia 

reg-unt 
regunt. 



IlIPEIlFECT. 



mone'Sbam 
raonGbam. 



reg-ebam 
regGbam. 



Future. 



mone-ebo 
monebo. 



reg-am 
regain. 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 



mone-am 
moneara. 



reg-am 
regam. 



Imperfect. 



mone-^rem 
monerem. 



reg-^rem 
regerem. 



Impeeative. 

Present. 



mone-e 
mone 

mo^ie-tte 
monote. 



17. 

audi-o 
audio 

audi-is 
audls 

audi-it 
audit 

audi-tmus 
audimus 

audi-itis 
auditia 

audi-unt 
audiunt. 



aiidi-ebam 
audiebam. 



audi-am 
audiaiu. 



audi-am 
audiam. 



audi-erem 
audirem. 



reg-e 
rege 


audi-e 
audi 


reg-tte 
reglte. 


audi-lte 
audite. 



The Passive lias tlio same chan-os as the Active: ama-or = amor • ama M. 
A changed to e, so throughout; ama-aa = ames, etc. 



I 



104 

2S. 

8S. 
2 P. 
SP. 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS. 



j ama-tto 
{ amato 

( ama-ito 
\ amato 

j ama-Kote 
( amatote 

j ama-nnto 
I amanto. 



FcTTUnE. 



mo7ie-ito 
inonoto 

mone-lto 
moneto 

mone-ltote 
mouetote 

monc-unto 
monento. 



reg-ito 
regito 
reg-ito 
regito 

reg-\tote 
regitote 

rcg-unto 
logunto. 

Infinitive. 



ama-ere 
amare. 



ama-e7is 
amaus. 



ama-endi 
amaadi. 



Present. 



mone-ere 
moiieie. 



reg-Sre 
regere. 



Present PAETicirLE. 



atdi-Xto 
audi to 
audi-ito 
audito 

audi-ltvtc 
auditote 

midi-unto 
audiunto. 



(audi-h'e 
audire. 



mone-etis 
monens. 



' reg-ens 
I regens. 



Gerund. 



mone-cndi 
mouendi. 



reg-cndi 
regendi. 



audi-cns 
audicns. 



uudi-nndi 
audiendi. 



FORMATION OF PRINCIPAL PARTS. 

verkil inflm.ti„„r rn '\ "^ ™'^y ""'0 t'l"^ bas 8 of all 
Ibic We nS ' ■"'"""" "^ '^^ ^"''J^^' i^ demr. 

I' Regular Formations. 

II. Irregular Formations. 

I. Regular Formations. 

247. The Principal Parts of verbs in iha f/^i,. «« • 
t.ons are formed witli the following e„d"4s:.°" """•'"Sa- 



!• o, are, 

j 1 . /-ri a /ew verbs : 
II j eo, ere, 

j 2. //i 7M05^ verbs : 
I eo, ere, 

1. In comonant stems . 

III. \ ^' ^'^'e. 

2. In, votvel stems : 



IV. 



io. 



ere, 
ire. 



uvi, 
evi, 
ui, 

si, 

Ivi, 



atum. 
ctum. 
itum. 
turn. 

tura. 

Itiim, 



' For e-xumplcs, sea 240, 



If'^f 



POKMATIOX OF riJINCIPAL TAKTS. 



105 



•Xio 
to 

-ito 
to 

■itotc 
ote 

unto 
mtu. 



re 



Its 

13. 



ndi 
di. 



t'ms has 
lis of all 
is desir- 



Dnjuga- 



1. The ExDiNGs ui and Uum are only shortened forms of evi and Hum : 
thus the full forms iu moneo would be, rnofievi, momtum ; by dropping e, we 
have momi, montum ; but to facilitate pronunciation, the consonant v after 
n is changed into its corresponding vowel v, ; monui (for monvi), and the 
two successive consonants in mo7Uum are separated by a short i: monitum 
(for montum). 

2. Analysis op Endings.— If we analyze the endings of the Perfect, we 
shall find that the final i is the ending of the first person, the preceding w'the 
tense-sign of the Perfect, and the preceding vowel the characteristic of the 
conjugation. In the ending si, s is the tense-sign, while in the ending i the 
tense-sign is wanting. 

3. The Supine Ending is properly turn (245. 2), as the preceding vowel^ 
a, S, and i, are the characteristics of the conjugation, and i in Conj.III.is the 
connecting vowel. Practically, however, it is more convenient and simple to 
treat these vowels as a part of the endings. 

EuphoniG Changes in the Regular Formation. 

m ^f^ Before si and turn in the Principal Parts of the 
ibird Conjugation, certain euphonic changes take place. 

I. Before si of the Perfect. 

1. A k-sound (c, g, gu) or h > generally " unites with the s and forms 
a:" duco, duxi (ducsi); rec/o, rexi (regsi); coguo, coxi (coqusi); trtiho, 
traxi (trahsi). 

2. A ^sound {d, t) is generally dropped : * clando, clausi (claudsi) ; 
mitto, mlsi (mittsi). 

3. B is changed to p : scrlbo, scripsi (scribsi). 

4. M is sometimes assimilated and sometimes strengthened with p ; 
premo, pressi (premsi) ; siimo, sumpsi (sumsi). 

6. R is sometimes assimilated : gero, gcssi (gersi). 

II. Before turn of the Supine. 

1. A k-sound (c, </, gu) or h* becomes c: rego, rectum (regtum); 
coquo^ coctum (coqutum) ; trdho, tractum (trahtum). 

2. B becomes /), as in the perfect : scribo, scriptum (scribtum). 

3. M is strengthened with p : • sumo, suniptum (sumtum). 

4. N is often dropped : viJico, victum (vinctum). See 242. 253. 2. 

5. R sometimes becomes s : gero, gestttm (gertum). 

• Sometimes also gu or -b: e^tstinguo, exMnxi; five, vixi. 

» But is sometimes dropped : mergo, mersi (for mergsi, menri): parco, pa>:ii. 
» Fluo, fluxi, and etmo, striixi, form their perfects in xi as if from a stem in a 
tt'-sound. 

• Somfitlmps assimilated : cedo, crust (cedsi). 

• Sometimes also gu or v : eoestinguo, eorstinctum ; viro, rictum. But V is often 
clinnjred into its corresponding vowel u; nolvo, solutum (solvtum), #" 

• But drojipcd in rumpo, ruptum (rumptum). 




! • 



\f 



i06 FORMATlOxV OF PKINCIPAL PAKTS. 

II. Ibeegular Formations. 

I. Present Indicative. 
249. A fo\v verbs of f I»o Tin'i-.i n 
Present Indicative in io ior iTke vLf ""Tl'^T ^^''"^ ^^^ 
jtigation. TJiese are ' ' ^""'^^ ^^ ^^^ * ^^I'tli Con- 

1. The following with their compounds • 

to .clK ; ,a/,i„, to ta „i,,, ' ''"""■ '° '"" i ?«•"•". '0 "lake , ri^,„, 
2. The compouuJa of tho obsolete ?&,•», to entice ,„,,„^.,- , , , 

.uffer.- ° ''°'°"'-"" ^"^'^ ^'•*'. '<> eo^ »«-. to die, ,«,v, ,„ 

II. Present Injinitwe. 

steafoLf."' *'■'- '" 8'™' « "■'■«g»k'' in having arc, in- 

-TiX Perfect Indicatwc Active. 



Suno, 
Aiigeo, 
Peto, 
Viacio, 



sonure, 
augere, 
petere, 
vincire, 



sonui(2d), tosoxmd. 

auxi {augu.^ sd), to increase. 
Petivi (4th), ;^ ,,,^, 

1 Ex,, .. ' "^'^'^^K^'^'^w, 3d), ?o Ji«(?. 

conJugatiorfrnru7^;^;;V;;';;/;^^^^^^^ a^orb o*f the first 

of the second, forms its pe,. ect in l^r/ ''^*:,^":''°->^ «f ">« second ; aygeo, 
FUo, of the third, follows the anl'i nf H ^'r'^ f' *"' ''''^''^^' '' ^'^« "'•'^-'l 
the analogy of tLe third s; ,5,:'"" ''''''') ^'^ ---. of the fourth 
conjugation and partly of ano^"^ ZT^' " ''''''' "° ^'^''y ^' «» 
conjugation to which the infiSe 'bdlnlr^^ "" ''""""^' '^''^"^^ ^^^ ^^° 

«--:" W;:ZL':S:- rt:^^^^-^^- ^"- the analogy of the 

a«4^5: '^r L^!^^ ' ^"- t'^^ -^'^^^ 0^ the Tn.. : a.,eo. a.,.. 



J^or lists, aee under Classification of \rerbs, 261. 8<,q. 



IRBEGULAR FOEMATIONS. J 07 

4. In the Third, a few follow the analogy of the First, Second, or Fourth • 
»terno, sterner., straHU), to «irew ; /re>uo,/r.n^,,,frJui W, to rl S' 
2)elere, petioi (4), to seek. ^^' *= ' ^^^'^' 

^ 5. In the FouuTu, a few follow the analogy of the Secoxd or Third- 
.,.m.. aperu.,aperui (.). to open ; vincio, Hn^-e, vin.l (.;, to bind. 

itw \ub8 in each coujuoutiou Ibnn the Perlect in i hnt 
lengthen the stem-vowel ; *' ^^^ 



Juvo, 
Video, 
Edo, 
Vfiiiio, 



jiivare, 
videre, 
edure, 
venire. 



vidi, 

edi, 

vC'ui, 



to assist, 
to see. 
to eat. 
to come. 



1 ir„ r% ' -viii, ^y come. 

'"T.7'i;":"f V'^ break ; ,,,„», .ui (,i„oi), .„":„<,„„: 'te^tl.- 

«f .1 1?- rl ^"^S"l»"'y-—-'?«?":/*cff</(«(._A few verbs 

fe h. f "hnl f'7" r' ■'""' '?'"^ ™"J'>Satio.« fonn tl>o Pur! 
icct m 1, but reduphcate the stem : 

po, dure, didi, to qke 

Mordeo, mordc-re, mu,„'ordi, to liu. 



CuiTO, 



currere, 



cucurri. 



to run. 



1. Ihe Reduplication consists of the initial consonant (or consonants') 
lug ^onol, If that vowel is ., ^, o, or n, otherwise with .; see examples above. 
.. JiUoTlL ^"^^-^^^-^^^^ ^'—-1 - often changed : ca^'ceculi (for 
tn it V ^KTr^'T^'i' sometimes dropped, because it docs not belong 
to beat ' " '^'^^ "'"''^' ^" *'^ ^'•^^'^'^^^ ^"'^^^^ ^«^«"? 

4 Reduplication with .S> or ^^.-In verbs beginning with .p or st 
the reduplication retains both consonants, but the stem drops the .: Lndeo 
sm^onJ^ (for .pospondi), to promise ; Uo, steU (for stestij, L stand ^ ' 

5 In Compounds the reduplication is generally dropped, but it is rctain- 

demand; and sometimes m tlie compounds of c«;to to run ; re-Jndwre. 
spondii^veAni, dropped), to answer; circum.do,clr.um.mi (redup. rct'ain- 
ed) ; circum-sto, urcum-mi, to encircle. The compounds of do which are 

VuaT'^r?^f''Z '^'°^° ' °^ ^^"^ reduplication into.- ad-do, ad- 
dhli i^lor ad-dedi), to add. 

-TK Supine. 
255. Tlie Snpino presents two principal Trrognlaritics. 
^,/5^^> ^i^^st IrregTiiarity.— TTom^^ic^i r(/?cr ?/ic ^«a/o.^ 
i^y 0/ other conjugations.— A few verbs in each conjugation 



108 



FOIIMATION OF PRINCIPAL PAllTS. 



foi-ni tlie Sup 



ling 



a7ic 



one or moro 



>i-m tlie Supine accorui.,. 
ol the otJier conjugations : 

m5o, :S^^ n^' ^^f"-W, tosonna. 

-^. s^^ S iS3' fn^ 

*e6'«i (2d), sec(um (;Jd), to cut «o"«i«^/^i (-'dj, to tamo ; seco, secure, 

turn (4th), to desire. ^^^' ^" ' ^"■^'^' '''^''''' '"P'^^'h <="Pl- 

i. In the FouuTiT, a few follow the analocv of tho T.,„>n. .- • 
veni, vcntum, to come. ""aiogy ol the Iuikd : Tienio, venire, 

feentio, sentJre, sensi, seiisuni /! • 

(248 I.): claudo clausi, clausum (248. I. 2); mergo, mersi, mersum o^h 

tion^oT^tiJp.XT' "«^°^''''ove described for tho forma. 

FOKHATIOX OF THE TERFECT AND SUPINE. 
I. Perfect. 

1. REGULAR rERFECT. 



Cojcj. X 



Conj. II. 
evi. 
ui. 



Conj. III. 

si. 
I. 



CODJ. IV. 



inalogv of 
<-'oiij:n. 



2. IRREGULAR PERFECT. 

Mrst Irregularity. 



analogy of 
Conj. in. 



analogy of 



Conj. I., II . or IV. I Conj. 11.%, Ill 



analogy of 



' For lists, see under ClasdfiwUon of Verbs, 261, sqq. 



ConJ. I. 
etoni-vowcl 
leiigtheuod. 



PERFECT AND SUPINE. 

Second Irrcfjularity. 



109 



<^"""J- II- Conj. III. 

Stem-vowel stom-vowel 

lengthened. lengthoned (and 

ottou changed j. 

lliird Irregularity, 

teduplicatiou. | rodupHeation. | reduplieation. 

II. Supine. 

1. REGULAR SUPINE. 



ConJ. IV. 

stem-vowel 
lengthened. 



atum. 



analogy of 
Conj. II. or III. 



etum. 
itum. 



tiun. 



2. IRREGULAR SUPINE. 

First Irregularity. 

analogy of I analogy of 
Conj. III. I Conj. II. or IV. 

Second Irregularity. 
sum. I sum. 



I 



itum. 



analogy of 
Conj. III. 



sum. 



PEIXCIPAL PARTS l^ COMPOUND VERBS. 

2.59. I Compouna verbs generally form their principal 
parts like simple verbs : ^xx puntipai 

Monco, monere, monui, momtum, to advise 

Ad-moneo, admonere, admonui, admonitu'm, L Sr^'^. 

r.\J.^' "• .I*"*''''"'!''',""^" ^^ ^^^"^s with dissyllabic su- 
ci^^pTi-ir: ^ '"^' '^'' stem-vowel in forming the prin- 

the "^in^rh: ^"'''"' '^ '^' '''''^'^''"^ ^'''' * f'^ ^ 'f 

1) The Perfect and Supine generally resume the e : 

Ssgo s;«s„. s, SeL. ;:- 

2) l.ut sometimes only the Supine resumes the e • 

nSeo. sso, Si,, 'ZZ,, Z^L 

2. IVJien the Present of the compound has i for a of 
the simple verh : *y'^ «-iy 

1) The Perfect generally resumes the vowel of the 

sometimes a: 



simp] 



Capio, 



Ac 



CipiO, 



6 



capere, 
accipero, 



cepi, 
accepi, 



f 

captura, 

acceptuuj, 



to take, 
to accept. 



110 



n''W\ 



CLASSIFICATION OP VKltUS. 



*!! 



^ ! 



If 






takei ^"* sometimes the Perfect retains i and the Supine 

CLASSIFICATION OF VEKIJS 

According to the Peifect-I^ormatioti.' 

FIRST COXJUGATIOxV. 

Class I. Regular Foemation. 

261. Principal Parts in ; o, are, avi, atum. 



Amo, 

Curo, 

Dono, 

Iliibito, 

Honoro, 

Libero, 

Noraino, 

Pugno, 

Spero, 

Voco, 



jiniarc, 

curare, 

donarc, 

liabitfirc, 

lionoiare, 

libcrfirc, 

nominare, 

pugnare, 

spcraro, 

vooare, 



amavi, 

gurfivi, 

donavi, 

habitavi, 

lionoravi, 

libciavi, 

noniiiiavi, 

pugnavi, 

speravi, 

vocavi, 



are atum, 

cuiatuiii, 

donatum, 

habitatum, 

honoratum, 

liberatum, 

nominatuii), 

pugnatimi, 

eperatuin, 

voeatuin. 



to love, 

to care for, 

to bestow, 

to dwell. 
to honor, 
to free, 
to name, 
to fight, 
to hope, 
to call. 



Class II. Irregular Formation.''— TYmvc IrregularUies, 

262 First Irregularity.— Per/ee«; (and crenerally Sw 
pine) after the Analogy of the Second Conjugation. 

Principal Parts in ; o, are, ui, itum {generally). 
Cr?po, crepare, cropui, cropitura, to creak. 

Incrfpo, are, ui (avi), Itum, {atum) ; discr^po, are, ui {avi) . 

<;|ubo, cTibare, cubui, ctibltum, to recline^ 

Domo, donmre, domui, domUum, totaZ 

En6co, cnecare, enScui, enectum, to kill.* 



,«n.lT^ f"'''t^"™«ti°" is ^elo'tod as the special bii^iT^T^iiJT^ssification be~ 
ean e the irrc.^u aritics of the other principal parts are lcs3 important and can b. 
readily associatod with this formation. 

nonn i"^""' T"- T"''"" ''"' "'° ''"'f'*' ''^'■^■'' ^^'"'^ ^"'""^ *« thi. class and such com- 
pounds as deviate in any important particnlar fro.n their simple verbs. 

Compounds which insert ,«, a, accnmho, etc., are of Conj. TIF. See "7(5 TT 1 
fi^««» occur ls"'S"l.-*r,unaeveu in the compound the forms in avi ^ 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



the Supine 

teizc. 

'ear asunder. 

X'uliarities of 



111 



n. 

jation: the 

' love, 

care for. 

bestow. 

dwell. 

honor. 

free. 

name. 

fight. 

hope. 

call. 

ularities. 
i-ally Su- 

071. 

"cak. 



'cline.' 

mie. 

ill.* 

fication, be- 
am] can be 

1 such com- 

^ 27(5. TT 1. 
in dvi and 



j fiictum, 
1 fiicatuin, 



lo rub. 
to fflittcr. 

to fold. 



Frico, fricaro, ft.icui, 

Mico, mioarc, niicui, , 

I>imlco, arc, dH («/,, atum; emlco, are, ul. ulu,n. 

riiuo, plioare, i P^'^"', j plicUuni, 

(pI'L-avi, ^plicatum, ^ - - 

jyupneo, .nu,U,nco, re.neo, and su^.tUo arc regular: .., .., atum. 
fcc-co «ecare. sccui, scctu.n, ,« „, 

Participle, secaturua. ' 

Soiio, sonare, souui, sonltum 

PartiCplo. .,.„.,.„, Mo.t co:po„.ds wan sTJ 7' ' 
navi. i'""uus want Sup. lieamo Las Perf. re«o. 

, „ ' ^^''"'» vetitum, fo forbid 

swear) are Lur^sig ^ S ';Z:::r /"r^- (--'"' to dine, and jUro, to 
time active. ^"'"'-'^tion, Aa,,«jy rf,„,,/^ ^^0. /•o<«., from poto, i« also some- 

Principal Parts in : o, are, i, turn. 

JQvo, juvaro, JQv5, jutum, to asmt 

V,in\c\i>\ojuvatums, but in compounds jutums is also used. 

Lavo, lavare, lavi, i joH^' ,, ^^^^^ 

( lavatutn, 
In poetry this is sometimes of ConJ. III. : Idvo, lav^re, lavi etc 

264. Third lTT,gxa^nty.--I^erfect Reduplicated. 
1 nncipal P:;rts in : o, are, i, turn. 

^''''' etatum, to stand. 

Four complds oft ' . ,, ' fZ' 'f ''"■"!'"" = ^''""' ^'''"^ ^''^^-^ «tc. 

H^e .e siU.0 1^^ .st arrdS:rr:;t-2rrc:r(^- -^-- 

Z>.Vo wante Perf. and Snp *'^''- "''''''' '^^*'«''^' «'^««^". «^*'^'^^"'«. 

265. Deponent Verbs. 
TiuKS *^"' '°"J"»"^^^^ ^^P^»^»t verbs are entirely regular. 



r* fit) or, 

ITortor, 

Miror. 



conari, 

liortari, 

mirari. 



conutus sum, 
hortatus sura, 
miratus sum, 



to endeavor. 
to exhort. 
to admire. 



112 



III 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 
Class I. IIkgulab Foumation. 

(I. eo, ere, cvi, eturn.' 
263. Principal Parts in: j II. eo, ere, ui, ftum. 

( III. CO, ere, ui, turn or sum. 
I. eo, ere, evi, etum. 

TJieso endings belong to the following verbs : 
Compico, complgre, complovi, complctura, toJilL 

So other compounds otpleo; as «B/>/eo, impleo. 
Doleo, delere, delGvi, delOtum, to destroy. 

iC ^l':'-«. flev, flctuin, to weep/ 

JNeo, nore, n6vi, uetum, to spin. 

^not t^f'^\ "*f '*'' "^"^''^' ''^''"'""'' *" '"^^*'"^' *« <=«'"P"""«le.l of «& ami o/.o 
(not used). The other, compounds of oteo gouorally end in c^co, and aro of tlie third 
conjugation. Seo abdlenco, 270. IL 1. . " a.o oi uic luim 

2. Vieo, viere, vietum, to weave, bend, is rare, except in tlie part'ciple vUiua. 

n. eo, ere, ui, itum. 



Carco, 

Debeo, 

Habeo, 

Moneo, 

Noceo, 

Pareo, 

Placeo, 

Taceo, 



III. 



caicre, 

dobGre, 

habere, 

moiicre, 

noeere, 

parere, 

placOre, 

tacere, 

eo. 



carui, 

debui, 

habui, 

monui, 

nocui, 

parui, 

placui, 

tacui, 



cantum, 

debitum, 

luibitiun, 

monituni, 

nocitum, 

pailtum, 

placitum 

taciturn, 



to be without, 
to owe. 
to have, 
to advise. 
to hurt, 
to ohei/. 
to please. 
to be silent. 



ere. 



turn or sum. 



'» ui, 

following vTrbi?'' '^''^''^' "'^'^"^^^^ ^" '^'' S"!*'^^' ^'^oug to tbe 

Ccnseo, censere, censui, censum, to think. 

eum afd t!:5.r " "' --^'— ^-— wants Sup. ; recenseo has recen. 

Doceo, docGre, docui, doctum, to teach. 

Misceo, mlscere, miscui, i m.'stum, 

mv 'I mixtuin, '" '^^•^• 

Tc^neo,. tenere, tenui, tentum,' to hold. 

have S^p!'"'"' ''"'' ""' '''''"'''"''' '" "'""'" ""' "'''"^''' ""^-^^ *'"'"P°""<1^ «'=W°'» 
Torreo, torrGre, torrui, tostum, to roast. 



«i and Uum are derivel ■'s'ee"24? """'""' ^"'°'' ^'"""^ ^^'^^ *^« more common 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



urn. 
um. 
in or sum. 



tro}/. 

P- 
■I. 

f al) and oleo 
i of tlie third 

iple vUlua. 



ion. TLo 
ithout, 

e. 
'ent. 

1. 

n^ to til© 

' has recen- 



iids seldom 



;ho regular 
re cominoD 



113 

267. Supine WANTiNG.-Many verbs, regular ia the Perfect, want 
the bupine : the following are the most important: 

Acco, to be tour. llMao, to he wet. 

Lulleo, to be uktlled. Klteo, to shiue 

Cuudeo, to e/iine. Oleo, to miell, ' 

hjriH,, to want. l'Mco,tobepale. 

Linliiuo, to stand forth. I'fiteo, to be open 

1' loreo, to bloom. Kr.reo, to be diff. 

i loiuleo, to bear leaves. Kubeo, to be rfd. 

lloiTfo, to shudder. fcjileo, to be silent. 

Laieo, to be hid. Sorbco, to swallow 



Sordeo, to be sordid. 
ypleiuk'o, to shine. 
Staduo, to studi/. 
Stupco, to be amazed 
Tlineo, to fear. 
Torpeo, to be torpid. 
Tumeo, to swell. 
yigeo, to liourish. 
Vireo, to be (jreen. 



208. Perfect and Supine WANTiNO.-Some verbs, derived most, 
ly frdn. adjectives, want both Perfect and Supine: the following are tho 
most important : b "iv mo 

H6boo, to he hlunt. 
Huiii(;o, to he moist. 
Irnniliieo, to threaten. 
Lacteo, to suck. 
Livco, to be livid. 
Maereo, to be sad. 



Aibeo, to be white. 
Avec), to covet. 
Culvoo, to be bald. 
Can CO, to be yray. 
Flaveo, to he yellow 
Poeteo, to be fetid. 



Polico, to he powerful. 
lienideo, to shine. 
ScSteo, to gush forth. 
^m^\eo,tobeJiUhu. 
Vfigeo, to be lively. 



Class II. Irregular Formation.— r/iree Irregularities, 

269 First Irregularity.— Pe,/ec^ in si (rarely i) after 
the Analogy of the Third Conjugation : ^ ^ ^ '' 

Principal Parts in : eo, ere, si (i), turn or sum. 



Algeo, 
Ardeo, 
Augoo, 

Connlveo, 

Ferveo, 

Frigco, 
Fulgeo, 



algCre, 
ardere, 
augtjre, 

connlvCre. 

fervore, 

fi'igfre, 
fulgore. 



alsi, 

arsi, 

auxi {cin\ 
J connlvi, 
\ connixi, 



arsum, 
auctum, 



j fcrvi, 



Poetic fti^ffo, fidff^re, etc. 



fcrbui, 
frixi (rare), 
fulsi, 



ITaerco, liaorGrc, hacsi, 

Indulgeo, indulgore, indulsi, 

Jiibeo, jubCro, jussi, 

Languco, langugre, langui, 

Liqueo, liquOre, liqui (Hcui), 

Luceo, lucofo, luxi 

Lugeo, lugero, luxi' 

A anco, manere, mansi, 

iMuloeo, mulcere, mulsi, 

Compouuds have mulaum or muletum. 

JJulgeo, mulgore, mulsi. 

1 randeo, prandOre, prandi, 



haesum, 

iiidultum, 

jussum, 



mansum, 
mulsum, 

mulsum, 
pransum, 



Participle, pranaus, in an active sense, having dined. 



to he cold, 
to burn, 
to increase. 

to wink at. 

to boil. 

to be cold, 
to skine. 



to stick, 
to indulge, 
to order, 
to be lanr/idd. 
to be liquid, 
to shiyic. 
to mourn, 
to remain, 
to caress. 

to milk. 
to dine. 



:l! 



114 



CLASSIFICATION OF VEKDS. 



ilsum, 



Ridoo, ridcre, risi, 

Htilduo, Btiidere, strldl, 

Torgco, tergOre, torsi, te.su.u, 

T«rgo, of Conj. III., also occurs: tergo, ire, -M, sum. 

Turn.'?' I'''^""""' *"''^'' tortuin, 

trgoo(urgueo) urgOre, ursi, 



to laugh, 
to creak, 
to adiine. 
to viipe. 

to twist, 
to mnell. 
to press. 



ibrnis'oftl.c fourth Co.^ meva espec u lv i./h ''''■*'''• rl" ^""'P""'/'^ ^''"^ 

Principal Parts in : eo, ere, i, turn (sum). 



Caveo, 
Filveo, 
Foveo, 
Moveo, 
Pitveo, 
Sfideo, 



cavCro, 

favoro, 

foverc, 

niovere, 

pavCrc, 

sedtire, 



cftvi, 

ftlvi, 

fOvi, 

movi, 

pavi, 

sOdi, 



caiitum, 
limtum, 
fotum, 
niOtum, 

sessum. 



to beware, 
to favor, 
to cherish. 
k> move. 
to fear, 
to sit. 



to bite. 
to hang, 
to promise, 
to shear. 



asseasum, but dtssldeo, praesldeo, and retildeo want Supine. 

Vrdeo vidore, vidi, vLsum, to see. 

Vo^co, vovere, vOvi, vutum, to vow. 

271. Third lTTegula,ntY.~Perfect Jiediq^Iicated. 
Principal Parts in ; eo, ere, i, sum. 

pZtn ™'"f''''' »«<">'»ordi, morsum, 

IcnUeo, pendcre, pepcndi, ponsum 

hpondeo, SDoiiduro RnAt.r.,wi; p^"0""', 

Tim,]pn »poii<Jtie, spopondi, si)onsum, 

londeo, tondcre, totondi, tonsum, 

For rcduplfi-Mion in compounds, see 254. 6. 

272. Deponent Veecs. 
1. Hegular. 

Iiceri,^ licitua sum, 

morOri, ^ nieritus sum, 

pollicc'ri, pollicltus sum, 

*"*^ij», tuttus sum, 

vereri, veritus sum, 

2. Irregular. 
fassus sum. 



LTccor, 

3I("-reor, 

Polliceor, 

Tueor, 

VOreor, 



to hid. 
to deserve, 
to promise, 
to protect, 
to fear. 



r,?teor, 
Mt'deor, 



fatCri, 
mederi, 



to confess,^ 
to cure. 



Couliteor, Cri, confossus ; so profit 



eor 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



110 



laugh, 
creak, 
adi'ise. 
viipe. 

twist, 
miiell. 
press. 

5, dre, dvi, 
ipoiiiuls tlio 
, call forth. 

3 Stem- 



beware. 

favor. 

'licrish. 

Hove. 

fear. 

tit. 

ire, asaedi, 

ce. 
ow. 



I 



He. 
ang. 
>rotnise. 
hear. 



MisSrcor, 
Reor, 



miscrOri, 
rOri. 



( niiflcrltufl sum, 
{ itiidortus Huin, 



rjUua sum. 



to pity, 
to think. 



3. Semi-I)cpone7U.—DQY)oi\mt in the Perfect. 
Aiideo, anilCre, ausiis sum, 

«mu(Ieo, gaudero, gavisus sum, 

oi'loo, Holcrc, Bolitus sum, 



to dare. 

to rejoice. 

to be accustomed. 



THIRD CONJUGATIOX. 



Class I. 



273. Principal Parts in : 



Regular Formation in the Perfect. 

I. o (io), 6rc, si, turn. 

ere, i, turn. 

sura. 



o. 



ir, 

, III. o, 
I. o (lo), gre, si, 

These are the regular endings in verbs whoso stems end in • 
consonant ; tJio following are oxuniplcs : » * 



ere, si or i, 
turn. 



Carpo, 

Cingo, 

OOmo, 

Dtlmo, 

Dleo, 

Duuo, 

Fingo, 

Gero, 

Nubo, 

Puigo. 

Promo, 

R("go, 

Sciilpo, 

Sumo, 

Tntho, 

Uro, 

V6ho, 

Vivo, 



carpCre, 

cingtiro, 

coiiK^rc, 

demSrc, 

dicHie, 

ducCre, 

fingfirej 

geiCro, 

nubfire, 

ping.-re, 

promCre, 

regf're, 

scalpt^re, 

BumCre, 

trahCre, 

tiriTC, 

vohere, 

viv6re, 



carpsi, 

ciiixi igsi)^ 

compsi, 

dempsi, 

dixi, 

duxi, 

finxi, 

gessi, 

iiupsi, 

piuxi, 

proiiipsi, 

rexi, 

flcalpsi, 

sumpsi, 

traxi, 

ussi, 

vexi, 

vixi, 



carptum, 

cinutum, 

comptum, 

dcmptum, 

dictum, 

ductum, 

fictum, 

gestum, 

miptum, 

pietum, 

promptum, 

rectum, 

scalptum, 

Eumptum, 

trac'tum, 

ustum, 

veetura, 

victura, 



to pluck. 

to gird. 

to ador7i. 

to take awag. 

to nag. 

to lead. 

to feign. 

to carrg. 

to marrg. 

to paint. 

to bring out. 

to rule, 
to engrave, 
to take. 
to draw, 
to burn, 
to carrg. 
to live. 



A,,.,?; Fl'"^^^ of stem. Vowel in Compovnds ; see 200 
he.jo: di-rliro, dni;-6re, dircxi, directum (2(1 ). I.) todiect 

_ So %lhe>o, pelhno. For eliclo, sec "7(5 H '' ' ' 

bpecio (obs.) : a-splcio, aspicfire. uspexF, aspoctum, to lonh at. 



> Tor Euphonic Changea, see 248. 



116 



i . t 



^! ' 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 



11. 



^re, 



tuin 



tho SC-i^iJ^SlLT'"'^' °' '"''' ""°'" ^'-» »'• - "i 

-J-ciio, acuuie, acui, 

^igiio, ^ aiguC'ie, aigui, 

Coa/ffuo and redurguo want tho Supine. 
Imbuo, inibuere, imbiii, 

M.nuo, niiimgi-o, minui, 

■'^"0, ru6ie, j-ui 

Part. ruiturm.—Corruo and irrvo want Sup. 
Statuo, statuc^re, st^itui, statutum, 

CompnnncLs change a Into i: comtUuo. 
Trn)uo, t.ibu(-re, tribui, tributum, 



acutum, 
argutum, 

irabutum, 
niinutuiu, 
rutuin, 



to sharpen, 
to convict. 



to imbue. 
to diminish, 
to fall. 

to place. 



1. Perfect W.— The following in uo form th^Perf. in x%. 



to impart. 



Coqno, coquere, coxi, coctum, 

tx^linguo, exstingugre, exstinxi, exstluTtum, 

eo other compounds otstinguo (rare): dUtinguo, ete. 



JI"0, fliH^re, flux', 

Struo, struSre, struxi, 

2. Like vei-bs in tio are the following 
o "' IcSre, jci 

^olvo, solvere, solvi, 

Volvo, volv^re, volvi, 



HI. o, gre, 



fluxum, 
structum, 

ictum, 

soliitum,' 
volutum,' 



to cook. 

to extinguish, 

to floto. 
to build. 

to strike. 
to loose, 
to roll. 



sum.' 



SI or 1, 

foIIou'h4%TztT' ''''^'''' "''^"^^^^- ''' '''' Sapine,"bdong to the 
Accendo, acccndero, acecndi, accen.um, 

So other compoun.ls oTcando (obsolete) : incendo, snccendo. 

tiaudo, clauddre, clausi, clausunj, 

Compounds have u for au: conchldo, exclUdo. 

Delendo, defend.^re, dcfendi, SefoS™, 

So other compounds oifendo (obsolete) : qfendo, etc. 



<o kindle. 



to yield, 
to close. 



toforrje. 
to defend. 



Blvido, div-dere, divisi, 

Evado, evulere, fevusi, 

So other compounds otmdo, 275. 
Figo, flgtVe, fixi, 

Findo, fiiulere, fidi (findi), 

Tlccto, flcctrro, flexi, 



divlsiim, 
evasiim, 

fixiim, 
fissuin, 
flexum, 



to divide. 
to evade. 

to fasten, 
to part, 
to bend. 



' Fis hore clinniri.;] to its 
' ij'ur euphonic changes 



f ori'fsponding vowel 
lefore sum, see 257. 1. 



u: volutiim ioT volvt^m 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



in 



fluxi, 



l-'luo, flu6re, 

Frendo, ftendore, 

Lacdo, lacdgre, kesi, 

Compounds have i for ae: illido, etc. 



fluxuna, 
j fidsum, 
( fressum, 

laesum, 



tofiovi. 
to gnash, 
to hurt. 



Lndo, 
Mando, 
Mcrgo, 
Mitto, 



Necto, 

Pando, 
Pecto, 

Pinso (piao), 

Plect'o, 
Plaudo, 



pinsgre, 

plcetrre, 
plaud^re, 



Ifisnm, 
niansum, 
mcrsura, 
inissum, 

nexum, 

j passum, 

\ pausura, 

pexum, 

ipiiisitiim, 
pistum, 
pinsum, 
ploxum, 
plausum, 



to play, 
to chew, 
to dip. 
to send. 

to bind. 

to open, 
to comb. 

to potind. 

to plait, 
to applaud. 



pressnm (248. I. 4), to press. 
quassum(248.I. 2), <OA/,a/te. 



ludgre, lusi, 

niandere, mandi, 

njergSre, mersi, 

iiiittore, niisi, 

nectere, i "^•'''» 

( nexui,' 

pandere, pandi, 

pectere, pexi, 

j piiisi, 
( pinsui, 

plexi, 
plausi, 

So appluudo; other compounds Lavo o for aw : e,rplodo etc 
PrShendo, prchendere, prchcndi, prchensum, ' to grasp, 

Often written, prendo, prend&re, etc. 
PrSmo, premere, prcssi, 

muatio, quature, quassi, 

Compounds Iiave cu for qua : concmo, etc 
]Jado, radSro, rasi, 

Rodo rodSre, rosil 

ocando, scandCrc, scaudi, 

Compounds have « for a: ascendo, descendo. 

fcP'iigo, spargc^re, sparsi, eparsum, 

Compounds generally have e for a : asperffo, respergo. 
Tergo, tcrgSre, tersi, tersum, 

Also tergeo, tergere (Conj. II.); compounds tako this form. 

Vet' *"lf'-'^' *"'•"'' t""'S"m, 

veiio, vellure, velll (vulsi), vulsum, 

Compounds in good use generally have velli. 
Vcrro, vcrrgpo, vcrri, versum, 

Verto, vertere, verti. vcrsum, .„,„,,,. 

Futrfr'""'" °' ''"' ^'"'' '•^' "° """^''•'^"^ ^^P--* '- '^^ P'^es., Mperf., and 
!i!!:^ ^''^''^ ^^«'. visum, to visit. 



r;lsum, 
ro.'jum, 
scansum, 



to shave, 
to gjiaw. 
to climb. 

to rend, 
to scatter. 

to wipe off. 

to thrust, 
to pluck. 

to brush, 
to turn. 



' Compounds take this form in the Perfect. 




fi I 

II il 



CLASSIFICATION OF VKKBS. 

274. Supine Wanting.— The following verbs, regular in the Perfect, 
want the Supine : 

Anso, ore, anxi, to strangle. Ningo, 6re," ninxi, to snow. 

Annuo, 6re, i, to asuetU. Nuo, obs. ; see annuo. 

So other compounds of 7JU0, bntuliuio, I'luo, ere, i or vi, to rain. 

has Part, abnuilurua. Psallo, 6re, i, to play on a stringed 



Batuo, 6re, i, to beat. 

Bibo, ere, i, to drink. 

Cougruo, tire, i, to agree. 
Ingruo, ere, i, to a,ssail. 
J-anibo, ere, i, to lick. 
Luo, ere, i, to wash. 

Tart, luiturus. Compounds— rt&^«o, al- 
luo, etc. have Sup. latum. 
MiStuo, ere, i, to fear. 



instrwup.nt. 
Sido, ere, 1, to sit down. 

Perf. and Sup. generally .supplied from 
sideo ; henco aedi, sessum. So in com- 
pounds. 

Strido, ere, i, to creak. 

Also Htrtdeo, ere (Conj, II.). 

Sternuo, ere, i, to sneeze. 



275. Perfect and Supine WANTiNO.—Some verbs want both Per- 
fect and Supine. 

1. Tile following : 

?i^?,f' i^f'^l'^' but distinguo, ere, tempsi.contewptum. 

Uaudo, to be lame. ^ dtstinxi,disiinctum; Yddc to go. See eva- 

t.lLsco, to grow. so exstinguo. do, 273 III 

i'iZ' ?^'""- . Temno./o^.,v/m-,,-but N gv^o, to'indine. 

btuiguo, to quench; contemno, ire, con- 

2. Many Inceptives. See 281. II. 1. 
Class II. Irregular Fou^lation.— Three Irregularities.' 



I. Perfect in avi, as in Conjugation I. 



K:™^™' ;sr" T^r^' i-r'--- trr"- 



stravi, 
veteravi, 



to strew. 
to grow old. 

II. Perfect in evi, ui, as in Conjugation IL 
1. The following: 
Aboleseo abolescere, abolevi, abolltu™, to disappear. 

Accumbo, accurabSre, accnbui, accubitum, to recline. 
Soother compounds of cwmSo, cM&o. Seocubo,262. 



win le'flun™ r^'^^'sr'''""" " "^""''"^ ^''"^ «^ »" -'^« '°-^^^"« '-Sularities 






THIED CONJUGATIOIf. 



119 



( alitum, 
I altum, 

cietum, 
cultum, 

consultum, 
crutum, 



Alo, aigre, alui, 

Cello, obsolete. See excello below. 

Cerno, cerueio cievi 

Colo, colere, colui' 

Compesco, coiupescfre, compescui. 

Consiuo, consulere, consului 

Cresco, cicscere, cievl 

Incresco and succresco want Supine, 
Cumbo/or cubo, in compounds : see accumbo. 
Depso, depsere, depsui, J t|cpsitum, 

Eircio, .licrc. elicui, ^^^^ 

Other compounds otldcio, thus: alllcio, ire, allexi, allectum. 
Excello, excellere, excellui (rare), to excel 



to nourish. 

to decide, 
to cultivate, 
to restrain, 
to consult, 
to grow. 



to knead, 
to elicit. 



Fremo, 
Furo, 
Gomo, 
Gigno, 

Lacio, obsolete. 

Lino, 
Moto, 
3l61o, 

Necto, 

Oceiilo, 



fremere, 
furere, 
gcmere, 
gigneie, 

See clicio. 
lingre, 
mctere, 
molSre, 

ncctore, 

occulore, 



fremui, fremitum, to rage. 

lunii, . ^0 ^^^^^ 

gemui, gemitum, to c/roan. 

genui (/. g^no), gemtum, to beget. 



levi, llvi, 

mossui, 

molui, 
j nexui, 
( nexi, 

occulul, 



Olesco, obsolete. See abolesco 

Piuso, pinsere. \ pjnsui, 

' ( pinsi, 



Pono, 

Quiosco, 

Rapio, 



ponero, 

quicscero, 

rapere, 



posui, 

quievi, 

rapui, 



litum, 

messum, 

molitum, 

nexum, 

occultum, 

( pinsitum, 

■( pistum, 

( plnsura, 

posltum, 

quiCttum, 

raptum, 



P6ro, 
StSro, 



Compounds thus: corripio, corripgre, earripui, correptum. 



sertire, 
serere, 



scrui, 
sevi. 



sertum, 
Btltum, 



Spcrno, 

Sterto, 

Str("po, 

Sucsco, 

Tf'xo, 

TrCmo, 

Vomo, 



Compounds thus: consSro, ire, consevi, consUum. 



to smear, 
to reap, 
to grind. 

to bind. 

to hide. 



to crush. 

to place, 
to rest. 
to snatch. 



to connect, 
to sow. 



spernSre, 

stertere, 

iStrppere, 

sucscfire, 

te,\6re, 

tremere, 

vomLTC 



spn'vi, spretum, to spurn. 

stertui, fQ snore. 

stropui, stropitum, to make a noise. 

suevi, suetum, to become accustomed. 

texui, textum, to weave. 

tremui, to tremble. 

vomiii, vnmitnm. to vomit. 



2. Many Inceptives in cseo form the Pcrf( 



primitives. Seo28I.I. 2 



'ect in ui from their 





CLASSIFICATION^ OF VERBS. 



Al'COSSO, 

Ciipt'sso, 
Cupio, 

Fucesso, 

Incosso, 

LilcOHriO, 

Lino, 

P('tO, 

Quacro, 



ai'cc8.s6ro, 

capossOre, 

cupdre, 

facessero, 

incossSre, 

lacessfire, 

liiifire, 

J)ct6re, 

quaerftro, 



IIL Perfect in ivi, as in ConjiKjation IV, 

1. Tho following: 

aicosslvi, arccssitum, 

capessivi, cai)essitum, 

cuplvi, cupltmn, 
J facesslvi 

1 facessi, lacessitum, 

incessivi or -cessi, . 

lacesslvi, lacessitum, 

Iivi or iGvi, irturn, 
Pi^tlvi, pctitum, 

quaesivi, quaesitum, 

Compounds tlu.s: acquiro, gre, acquMvi, acqui.lUcm. 
Rucjo, rudSre, rudlvi, ruditum, 

bapio, sapere, saplvi, sapui, ' 

Compoumb bavo i for a, as rcslpio. De.lpio wants Pcrf. and sIp.' 

1610, tei6re, trivi, tritum, 

V^\^Jri^f^^T^'''' ^^'"^ '^' ^^rf««t i" *^^- from their 

. . ^^.'^- f'^^''^"" '"^ 6vi._i\Wo and its compounds form the perfect 
in ovz after the analogy of Jvi, cvi, and ivi : ^ 

Nosco noscore, n5vi. ^.tum, ,, ,„^. 

ana .':r:':~f ?::•::."' ^''^"'^^'' ^-« «- ^-^ «"p-. «^««-/ ^^.-c. 

nf H^ r^: ^'""'"^ CoyjrGATioN._iVv,..o, verbs in vo, and regular verbe 
of the first, second, and fourth conjugations form a complete Lel-c^^ 



<o call for. 
to lai/ hold of. 
to desire. 

to make. 

to attack, 
to provoke, 
to smear^ 
to ask. 
to sock. 



to bray, 
to taste. 



to permit, 
to rub. 



ao, 
eo, 
io, 

00, 

uo. 



avi, 
evi, 
ivi, 
ovi, 
u(v)i, 



utum ; amo (ao), amavi, 

(itum ; deleo, dclGvi, 

itum ; audio, audivi', 

otura ; nosco (noo), novi, 

utum ; acuo, acu(v)i, 



amatura. 

delf'tum. 

auditum. 

notum. 

acutum. 



279. Second Irregiilarity.~Pc?/ec« lengthens Stem- 
Voicel. See 253. 1 and 2. ^ j 

^^S^' <^g«'-e, ogi, actum, o drive. 

So circnmaao and perdgo ; .atdgo v,mts Perf. and Snp. Other comnonnds 
chan,._« .nto . in the ITc. : ««,,, ,,,, «,,,,. ,,,,,,,. ^J becomes^' 

:::,• z;rptZ'nd"ir' '"''' '''' '''' ^■'^'"" ^"^- ""'''- --- ^"^' 

Capio, cap«re, copi, captum, to take. 

So antecdpio; other compounds thus: acc'tpio, in, accept, acceptum. 



TIIIED CONJUGATION. 



121 



Edo, 
£mo, 



^dCro, 
fiuiere, 



6di, 
Giui, 



esum, 
eui[)tuiii, 



to cat. 
to buy. 



aoco^mo; other compound, thus: adlmo, ^re, ademi, ademptum. 

' ' ^eci, factum, to mal-e. 

rassive Irregular : MjUriJactus sum. See 294. 
So aatififacio and compounds of fneio wifh i-..vK= v * 
«Uions thu3: c.»>*A ''-'A'^/'. Jl^rco^^A. f ^^^^ 



to dig. 
to break. 



tojlce. 
to pour, 
to throw. 



i>ango, frangore. ft-cgj, ft.,^^^^^ 

Compounds thus: cott//.*«(7<,, gre, confregi, confractum. 

Jaco jacere, jed, jaetum, .„„„_. 

y^/:tCSt'"'^'"'"""^"'""'"'^ other corupoundsthus: ayj..,,^^ 
^<^&o leggre, logi, jectum, ,o ,r«r7. 

Lmquo, linquiire, liqui, , 

Compounds with Sup. : relinquo, ire, reliqui, relictum. 

^V^oo, scabcre, scubi, _^ ' 

Viuco, vincfire, vici, victum, 



to leave. 



to burst, 
to scratch, 
to conquer. 



254.^S*. ^^'^ I^^egularity.~P.r/.c^ Reduplicated See 

Abdo abd6ro, abdidi, abdltum, ,, /,,-j,. 

So all compounds of ffo, except those of Coni r rsftii • ^^,i^ 

Cado cadSrc, c.^ctdi, casum, ,o/a^/. 

«.;, J"'^'' '"' '"''^'■' '"^^•""^' ^° ''^^^'''' -<^ ''-'^'^''/ other compounds want 

Cacdo caedg.e, cSeldi, eaesum, ,« ,,, 

Compounds thus: concldo, ire, cmcldi, conclsnm. 
Cnuo cangro. c6oun, canfum, to sing. 

wantP?rf.td%tp. ""'"''' '" ''^ ^''^'^'^ »°^ ^--^-' «tl>- -mpoun.te 

CrGdo, credere, credtdi, creditun,,' to believe. 



' Explained as compound of cTo; aee nldo. 



in\ 



'III! 



I:' . If' 



122 



Curro, 



CLASSIFICATION OF VEBBS. 



currgre, cucurri, cursum, to run. 

Excurro and praecurro gencnilly retain tho reduplication, excHcurrL praeci, 
curri; otlier compounds generally drop it 
Disco, discere, didici, 



Do, Conj. I. Sec abdo. 
lallo, failure, ft;fclli, 

Jie/ello, Ire, refelU, without Suplno. 
Pango, pangure, pCpTgi, 

Pango, naiim^rfl i panxi, 



paiigere, 



1 I>L'g>, 



fulsuiu, 

pactum, 
j panctura, 
\ pactum, 



to learn. 
to deceive, 

to bargain, 
to fix in. 



Comptngo, fre, compegi, compacium; so also impingo. Dep', 
Terf. ; repango, Perf. and Sup. 

Parco, parcSro, pSiperci (parsi), parsum, to sp, 

Com parco, ire, comparsi, comparmm, also with a for a: comperco, ire, ote. 
Imparco and reparco want Tcrf. and Sup. 

Pario, parSre, pvpM, partum, 

Participle ^rtr//22;'Ms; compounds are of Conj. IV. 
Pello, pollCre, populi, pulsura,' 

Icndo, pendere, pilpendl, pcnsiim,' 

1 osco, poscfire, poposci, « 

Pungo, pungere, pupugi, punctura, 

Compounds thus : compungo, ire, compunxi, compunctum. 
Sisto, sistcre, stiti, stStum, 

S/sto seems to have been derived from sio, and forms the Perf. and Sup aft( r 
that analogy.-Compoundsthus: consl.io, ire, comtlU, comtUum : hat circumaUli 
also occurs. 

Tango, tanggre, tetjgi, tactum, to touch. 

Compounds thus : attingo, ire, atilgi, attactum. 



to bring forth. 

to drive. 
to weigh, 
to demand 
to prick. 

to place. 



Tendo, 



tendere, 



tetendi, 



j tentum, 



to stretch. 



tcnsum, 

Compounds drop reduplication and prefer Sup, tentum, but detendo and oaten- 
do have tensum ; and extendo, ,-^rotendo and retendo have both forms. 

Tollo, tollere, \ tt'tQH (obs.), 

' { susfuli, 

Attollo and extollo want Perf and Sup. 



subliltum, to raise. 



Tundo, 



tundSre, ttitiidi. 



( tunstim, 



to beat. 



tusum, 
Compounds drop reduplication and generally take tmuin in Sup. 
Vendo, vendt'^re, vendldi, vendlt.im," to sell. 



1 Compounds drop reduplication. 254. 5. 
3 Compounds retain reduplication, 254. 5. 
' Explained as compound of do; see abdo. 



THIRD CONJUGATIOK. 



•finti 



J 



123 



281. Inceptives. 

I. VerhalLiGcptlves. 
of U^inSitl"''''''"''' ^™'^' ""^ ■^«i'"«. t"' take the P.,/cc« 



Accsco 

Arosco 

CSIesco 

Floresco 

Mailosco 

Tfipcsco 

VIi'osco 



The following aro example s : 



{aceo), 

(areo), 

icaleo), 

(jlOreo), 

{madiojf 

(tepeo), 

(vt/co), 



accscfirp, 

arescfire, 

culesc6re, 

llorescfire, 

niadescSie, 

tepesc6re, 

viresc6ie, 



acui, 

arui, 

caliii, 

florui, 

madiii, 

tCpni, 

virui, 



to become sour, 
to become dry. 
to become rearm, 
to bef/in to blootn. 
to becotne maist. 
to become warm, 
to become green. 



tives 



o T"„ * 11 • io oecome green. 

2. Tne follou-ing take the Perfect and Supine of their priini 



Abdiesco {ah, oleo), gre, 

CoSlesco (con, alo), fcre 

toiicupisco {c,m,cupio\ 6rc 

Loiivaiosco {con,valeo), 6,c 

Lxardesco {ex, ardeo), 6,e 

Iuv6t6rasco {invetero), «ro 



abol?tiim,J 

coalltnin, 

coiicunltiim, 

convalitum, 

exaisum, 



ShoICvi, 
coiilui, 
coiiciqiivi, 
coiiviilui, 

oiHhi^ni^co foXX:/^.) Z' SS'' ^^?"">. 't'^oTZold. 
K6vIvisco {re, vivo), g •"' SSJ ' ' "''^."';'"^^»™. to fall asleep. 
Scsco, Uo), ^' til: Svli-' -v-tu-n, torenoe 

S. The following are Inccptivcs only in form: 

cretum, 



to disappear, 
to coalesce. 
to desire, 
to grow strong, 
to burn. 



to enact. 



Crosco, 

Fatisco, 

(jrlisco, 

Nosco, 

I'asco, 

Qiiifsco, 

Suesco, 



crescfire, 

fatiscfete, 

gliscgro, 

nosc6ie, 

pascSio, 

(luioscgre, 



crevi, 



uovi, 
pavi, 
qiiievi, 
suevi, 



iiotum, 
pastum, 
qniGlum, 
suetutn, 



to grow. 

to gape. 

to swell. 

to know, 

to feed. 

to be quiet. 

to ba accustomed. 



II. Denominative Inceptives. 
Thus ^'"^"^^^^^^^'^ inceptives want both Perfect and Su- 

lf^-^^^^^^>Unv'enis),tobecomeayovth. 
Alitc.seo {mitts), to grow mild 

fo\\^^co (mollis), to%-owsoft 
I |.6rasco {puor), to become a boy. 
Pinguesco {pinguis), to grow fat. ^ 



pine. Thus 

Aeprcsco {aeger), to grow sick 
J itesco (dives), to qrow rich. 

Jhilcesco (dulcis), to 'become sweet 
J^raiidesco (grandis), to grow larqe. 
Oi-avesco (gravis), to 'qrow hedvy. 



2. The following have the Perfect in ui: 



Ciebresco 
Durosco 



{creber), 
{dijrus)t 



fire, 
6 re, 



crebnii, 
dunii. 



to become frequent, 
to become, fnird. 



. J^^i:"'""' '"* ""^^^^^^""^^^^^^ 






124 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 




EvSnesco 

IllllOtOSCO 

Jliicrcsco 

Jlaiuresco 

Nigi'csco 

Obiuuiesco 

Obsiii(le«co 

llocrudcsco 

Vilesco 



{e, vanits), 
{in, notus), 
(macer), 
(maiurus), 
(nifftr), 
{ob, mutus), 
[ob, su/'dt/g), 
(re, crudua), 
(vilis), 



8re, 
fere, 
6 re, 
6 re, 
fire, 
fire, 
fire, 
fire, 
fire. 



OvJImii, 

imiotui, 

macriii, 

iijuturui, 

iiigrui, 

obinutui, 

obsLiiciui, 

reciudui, 

vilui. 



to vanish. 

to become known. 

to bedotne Ivan. 

to Hpcti. 

to become black. 

to (/roio dumb. 

to become deaf. 

to bleed afresh. 

to become worthless. 



282. Deponent Verbs. 
Amplector, i, amplexus sum, 

So complecior, circumplector. 
ApLscor, i, aptus sura, 

Adlpiscor, i, adeptus sum, so indlpiscor. 
Comminiscor, i, commentus sum, 

Remlniscor wants Pcrf. 

Expergiscor, i, experrectus sum, 
iiitiscor, i , . 



Bejillscor, /, defessus sum. 



Fruor, frui, 

Va.rt.fruitUma. 

Fungor, j, 

Gradior, i 



(fr 



fructus sum, 
uitus sum, 



functus sum, 

gressus sum. 



Compounds thus: aggrMior, i, aggressus mm. 
Irascor, i, . 

Labor, j^ lapsus sum, 

Liquor, i^ , 

Loquor, i, locutus sum, 

Miniscor, obsolete ; sec comminiscor. 
Morior, i (iH^ rare), mortuus sum, 

Part. morUurus. 



to embrace, 
to obtain. 

to devise. 

to awake, 
to (jape. 

to enjoy. 



to perform, 
to walk. 



to be angry, 
to fall, 
to 7)ielt. 
to speak. 

to die. 






Nanciscor, 
Nascor, 

Part. nascUurua. 

Nltor, i, 

Obllviscor, i, 

Piiciscor, 



nactus (nanctus) sum, to obtain. 
natus sum, to be born. 



(m 



Patior, 



i, 



nisus sum, 

nixus sum, 

oblltus sum, 

pactus sum, 

passus sum, 



Perpeilor, i, perpessus sum. 
Plector, not used as Dep. ; see amplector 

Prof i!f>r"ar»nr I „_._i' _i 



7 

Proficiscor, 

.Queror, 

Rominiscor, 

Ringor, 

Sequor, 



prot'ectus sum, 
questus sum, 



sccutus sum. 



to strive. 

to forget, 
to bargain 
to suffer. 



to set out. 
to complain, 
to remember. 

to c/rowl. 
to^ 



folloio. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 
Tuor, antiquated form for ncor, 272 1 



125 



to avenqe. 
\r'V 1 '' usussum, to uip 

Vcrtor; sec tlcvc.tor, prucvcrtor, rcvcr'tor, 273. III. '" 

to eat. 



Utor, 
Vert(] 
Vcscor, 



Pido, 



ScmiDcpo7ient. 



fidere. 



fisus 



sum. 



to trust. 



FOURTH COXJUGATION. 

Class I. Regular Formation. 
283. Principal Parts in: io, ire, ivi, itum. 



Audio, 

Condio, 

P'lnio, 

Lenio, 

llunio, 

Punio, 

Scio, 

Silpelio, 

Sitio, 

Vagio, 



Tlie following are examples : 

audire, 

coil dire, 

finire, 

leulre, 

munlre, 

punire, 

scire, 

sepelire, 

si tiro, 

vagire, 



to hear. 
to season, 
to finish, 
to allcviat*. 
tofortifji. 
to punish, 
to know, 
to bury, 
to thirst, 
to cry. 



audivi, auditum, 

condivi, conditum, 

fi'iivi, finitum, 

lenivi, lenitum, 

munivi, munitum, 

punivi, punitura, 

scivi, seituiii, 

sepelivi, sepultum,^ 

sitivi, 

audiiiivfudili. "bCTjji".!^'' ''^'"' ^™PP'^ '" *^" ^"'^''^g °f tl^e Perfect; 
a^. ^' ^f'f^^^ «'"^ Supine fFawifiw^.—Desideraiives C^np ttt ^ „^ * - • 

^^s^isF^ T' '''' ^"^ ^-^^'^ ^^ Sl'v^^ff gls:;s 

ffirio, tostriU sSo thf'- %^V^^io, to be proud. 

FSrocio, to be fierce. ° ' ^^^^^^^^e. Tussio, to comjh. 

Class II. Irregular Formation.- T^^o Irrecritlanties. 

I. Perfect in ui, as in Conjugation II. 
Principal Parts in : io, ire, ui, turn. 

\So' -'"''^'^' ^'■'"''''"' ')' a'nictum, 

Openo, operxre, operui, opertum 

^''^'^' «'^'"'«' salui (ii), (saltum), 

Compounds thus: <?«..»IW«, Jr^ vA (it), (desuUum). 



to clothe, 
to open.'' 
to cover." 
to leap. 



' Supine irregular. a Probably not In actual use. 3 From pdrio of Conj. IIL 



126 



CLASSIFICATION OP VEEBS. 



II. Perfect in si (i), aa in Conjugation III. 
Principal Parts in : io, Ire, si (i), turn (sum). 
Compgrio, comperiro, compori, compertura, to learn? 

Farcio, farclrc, - fursi. J faitum, 

Compounds thus: confercio, Ire, con/erai, coti/eiium. 



Fulcio, 
JHauiio, 
Raucio, 
R^pgrio, 

Sancio, 

Sarcio, 
Sontio, 
Sopio, 
Viucio, 



fulclre, 
hainire, 
raucirc, 
reperire, 

sancire, 

sarcire, 
scntire, 
scpiro, 
viucire, 



fuLsi, 
hausi, 
ransi, 
rcperi, 

sanxi, 

sarsi, 
seiisi, 
sepsi, 
vinxi, 



fultum, to prop. 

liaustum, hausuin, to draw. 



rausum, 
rcpertum, 
( sancltum, 
( sanctum, 
sartum, 
sensura,' 
eeptum, 
vinctum, 



to be hoarse, 
to find.^ 

to ratify. 

to patch, 
to feel, 
to hedge in. 
to bind. 



VowT' ^'""""^ Irregularity.-P,,/,c« lengthens Stem. 

So compounds : advenio, comenio, devenio, invenio, olvenio, pervenio, etc 



Blandior, 

Laigior, 

Mentior, 

Molior, 

Partior, 



286. Deponent Verbs. 
1. Regular. 



in, 
iri, 
iri, 
iri, 
iri. 



blanditus sum, 
largltus sura, 
meiitltus sum, 
molitus sum, 
partitus sum, 



Potior, 
Sortior, 



Impertior, Iri, imperiltus sum ; so dinpertior. 



In. 



potltus Slim,' 
sortitus sum, 



to fatter, 
to bestow, 
to lie. 
to strive, 
to divide. 

to obtain, 
to draw lot»^ 



Assentior, 
Experior, 
Metier, 



2. Irregular. 



in, 
iri, 
iri. 



assensus sum,* 

expertiiE. sura,* 

mensus sum, 
j oppcrtus sum,* 
\ opperitus sum, 

orsus Slim, 

ortiis sum. 

Part. orMuruH.-X'x^^. Ind. of C(mj. III., orMs, oritur. Imp. Bnu' orlrer or 
orirer.-'&o compounds, but adorior follows Conj. IV. 



OppCrior, 

Ordior, 
Orior, 



in, 

iri, 
iri. 



to assent. 

to try. 

to mcastire. 

to await. 

to begin. 
to rise. 



' From pdrio of Conj. III. ' "~" ~~ 

» Conip. asHfntin has a deponent form, assentior. See 2S6 2 
3 In tho-Pres. L d. and Imp. Subj., forms of Conj. III. occur.' 

* Comnonnded of atf and sentio. See aevtio, 234. II. 

* Compounded of ex and paHo ; ob and pario. See" campeti^, 2S4. 11. 



um). 

to learnt 
to stuff. 

to prop, 
to draw, 
to be hoarse, 
to find,^ 

to ratify. 

to patch, 
to feel, 
to hedge in. 
to bind. 

IS Stem' 

come, 
irvenio, etc 



latter. 

estow. 

ie. 

trivc. 

ivide. 

btain. 
raw lot9\ 



^sent. 

y- 

castire. 

mit. 

rjin. 
•<e. 

., orirer or 



4.11. 



IRBEGULAR VERllS. 127 

IRREGULAR VERBS. 

287. A few verbs which have unusual personal endin^^g. 
are called by way ot preemiueuco Irregular or Anomahus 
y eras. They aro 

Sum, edoy fero, volo, fio, eo, queo, 
and their compounds. 
288. Sum, I am. 
The conjugation of sum has been already Riven ("204 ^ • its 
c^)^t posmin miipromm, are conjugated in the same way. 
289. Possum, I am able. 
possum, possS, pstul. 

Indicative. 

Present. 
possum, poMSs, potest; possumfls, potostis, possunt. 

Impehfect. 
p<)t5ram, .{5rag, -Mt; poteramus, -gratrs. -grant. 

Fdtdre. 
-Srls, .grit; potorimus, -iritis, -grunt. 

Perfect. 

'^^*'' "^'5 ■ potuimus, -istis, -eruntordrS. 

Pluperfect. 
pStugram, -eras, -grSt; potufiramus, -JSratis, .grant. 

Fctdre Perfect. 
pStuerS, -grls, -grit; potugrlmus, -gritis, -Srint. 

Subjunctive. 

Present. 
possim, possis, possit; posslmus, possltls, possint. 

Imperfect. 
poasSm, possGs, possCt; possGmus, possGtis, possent. 

Perfect. 
pot^uerim, -eris, -grit; potuSrJmus, -gn'tts, -Jrint. 

> AUum and prac^um, like possum, have Pres. Participl7s^^&^nd j^rawen*. 



poturo, 



potui, 



I' 



( [ 



'If! 

itrl 



i! 
ff 



if 



I 



128 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



PtUPKniECT. 
Im r Jill ATI VE.— Tra;i(!/W^. 

Infinitive, -Pat,^ 

„ • -l ARTICIPLB. 

IheS. possfi. Pnj.„ „v, , 

Pkiif. potuissg. P*>t«iis (as an «f(/;cc/ew). 

parts' rerrLrsTe^Zrul^^^^^^^ --'^^^^ Tbo 

«hn«*, etc. ''«P'»'-"te<l, and then poU, la ladecllnablo : pbtU m7n, p6t(a 

2. lBnEotriABmE8.-In pomum observe 
*«m for 7:LT '"'' '* "' ''"' ' ''''' °^ ^'^° «*°- •« --'"ted before .: ^.. 

po^ JJ ° '"'"• ^""' ''"'^ ^"^J- ^-«-- -" "'^-toued forms for potesse and 

8. Old and Rake Forms. See 204. 1 and 2. 

be. fAs^rtT'JZf.t '" ?'"7'""">,'"i of;"-", for, and sum, to 

201. Edo, Tm*. 



E(15, 



«dg, 



cdis, 
es, 



^dSr^m, odgrgg, 
easgm, esses, 



essetis, 



Sdunt3. 



(5dimt. 



Sddrcnt. 
essent. 



Indicative. — Present. 

^drt; gdlmus, MUls, 

«st; estis, 

Subjunctive. — Imperfect. 

«d(n6t; gderemQs, gdorCtis, 

esset ; essemus, 

Imperative. 

Pres. •f^'^^; «ditg. 

test"; estotg, 

Initnitive.— Present. 

^d(5rg, ess6. 

(Sub/ I.!;r;Z :r-^^"'^^ ^- *^^'^^ (^^'^'c. Pros.) and «'.. for Mirmr 
l<m',!^. " ^" '"• '"'^ """•• "^ ^-- SubJ. : .</f;«. .c/^, ,,,,, etc., for Ma.., 
comLlZZ^Z '''"^''^'' "'^ ''' ''"^^'^ -'»>' ''•^t ^o.i,o has in S..,. 



11 s irt ' 



luuKuuLAK vicrinB. 



129 



-issent. 

LE. 

I adjective). 

'm, tobo. TIjo 
5«M m?n, pdtia 

before •; pas' 

'or poteaae and 



md sum, to 
o\ prOmm^ 
m. 



forms like 



Sdunt, 



Sdi^rent. 
essent. 



, for iddm, 
las in Slip. 



292. Foro, I hear. 
ACTIVE VOICE. 



nvL 



ferrfi. 



tuli. 



IfitQm. 



I X 1) I C A T I V E 



SINQULAn. 



PLURAL. 



Prk8. fri5, fers, 
Imp. I'6rt}bi1in ; 
FuT. i'oriliu ; 
Pkrf. trdi ; 
I'LUP. tuhlijtm ; 
FuT. Pekf. tuIOru; 




fert; 


ferlmua, fertis," 

fCrC'bftinus. 

frTomfia. 

tuIimOa. 

tuleramtia. 

tulGrimua. 






s 


UBJUNCTIVE. 


Pres. 

Imp. 

Perf. 

PtUP. 


ft'rjtm ; 
fcncni ; 
tulftrim ; 
tulissfim ; 






fgranius. 
ferremus.' 
tulerimua. 
tulissemus. 






I 


MPERATIVE. 


Pres. 
FuT. 


feito, 
ferto; 






forts. 

fertotti 

ferunto. 




Infinitive 


• 


Participle. 


Pres, 
Perf. 

FUT. 


ferri?.' 
tulissS. 
laturiis essS. 






Pres. fercns. 
FuT. IfttQrua. 




Gerund 


• 




Supine, 


Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


ftrendl. 
forendo. 
fC'rendura. 
ferendo. 






Ace. latum. 
Abl. lata. 



fiSruut. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
fSror, ferri, latus sura. 

Indicative. 



Pres. 
Imp. 
FuT. 
Perf. 

Pl-UP. 

FuT. Perf. 



foror, ferris, 
forebar ; 
fgrtir ; 
latuu siira ; 
latus erjira ; 
latus oro ; 



fertiir ; * 



foriraur, fSrimlnl, ffiruntur. 

forobamur. 

foremur. 

latl sumQs. 

lati firamus. 

latl erimiis- 



> Fers for firis ; fert tor/giU, fertla tw/grltls (^ dropped). 

a Ferrem, etc. for firirim, etc. ; ferri torfiriri (a dropped). 

s Fer m-firf,; /ertdjem,/crU-di ior ferU6,firm,fir\toU (i dropped). 

* Ferris forjSrMa; fertiir tor fSritHr. 



IKREGULAB VERBS. 



K^ 



Imp. 
Pkrp. 
Pi- UP. 



Pkes. 

Put. 



Subjunctive. 

ferrfir; feramur. 

latus e&sem ; ^ .' '™"S- 

' iati essemus. 

Imperative. 

ii'-nmiaj. 



/ 



ferrS ; ' 
fertor,* 
fertor ; » 



I:^Fi]sriTivE. 

ferrl.' 

latus ess(5. 



f^runtor. 

Participle. 

Pkes. 

KRK laius esse. TJ , 

FuT. latum iri. J!^^*'- ^atus. 

^ 2) It „n.,. the connecting v:,we TofnT'^Tl '"'"" '^""^ "•''-''^^'' ^^ems. 

2. Compounds oi fero ^,^ c„n n'lf", , , '' '° ''^^ ^■"^'S- ^"fln- Pas3. 

the prepo.lr-.n suffers a cupLonirrr: *^ ''" ""^'° ^"^' ^"' ^^^ ^ '^^ ^^ tbco, 



ab. 
ad- 
coil' 
dis- 

ex- 

in- 

Ob. 

sub- 



aiifcro, 

afforo, 

conforo, 

difforo, 

effdro, 

Infcro, 

offdro, 

suffero, 



aufcrro, 

afferre, 

conferre, 

differre, 

cfferre, 

iuferre, 

offerro, 

sufferre. 



abstuli, 

attiili, 

contuli, 

distiili, 

extiill, 

intuli, 

obtiili, 

sustiili, 



ablutum. 

alliitum. 

collatum. 

dilatum. 

elatiim. 

illatum. 

oblatuin. 

snbliitum. 



. '5«,,««ands«Wd^„;„„enotusJd'i'nf>,„ '"''"!'' «"blatum. 

Piy the Perf. and Sup. of tollo, to raise sj io"" "•^''"' '' '"^''^ ^"^ '^'^ -P" 

^li^fpj^e": ^ ^'^ ^^^•^^"^^--^^oIo, I am unwilUnr;.^ 



volS, 
nolo 
malo, 



t5I3, 

vis, 

vult; 

voliimus, 

vultis, 

volant. 



vellg, 
noll^, 
mails, 

Indicative. 

Present. 

nolo, 
non vis, 
non vult ; 
nolumus, 
non vultia, 
nolunt 



vohii, 
ndlui. 
malul. 



malo, 



; f^Tf^^'*":: '-Jf^'-^rir, etc. ; Jkrri for fMr^ 
* Ferrl ior/irl (Conj. JU.). 



mavis, 
mfivuit ; 
malumus, 
ma vultis, 
malunt. 



IRKEGULAB VERBS. 



181 



US. 

larities: 
soleto stems, 
s. Indie, and 
n. Pass, 
fewof tUem 



n. 

t they sup. 







Imperfect. 




m 


vtJIObam, has, 


etc. 


1 uolebam, bas, etc. 
Future. 


J malebam, bus, etc. Il 


volani. 




1 nolam. 

Perfect. 


1 malilm. 




volui. 




1 nOlul. 


1 malui. 






Pluperfect. 




|| 


voIufiruDC. 




1 nolueram. 
Future Perfect. 


malueram. 


J i 


voluerS. 




1 noluero. 


malu(5r3. 


lil 






Subjunctive. 


'f 1' 






Present. 


w 1 


velim 

vSlia 

velrt 

velimus 

velitis 

velint. 




nolim 

nolis 

nOlit 

nolimus 

nOlitIs 

nolint. 

Imperfect. 


malim 

malls 

malft 

malimus 

mfilltis 

malint. 


1 


vellem ' 

velles 

vellet 

vellemus 

vellcltis 

vellent. 




nollem 

nolles 

noliet 

nollemus 

nolletis 

nollent. 

Perfect. 


mallgm 

malles 

mallgt 

mallemus 

malletis 

mallent. 


1 


volu^rim. 


1 


noluSrim. j 
Pluperfect. 


»ai««. m 


voluissfim. 


1 


nOluissem. | 
IlLPERATIVE. 

Present. 




t 


I 


noli, nolite. J 
Future. 

nolitn, nolltdte ; 




Bf^^^^H 






nollto, nohmto. 




H 



a,.simn . l! ?/l J 'y"'"I"»''«» f"™« *•<"• ^'^^^''^^■^ r,em'e,' e U dropped and r 

r,S! T"^ '''^''"'' """"" ' ''''^^'''' '-'^'•'^ ^'^f'- So volhm m<l nolle for 

noUrem and noUre; maUem and malle, for malirem and maUre, 



132 



-Ifits^ 



vellg. 



voluissS. 



volens. 



rKREGULAB VEKBS. 

Infits-itjvb. 

Pkesent. 

I DOIIS. I 

Perfect, 
I nOluisse. ] 

Participle. 
I nolens. J 



-k. 



malle. 



muluisso. 



and /;^^^°-^^°«"'«'^-^''^^<' is compounded of ne or non and v6lo; malo, of rndffU 

2. Rake Form8.-(1) Of volo: rolt, voliU, for vuU, vulUs; sis, sultis, f„r si 
rw. s^ vult>s; vi,.^ for t7-.«..-(2) Of nOu,: nevis, nevult (neJt), ne.Hle fo Ion 



294. Fio, I become. 

•^^» fit^n, factu3 sum. 

Indicative. 

SINGULA.?. TLIJVLKU 

fio, fiS, fit; 
f IC'bam : 
f iam ; 



Pres. 
Imp. 

Put. 

Perp. 

Plup. 



factua sura ; 
factiis griim ; 



Put. Perf. factus ero ; 

Subjunctive. 



flmiis, f itis, f iuuL 
fiGbanius. 
flemus, 
facti siimus. 
facti ("ramus. 
facti fiiiiuus. 



Pres. 
Imp. 
Perp. 
Plup. 



Pres. 



fiam; 
f lerera ; 
factus sim ; 
factus essem ; 



fiam lis. 
fierGmus. 
facti simfis. 
facti cssemfia. 



Imperative. 



fi; 



Infinitive. 



PaES. 
Perp. 
Put. 



figri. 

factus esse, 
factum iri. 



fits. 

Participle, 

Perp. factfis. 
Put. faciendus. 



dlgm 



1. J-REGULARiTY.-J'^ is Only slightly irregular, as .vill bo seen from the para- 

2 Meanino.-/'/o moans (1) to lecome. (2) to he made, appmnted. In the 
second sense it is used as the passive otfacio. Sec 279. 

8. Compounds of Hn nro onn\\\rtnta,\ liu,, fy,„ _;_,_i- ___v . , =,.■■- 

«i/?« are defective. See 297. I U. 2. " ^'•"V'^ weyw, ana 



lEEEGULAR VERBS. 



133 



,• mulo, of mdglt 

SIS, sulti.% for si 
, neci'Ue, for non 
or ma:o, malim^ 



295. Eo.Iffo. 



E6, 



irc. 



ivi. 



itum. 



Indicative. 



SINGULAR. 



PRES. 

Imp. 

FUT. 

Pkrb'. 
Plup. 



eO, Is, it ; 
ibain ; 
ibo : 



ivi; 

Ivdrara ; 
Put. Perf. iveio; 



PLURAL. 

imus, itis, euut. 

ibaiiius. 

ibiuius. 

ivimus. 

iveiilmug. 

ivoiimufl. 



S UB JUNCTI VE. 



Pres. 
Imp. 
Pkrp. 
Plup. 



Pres. 
Put. 



earn ; 
Ire in ; 

ivissum ; 



eamus. 
ireiiius. 
iveriinug. 
ivissemiia 



I M r E K A T I r E . 



it3, 
itS; 



Inpii^itive. 



Pres. 
Perp. 
Put. 



Ire. 
ivissg. 
iturus esse. 



Gerund. 



Ocn. 
Bat. 
Ace. 
All. 



its. 

itdte 

euuto. 

Participle. 

Pres. iens. Gen. euntia. 
Put. iturus. 

Supine. 



eunclT. 
eiindd. 
cuiuium. 
euiiilo. 



■Ace, \ium. 
Abl. itu. 

aditur, etc. ~ ■ ^^'^ ^'^'^''' ""^'^^ I" approach, arfeor. arfir^. 

^.n&.-o is^cgulaMike aMio, though a.^jja^n for amU^am occur. 



134 



'lEEEGULAE VEEBS. 



296. QlxxQo, I am able. HHequcOy I am unable. 

Queo, quire, quJvi, guUum, and mqueo, nequirc, nequlvi {ii), negul- 
turn, are conjugated like eo, but they wout the Imperative and Gerund, and 
are rare, except in the Present tense.' 



'"fecS't 



DEFECTIVE VEEBS. 

T ?^7" P<^f^'ctive Verbs want certain parts: m'o specify 
the following." f J' 

I. Peesent System Wanting. 
Coepi, I have begun. Memlni, I remember. Odi, I hate. 

Indicative. 



• Perf. cocpl. 

Plop. coeperam. 

FuT. Perf. coepero. 



mominl. 

moininfirara. 

meminero. 



Subjunctive. 



Perf. 
Plup. 



coeperim. 
coepissem. 



mSminerim. 
meminissSm. 



odi. 

oderara. 

odero. 



oderim. 
odissem. 



Perf. 

FUT. 



Perf. 
FuT. 



coc{)iss6. 
coepturus essS. 



Impe r ative. 

Is. mgmento. 
P. mementote. 

Infinitive. 

memmisse. 



Paeticiple. 



cocptus. 
coepturus. 



odisse. 
osurus essS. 



osijs.' 
osurus. 



1. Passive FoRM.-Wlth passive Infinitives eoepi generally takes the passive 
form : coeptus sum, iram, etc. The Part, coeptus is passive in sense 

2 Pbesent in Mm^.-3IemUi and odi are present in sense; hence in the 
Pluperf. and Fut. Perf. they have the sense of the Imperf. and Fut.-AV;.;, I know 
I erf. of «o«co to learn, and comwvi, I am wont, Perf. of comuesco, to accustom 
one 8 self, are also present in sense. 



» A passive form, qnltur, neqnUur, etc., sometimes occurs before a Piiss. Infln. 
Many, which want the Perf. or Sup. or both, have been mentioned under the 
classification of Verbs. 

» Ofius Is active In eense, haiinff, but la rafo except in compounds: e^eoftua. 
perosua. ' 



)UQds: 6«to6ll8, 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

II. Paets of Each Systeai Wanting. 



135 



1. Aio, I sa^, say yes} 



aiunt. 
-ebant.' 

aiaut. 



iNDic. Prcs. aio, ax.,' aTt • 

-''«/>. aitibam. -pbio ,-i '* "T ~ — 

P^y, ' ^ f-'^^\ -ebamus. -ebatfe, 

Slbj. Pres. «:., ??*; ' 

IMPICR. Z^,.,,. ai (ra,..). ^''''' ^^'^^^ 

iAKT. Pres. aiens {as adjective). 

2. Inquam, 7 saij. 

•W.K. />,.i i;;;:. ^Tiir&sr'^ ~ ~ =: 

3. Fari, ^o 5^ea^.« 

Indic. Pres. . ^., 

M// ^-1 - ~ — ~ latur; - • 

^«/. fatussum, es. est- r.-^- v . ' ■ 

/^V fttus eraiD, eras Sst- ^ ! «"™"5. ostis, sunt. 
Spbj. A>/. fttus Sim, ' sis' s7t ' .^leramus, eratis, eran . 

Impeb. Pm. ft-ug. ' ^'^''' esbct, fUti essemus, essotis, essent. 

INFIN. Pres. fan 

III. Imperatives and Isolated Forms. 

1. lMPERATim.~ave, avote; avetS • Jvp ' , 

salve, salvetg, salvGtd • ' * r,''-"' ^^■^• 

ag<5,' agltg, '^" "*^. 5"'^ W(?. 
apagS, come. 
bcf/ofic. 

..«.'<> of Jf^^f^tr'see'ir '"™ •*>'"■»"."! ■..f.ro .vowel ,1, , i, .t. 

Also written inqulhat 
cJi""'"™-"" «-i- -c.,™.. „„„,,.. .,.,.„ „„, ,^^^^ ,^^^^ 
• ^«ri Is used chiefly in noetrr r^^^ ^ , 

--pie ; thus : uM^nur, offa^n^Z^ffaZ^'T^^r^'Tl'''^' "°* ^"""^ ^" "- 
in compounds. ' J^'^"^''' mi^ris. Subj. Imp. /^^g;- also occurs 

J I^^ f "'• *"^'''"*^* '« *'»« used f.,r tl,6 Imnerat 
-^i^e is also used in the sense of thoriuS. 



#^| 



--7t 



I 



i 

I 



330 



IMPERSONAL VEEB3. 



2. Isolated Fohms. 



Indic. P^-es. 
confit, 



dcfit, 
infit, 



dcfii) .., 
infiunt, 



Fut. 



defiet, 



Sun. Pros. Imp. 

coiifiat, confiurfit, 
def'iut, 



Sub. Imp. fori?m, forfis, foref, — 
Ind. Pres. ovjit. Part, ovans, 
Ind. Pres. quaeso, quaesumiis, ^ 



Infin. 

conf ifirl, to be done. 
duf iurl, to be wanting. 
to begin, 

forciit. Lnf, for*).' 

he rejoices. 
I pray. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

298. Iniiiersonal Verbs never admit a jiersonal subject. 
They correspond to the English Impersonal with it: 'lice% 
it is lawful, oporfet^ it behooves.' They are conjugated 
like other verbs, but are used only in the third person sin- 
gular of the Indicative and Subjunctive and in the Present 
and Perfect Infinitive. 

299. Strictly Impersonal are only : 
DScet, dScuit, it becomes. * 

libitum est, *'?^^««««-* 



Lib6t, I }if ^^*'' 



Piget 



' i pigltum est, 'i9ncves. 
PoenitSt, poenituit, ^ it causes re- 
gret : ^ poenitet mej / repent. 

Pudet. 



*' ] pldSnm est, ^'^ *''«"^^*- 
Taedfit, it wearies; pertaedet, per- 
tacsum est. 



^''^^^ I iSm est, '* '' ^«'^/"^-* 
I-Tqu6t, lieu it, it is evident.* 

Misfiret, misoritum est, it excites pity; 

me raiseret, I pity. 

Oportet, oportuit, it behooves. 

1. Participles nro generally wanting, tnt a few occur, thonsh with a some- 
what modifled sense: (1) from libet: Mens, willinfr; (2) from licet; licenK free; 
llc\ta.% allowed; (3) from vof.sitzt : poen'item, penitent; poenl.tend&s, to bo re- 
pented of; (4) from pudet: pMens, modest; pMendus, shameful. 

2. Gerunds are generally wanting, but occur In rare in&tAmtia \ poenttendUm, 
p^ldendo. 

300. Generally Impersonal are several verbs which de- 
signate the changes of weather, or the operations of nature : 

Fulminat, it lightens. Pluit (P. pluit), it rains. 

Gvm6xi\i\t, it hails. Rorat, dew falls. 

Lnpidat, it rains stones. Toniit (tomut), it thunders. 

LueescTt, it grows light. Vesperascit, evening approaches. 

Ningit (mnxit), it snows. 



> Fovenv = essem :ybre = futurum esse. See 204. 1. 

^ Old forms for qiutero and qaaerhnus. 

3 The real subject is generally an infinitive or clause, sometimes a nriiter 
pronoun: hocjiefi opartnt.. tiiut this should be done is noeenRnr", 

« These four occur in the Uiird person plural, but without a personal subject. 
So the Comp. didicct. So also some of the others iu rare instances. 



poenUcnd&m, 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 23^ 

Thul^^' ^^'"^ ''^^''' '^''^' ^'^ ^^"" ""'^^ impersonally. 



Accidit, 

Apparot, 

Attiuct, 

Conducit, 

Constat, 

Contiiigit, 

Coiivr-uit, 

Deloetat, 

Displicet, 

DOlet, 

Evt'iiit, 

Expddit, 

Fallit ( 



The folio \ving : 

it happens, 
it appean. 
it concerns, 
it is useful, 
it is evident, 
it happens, 
it isjittincf. 
it deliyhls. 
it displeases, 
it grieves, 
it liappens. 
it is expedient. 

it escapes {nic). 



Pit, 

Interest, 

Jiivat, 

Patet, 

Pertinet, 

Placet, 

Praostat, 

PiactOrit (me). 

Kelert, 

Restat, 

Subit, 

Sufficit, 

Buperest, 

Vueat, 



it happens, 
it concerns, 
it deliffhts. 
it is plain, 
it pertains, 
it pleases, 
it is better, 
it escapes {/nc'^, 
it concerns, 
it remains, 
it occurs, 
it suffices, 
it remains, 
there is leisure. 



i ugit j- ("^<^)' 

' "^'"'i t/icre IS leisure. 

t.li^ "Sf^r'hlft^ T ^-If^^--^^ tibi credrtur, ,ou are 
therp in running r:^!:./ ^^^'^"''^' certutiir, «; is contended; curritur 

<A.^/ /aVc. ' '"'^"' ' '''"-y ''°'«^' ^'^ ««''««, etc. ; vivitur, we, you, 



-♦♦♦- 



CHAPTEE Y. 
PARTICLES. 

ii^P^o "^"^^ ^""^^'r '^-'^'^ ^^"'* P-'^^'ts of speech sometimes 
jimction, and the Interjection. 

ADVERBS. 

303 The Adverb is tlie part of speech which is us^d 
to qnnhfy verh«, odjoctivcs. and othpt- .^,.o,.i.o . ceJerUer 

itet\ 



mmr^ to run swiftly; tarn celer, so swift: tarn celer 



so 



swiftly 



138 



ADVERBS. 



Vtl 



304. Adverbs may be cliviaed, according to their sig- 
nification, into four jjrinciijal classes : 

I. Adverbs op Place. 



IIic, 
illlc, 
istic, 
Qbi, 



Hodie, 
ibi, 
jam, 
jamdiu, 



Adeo, 
aliter, 
ita, 
magia, 



here ; 
there ; 
there ; 
where ? 



to-daij. 

then, 

now. 



hue, 
illQo, 
istuc, 
quo, 



hither ; 
thither ; 
thither ; 
whither ? 



hinc, 
illinc, 
istiiic, 
uud6, 



hcnct. 
thence, 
thence, 
whence ? 



II. Adverbs of Time. 



nondum, 

nunc, 

nunquam, 



not yet. 
noio. 
never, 
formerly. 



saept^, 
eemel, 
turn, 
uuquam. 



oftCUi. 

once, 
then, 
ever. 



long since. Olira, 

III. Adverbs op Manjs-er, Means, Degree. 



so. 

otherwise, 
so. 
more. 



paong, 
palam, 
prorsus, 
rite. 



almost, 
ojienly. 
wholly, 
rightly. 



sic, 
lit, 

valde, 
vix. 



50. 

as. 

much, 

scarcely. 



IV. A.DVERBS or Cause, Inference. 



Cur, why ? 

quare, wherefore. 

quaraobrem, wherefore. 

quapropter, wherefore. 



€0, for this reason. 

ideo, on this account. 

idcirco, therefore. 

propteiea, therefore. 



i« 



305. Comparison.— Most Adverbs are derived from 
adjectives, and are dependent upon them for their compari- 
son. The comparative is the neuter singular of the adjec- 
tive, and the superlative changes the ending us of the ad- 
jective into e : 

altus, altior, altissTmus, lofty. 

alte, altius, altissime, loftily. 

prudens, prudcntior, prudentissimus, prudent. 

prudenter, prudentius, prudentisslme, prudently. 

1. Magis and Maxime.— When the adjective is compared with tnagis 
and maxime, the adverb is compared in the same way : 

egregius, mao;is egregiiis, maxime egrcgius, excellent. 
egregie, mSgis egregie, maxime egregie, excellently. 

2. Irkegulau Comparison.— When the adjective is irregular, the adverb 
has the same irregularity : 

b8nns, melior, optlmus, qood. 

bene, melius, optime, wdl. 

male, pejus, pessime, ladly. 

3. Defective GoMPAnisoN.—Whcn the adjective is defective, the adverb 
is generally defective : 



COMPAEISON OP ADVEKBS. 



139 



n(5vu3, 
utJve, 



deterior, 
deterius, 



dcterrlnnis, 
deterrlme, 
iJovis.srinus, 
iiovissluio, 



worse, 
worse, 
ntw. 
newly. 



4, Co.„.,v„.„.-A f,» „„, d«,-i,e<I r™, adjoctiv'cs are couuTrcd : 

I „ , eiijicientl)/. 

nupenime, rfcetUly. '' 



s&Ms, 



those from adjectives incapable of ccHm.ar son Hm ^''"'''' '' "'"'" 

here; ««„c. „o,v; ../,a.L, con.roT ^' " '"^"'"^'^ '"' 

■ ' PREPOSITIONS. 

For list of prepositions, see 433-435. 

rJi nf^r* ^'''^^^"'"'^ P«^P««"'0'^s—-l»^5^ amJ, around abo.f rf^ 
strblf' -'-^.back; ., aside, apart ; ./and ;, not «;« cXdt: 
scpauble prepositions, because they are used only in cLpositior. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

iha A??* Conjunctions are mere connectives : pater et fllh,, 
the father and son; pater j^tjt Jlllus, the fathe^ or s^n*^ '' 

into t?vo' c?ares°''""' "" '"^'^'' ^^^^^^^ ^^ their use, 

I. Coordinate Coxjujvctioxs. 
sion?: ^- ^"'^'^^"^te Conjanctions comprise five subdivi- 
1. Copulative Conjunctions, denoting union • 

^6quS-.ncque. ncc-ncc, nequc-nec, ncither~nor. 



« 



fl i 



«" 



140 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



A ''IB 1 1 



2. Disjunctive Conjunctions, denoting sc[.ftration : 

Aut, vol, v5, sivo (sou), or. Aut— aut, vCl— vol, eilher—or. Sivo- 
sive, either — or. 

3. Adversative Conjunctions, denoting opposition : 

Sed, autem, vGrum, vCro, but. At, but, on tfce contrary,. Atqui, but 
rather. Cetcrum, but utill. Tamen, yet. 

4. Illative Conjunctions, denoting inference : 

Ergo, igitiir, inde, proindo, rtilquo, heme, therefore. Sec also 587, IV. 2. 

6. Causal Conjunctions, denoting cause : 
Nam, namque, oulm, ctenim, for. 

II. Subordinate Conjunctions. 

_ 311. Subordinate Conjunctions comprise eio-ht subdi- 
visions: ^ ° 

1. Temporal Conjunctions, denoting time : 

Quaniio,qnum, when. Ut, nh\, as, when. Quum prlmum, ut nrlmum 
ubi prlmum. siraul, simulac, simulutquc, as soon as. Dum, donee, quoad' 
quamdiu, while, until, as lomj as. Antcquam, priusquum, be/ore. Posted' 
quam, after. "^ 

2. Comparative Conjunctions, denoting comparison : 

Ut, uti, sieut, slouti, as, so as. Vclut, just as. Pracut, prout, ac 
cording as, in comparison with. Quam, as. Tanquara, quam, ut si ac si 
velut SI, as if. » » 

.3. Conditional Conjunctions, denoting condition : 
Si, if Sl non, nisi, nl, if not. Sin, but if Si quidem, if indeed. 
Si modo, dum, modo, dummodo, if only. 

4. Concessive Conjunctions, denoting concession : 

Quamquam, licet, quum, although. Etsi, tamctsi, etiamsT, eien if 
Qnaravis, qnantumvis, quantumlibet, however much, although. Ut, qreiiit 
that. Ne, grant that not. 

5. Final Conjunctions, denoting purpose or end : 

Ut, flti, that, in order that. Ng, nGve (neu), that not. Quo, that. 
Quomlnus, that not. 

6. Consecutive Conjunctions, denoting consequence 

C/I I CSLiIIj • 

Ut, so that. Ut non, quin, so that not. 

1. Causal Conjunctions, denoting cause: 



iivration: 
'• — or. Sivo-^ 

pposition : 

■y. Atqui, but 

»ce: 

Jso 587, IV. 2. 



ight subdi- 



n, lit primum, 
donee, quoad, 
^ore. Postea- 

mparison : 

it, proiit, ac- 
li, lit si, ac si, 

dition : 
m, ?■/■ indeed. 

ession ; 

msT, eveji if. 
. Ut, grant 

' end ; 
Quo, that. 

Qsequence 



INTEEJECnONS. j., 

INTERJECTIONS. 
exi)ress ^'^'^^ ^^ address. TJioy may 

i- "r ;:ir„- ,i!r *""• "-'•■ «'-• «■ '-'''- «»*. -. « 

6. Calling: ^leus, o, cko, ekodum. 
6. Praise : ee^y^, f;V7, hcja. 



CHAPTER YI. 

FORMATION OF WOEDS. 
313. Words may be formed in two ways • 

DERIVATION OF WORDS. 
NOUNS. 



1 



I 



y^^. 



H'J 



DEBIVATION OF NOUNS. 



•om 


Iiortus, 


garden. 




virga, 


branch. 




o|)pidiuii, 
Uos, 


town. 
Jlower. 




purs, 
luuinis. 


part, 
present. 



I. Nouns puom Nouns. 
315. Diminutives j,aiic'r;illy end in 

ulus, ilia, iiliim, oiQus, oula, oiilum. 

Iiort-iiliis, a Hinalt f/arden^ 

vir;;-ulii, a .small branch, 

0])|)id-uluna, a snuUl town, 

llus-culiis, a small Jlower^ 

I)art-i-trila, a xmall part, 

luuiiurt-ci'ilum, a small present, 

1. Ulus, ula, ulum me guneruUy uddud tu the steina of uuuua uf Dca 
I. and IF., und to aoino of Dec. III. 

2. Olus, 51a, Slum urc used for &tiis, ula, ulum, wlicn a vowel pre- 
cedes : jUiblus, iiitlo sou, {ramjilius ; Jilidla, little duuglitcr, i'lom Jilia ; atri- 
dlutn, sniuil hall, from atrium. 

3. EUus, ella, ellum ; illus, ilia, ilium, nro sometimes used, ea. 
pcciuiiy with primitives of Dec. I. uud II., whose steuis eud iu 1, n, or r; 
but cl aud // iu these ciulniys generally displace the last syllable of the stem : 
ocellus, small eye, from oeulus ; fabella, short fable, ivoia f alula ; bacillum, 
small staff, from hndilnm. 

4. Oiilus, cula, culum are used with primitives of Dec. IV. and V., 
and with some of Dec. III. These are appended 

1) To X\iQ Nominative : flos,flo8-ciUu» ; inulier, mulierc&la ; munus, mimus- 
cHlum. 

2) To the Stem with a connecting vowol i, aometimes e : i>o;i« (bridge), ^onf-f- 
cHIuh; pars, pnrtie Ufa; viifpes (fox), va/peciila. 

3) To tlie Stem of nouns in o (G. onis, Inis), with stem-vowel chanired to u: 
homo (man), homun-cfifus ; virgo (maiden), virffuiiviUa. Uko nouns in o, a few 
othor words form diminutives in unvUlus, uncUla : avus (unale^avunciilus ; domus 
(house), dom uncula. 

5. Uleus and cio are rare: equuleus, a small horse, from equus ; 
homuncio, a small man, from homo. 

316. Patronymics, or names of descent, generally 
end in 



i'i. 



ides, ides, lades, Sdes, 
is, els, las, as, 

Tantal-Tdcs, son of Tantalus ; 

Thes-idea, son of Tlicseus ; 

Lacrt-lades, so7i of Laertes ; 

Thcsti-ades, son of Tliestins ; 

1. Ides (I) and is are the common endings. 

2. Ides (I) and eis are used especially with primitives in eus. 

3. lades, Sdes, and ias, as, are used principally with primitives in 
iu«, and iu those iu as aud e« of Dec. L— Aeneas has Aeneddes, masc. and 
Aeneis, fem. 



Tantul-is, 
ThosOis, 
Laert-ias, 
Thesti-as, 



masculine, 
feminine. 

dnurfhter of Tantahiit, 
daughter of Theseus, 
daughter of Laertes. 
daughter of 2'hestius. 



I 



)m equus ; 



He. 



flora 



DEllIVATION OF NOUNS. 143 

theS*'''""^^"""' "" ^•"«'« "ro often formed with 

etum, 

a dovecot, 

a forest ofoah, 

ena^i^'i;::;;:it;^S."' ^^^^ fbrmea with several other 
^ua, io, ium, itium, 



firium, 

columh-arimn, 

<lUfrc-Otuin, 

ovilc, 



coliimba. 

qiiorcus. 

ovis. 



statu-aiius, 

lu(J-in, 

waoerdot-Iimi, 

serv-itiiun, 

vir-ttis, 

coiKsiil-atus, 



tus (rtus), atus. 



from 






stiitua. 

Indus. 

saocddoa. 

servus. 

vir. 

consul. 



« utatnary, 

a pfni/cr, 

pricHtltood, 

scriy'Uudc, 

virtue, 

comiiMnp, 

1. Arius and io g'^nerally designate one's occupafion. 
5. Patrial or Gentile NouNs.-Soe 326. 3. 

11. Nouns prom Adjectives. 

Mu.i%-I:Z eiltgs™' "" '"""'^^ ^''™''^ ^^^'^-^^ 

ia, itia, itas, 

diliscnt-in, rf^y/r/cwce, 

annc-itia, friendship, 

bon-itas, goodness,^ 

8ol-if,udo, W/7«rfe, 

acr-imoni(i, sharpness. 



itudo, imonia. 



from 
(( 

(t 

It 



diirgens. 

amicus. 

bonus. 

solus. 

acer. 



.* 



144 



DERIVATION OF NOUNS. 



i 1 



the stem of the ndjective is slightly changod : facilis, facultas, faculty ; diffi- 
cUh, diJficuUas, dilliculty ; pottnt>, jjotedas, power; houedus, ho/ustas, honesty. 

2. ItMo and xtas. — A few adjectives form abstracts with both these 
endings : Jirmus, firmUas, firmlludo, firmness. Polysyllabic adjectives iu 
tus generally change tus into tudo : soUkUus, sollicitudo, solicitude. 

3. Imonia is rare : J'arsi?nonia, parsimony, from parens, changes o 
into s, 

III. Nouns from Verbs. 

1. From the Present Stem. 

320. From the Present stem are formed Verbal Nouns 
with various endings, especially with 

orj iumj men, mentumj baliarij culum, brum, cram, trum. 

ara-or. 



tim-or, 

gadd-ium, 

cert-fi-mcn, 

orn-fi-mentum, 

voc-a-bulum, 

veh-i-cfikun, 

fl-abi'uni, 

simul-fi-cium, 

ar-fi-trum, 



ora 


amo. 


(I 


timeo. 


(( 


gaudeo 


(( 


certo. 


(( 


orno. 


«( 


voco. 


i( 


voho. 


i( 


flo. 


it 


simulo. 


<i 


arc. 



love, 
fear, 

J"?/, 

contest, 

ornament, 

appellation, 

vehicle, 

blast, 

ima[/e, 

2>lourjh, 

1. Or designates the action or state denoted by the verb. 

2. lum has neaily the same force, but sometimes designates the thing 
done: aedificlum, edilicc, from aediflco. 

3. Men and mentum generally designate the means of an action, or 
its involuntary subject : flumen, a stream, something which flows, iiomjluo ; 
agmen, an army in motion, from ago. 

These endings are generally preceded by a connecting vowel: orn-a-mentum, 
ornament; Text-i.-mentum, clothing. Sometimes the stem itself is shortened or 
chanijed: f/'agmentum, fragmeiit, twmfrango; momentum, moving force, from 
moveo. 

4. Balum, culum, brum, crum, trum designate the indrument or 
the place of the action : vehii-ulum, vehicle, instrument cf the action, from 
veho ; stabuium, stall, place of the action, fiom sto. 

These endings generally tnke a connecting vowel. Sometimes the stem itself is 
changed ;*S6pM/c/'«w, sepulchre, from sepelio. 

5. Ulum, ula. — Ulum for culum occurs after c and g : vinc-ulum, a 
bond, from vincio ; cing-ulum, girdle, from cingo. Ula also occurs : regula, 
rule, from rego. 

6. Us, a, O sometimes designate the agent of the action : coquus, cook, 
from coqno ; gcrlha, v.riter, from scrlho : erro, wanderer, from e?-ro. 

7. Ela, ido, igo anil a few other endings also occur: querela, com- 
plaint, from queror; cvpido, desire, from cv^io ; orlgo, origin, from orior. 



DEKIVATIOX OF NOUNS. 

2. From the Supine Stem. 



145 



witMli- ondiuy"' ^'*'™ ^'""' "- '■°™»1 V'^rlalNoun, 



or. 



amfit-or, 

audit-or, 

monit-io, 

aucJit-io, 

audlt-us, 

cant-US, 

pict-ura, 



U3, 



ura. 



from 

(( 
(( 

«« 



amo. 

audio. 

moneo. 

audio. 

audio. 

cano. 

piugo. 



10, 

lovc)\ 

hearer^ 

aduising^ 

hearing^ 

liearing^ 

singing^ 

^. lo, »3, .„<, i^a ro™ *,L. „„Lf „ts dre^L;::;.-""- 

ADJECTIVES. 

I. Adjectives from Nouns. 
1. From Common Nouns. 

5^»'. lenta, ata,, jtaiN 

anim-clsus. y,,// ^^ 

corn.QtiM, ^„,,„,_' 

eus, xnus, aus, „eusj rarely aceus, and xcius. 




utus. 

animus. 

opes. 

ala. 

turn's. 

cornu. 



aur-cus, 
cedr-Tuus, 
popuI-nu8, 
popul-neus, 



golden, 
cedar, 
of poplar, 
of poplar, 



from 
«( 



aurum. 

codrus, 

pop-rdus. 

populus. 






1% 



146 



DERIVATION OF ADJECTIVES. 



5ii ! 



H'.'ff 



li 



^ M 



III 

It' ! 
I* 




papyr-aceus, 
later-icius, 



of papyrus^ 
of bi'ick, 



from 



papyrus, 
later. 



civ-icu9, 

civ-ilis, 

equ-Inus, 

rcg-ius,_ 

niurt-alis, 

urb-finus, 

salut-fuis, 

auxili-fuius, 

Ibr-eusis, 



aris, 


anus, ensis. 


from 


civis. 


(k 


civis. 


(( 


equus. 


tt 


rex. 


K 


mors. 


(( 


urb9. 


(t 


salus. 


(( 


auxilium. 


(( 


forum. 



325. CHARAorERiSTic.— Adjectives signifyiug belonging 

to^ derioed/rom, generally end in 

icus, ills, inug, ius; alls, anus, 

relating to a citizen^ 
relating to a citizen, 
of, pertaining to a horse, 
roj/al, 

mortal, 

of, pertaining to a city, 

salutarg, 

auxiliary, 

forensic, 

1, Ticus is sometimes added to the Nom. : rus, rus-ikus, rustic. 

2. Ernu3, ester, itimus and a few other endings also occur : ;)ai!«r, 
paternus, paternal ; campus, campester, level ; mare, marUimus, maritime. 

2. From Proper Nouns. 

326. Adjectives from proper nouns generally end in 

anus, ianus, inus; iacus, icus, ius, ensis, iensisj as, aeus, eus. 

of Sylla, 

Roman, 

Ciceronian, 

Latin, 

Corinthian, 

Corinthian, 

British, 

of Cannae, 

Athenian, 

of Fidenae, 

S)nyrnea7i, 

Pythagorean, 

1. Ianus is the ending generally used in derivatives from Names of Per- 
sons ; but anus, inus, ius, and the Greek endings eus and icus also occur. 

2 Ensis and canus (anus) in derivatives from names of countries sig- 
nify merely i<^e«<7 in the countr7j,m distinction from belonging tojt: thus 
e:cercUus mspaniensis is an annij stationed in Spain, but exercUus Jhspameus 

is a Spanish army. 

3 Patrials—Many of these adjectives from names of places are also 
used substantivelv as PatHal or GentUe Nouns to designate the citizens of 
the place : CoriniUi, the Corinthians ; Athenienses, the Athenians. 

II. Adjectives from Adjectives. 
327. Diminutives from other adjectives generally end 
like diminutive nouns (315) in 



SuU-finus, 

Rom-anus, 

Ciceron-ianus, 

Lut-Inus, 

Corinth iilcus, 

Corinth-ius, 

Britann-icus, 

Cann-ensis, 

Atlien-iensis, 

FidCn-as, 

Smyrn-aeus, 

Pythagor-eus, 



from 


Sulla. 


u 


Roma. 


<( 


Cicftro. 


(( 


Latium. 


t( 


Corinthus. 


u 


Coriuthus. 


(( 


Britannus. 


(i 


Cannae. 


t( 


Athenae. 


l( 


Fidenae. 


u 


Smyrna. 


(( 


Pythag6ras 



q 



I 

if 



DERIVATIOIf OP ADJECTIVES. 



147 



^us, ula, ulum, cuius, cula, culum. 
hard:Vj;Z ,;:;"""'"" ""'''' '^ --paraUves: ^«n«.o«,,, somewhat 

III. Adjectives feom Verbs. 
328. Verbal atljectives generally end in ' 

bundus, cundus; idus, ilig, bOis, ax. 

mir-ft-bundiis, 
vor-e-eundus, 
c;il-i(Jus, 
pav klus, 
doc-ilis, 



am-a-bilis, 

p"gii-ax, 

aud-ax, 



ieo7idenng, 

diffident, 

warm, 

fearful, 

docile, 



from 



(C 

(( 



nni'or. 

vercor. 

oaleo. 

paveo. 

docco. 

anio. 

pugno. 

audeo. 



worthy of love, 
piirjnacious, 

2. Mm rola,„s the simple meaning of (he rcb ' 
*»,, .erribie. capable ofpX^/^Tc^r '""" " "" '^*' "•■-'« ■ '»'■•■ 

prepositions: ' ■'"'•''""™^ "■= '''"•'"^'J fr<»» »<lverbs and 
-S5 ^t^ - J-. 






VERBS. 

330. Derivative Vei'bs 
^tyes, and Feris. 



arc formed from muns, Adjec 



148 



DERIVATION OF VEEB3. 



it 4 




flfi 



I. Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives. 
331. Verbs formed from nouns and adjectives end in 



Conj. I. 



Conj. II. 

eo, 



Conj. IV. 

io. 



Conjugation I. — ^Transitive. 



armo, 

euro, 

nomliio, 

cacco, 

libfiro. 



floreo, 
liiceo, 
albeo, 
flaveo, 



to arm, 

to cure, 

to name, 

to viakc blind, 

to liberate. 



from 

u 
(( 
u 



Conjugation II.— Intransitive. 



to bloom, 
to shine, 
to be white, 
to be yellow, 



from 

(< 



arma. 

cura. 

noiiicn. 

caecus. 

liber. 



flos. 
lux. 
albus. 
flavus. 



from 



finis, 
vestis. 
mollis, 
sacvus. 



Conjugation IV.— Generally Transitive. 

fiiiio, to finish, 

vestio, to clothe, 

mollio, to soften, 

saevio (intrans.), to rage, 

1. Asco and esco occur in Inceptivcs. See 332. II. 

2. Deponent.— Derivatives, lilic otlicr verbs, may of course be depo- 
nent : dununor, to donincer, from donimus. 

II. Verbs from Verbs. 

332. Verbs derived from other verbs are — Frequenta- 
tlves, Inceptives, JDesidemtives^ and Diminutives. 

I. Frequent ATiVES denote repeated or continued action. 
They are of the first conjugation and are formed 

1. From Supines in atum by changing atum into ito: 



clam-ito, 
vol-ito, 



to exclaim, 
to fill, 



irom 



clamo, 
volo, 



clamatum. 
volatum. 



2. From other Supines by changing um into o, some- 
times Ito : 

adjut-o, to ar.sist r.ffen, from adjuvo, adjutiim. 

babit-o, to hare often, " habco, liabltuni. 

lect-Ito, to read ofte:., " lego, lectum. 

1) Ito is sometimes added to the Present Stem of verbs of Conj. III. : 
ago, a(j'Uo i qiiaero, quacrlto. 

2) Esse and isso form derivatives which are generally classed with 



DERIVATION OF VERBS. 149 

frequentative., though they are intenBive in force, denotinc earned rather 
hau repeated action, and are of Conj. III. : facioj^cesso, to d'o «tly "n 

wie same lorce: rapio, rapto, to seize eagerly. 

II. LxcEPTiVEs, or LxciiOATiVEs, denote the be-innin.. 
oniie action. They are of the third conjugation, and end in 
^°°' esco, isco. 

SS \o^<'9i- to freeze, from gSIo, are 

iieinisco, to bepm to tremble, " tn-mo ^ 

1. Asco IS used in incentives from verbs nf r«n; t . • o 
nouns „„, me.u„, , ^„,,, ^^^^^^^ "oJll Z '- °"' '" ' ''" '"" 

fron, ;.*r:f 1;:;]: t 'Lirirr ""°^' "-''^ -^'^ » "-p"- 

«.», to grw hard. ^ '""' °°™'' ""• '"J""™'' ^ rf"™'. </8- 

tion^VcffaTrftr Ir,'' " '^^''•^"' P"^''''™ the ac 



Cs-urio, 
enipt-urio, 



/o desire to cat, 
to desire to buy, 



fiom Mo, 
" ^mo, 



Csum. 
emptum. 



changing the ending into illo : ^^^"* ^^ 

Jo sirtf, feebly, from canto 

^ scribble, u "^"" ^ 

' conscnbo. 



cant-illo, 
conscrib-illo, 



ADVERBS. 

I. Adverbs from Kouns. 
334. Adverbs are formed from nouns 
the ablaiiveT^'^^ ''^'"^ ' case-ending, especially that of 

tcmp6re, te>np6ri, in ti.ne ; forte, by chance ; Jure, with right, rightly. 

2. By taking special endings ; 

h stealth. ' ' ■ ° "^"^ • ^"*' ^'^^^'^"'^ ^y ^«rds ; /•«., /«,^,v«, 



i 



It 



11 



150 



DERIVATION OP ADVERBS. 



IS i! 



,»'(*» I 



iU 



2) itus denoting origin, souuck : coelum, coelUus, from heaven ; fundus, 
funditus, from the foundation. 

II. Adverbs from Adjectives and Participles. 

335! Adverbs from adjectives and participles generally 

end in 

e, or, iter. 

dodus, dode, learnedly ; llher, liUre, freely ; elegans, eleganter, elegantly; 
nrUdens, prudenter, prudently ; celer, celerUer, quickly. 

1. E is added to the stems of most adjectives and participles of Dec. I. 
and II. See examples. 

2. Er and iter are added to the stems of adjectives of Dec. III.— er 
to stems in nt, iter to other sterns.—^/' and iter also occur iu adverbs from 
adjectives and participles of Dec. I. and II. . . . ' 

3. Atim, im, and itus also occur in ;i? verbs from primitives of Dec. 
I. and II. : singiili, singuldtim, one by one ; passus, passim, everywhere; di- 
vimis, dimnitus, divinely. 

4. Other Forms.— Certain forms of adject: vt 3 sometimes become ad- 
verbs : 

1) Neuters in e, um, rarely a: fdcMe, easily; multum, mvlta, much. 

2) Ablatives in a, O, is : dextra, on the right ; coimUto, designedly ; paucis, 

brleflv, in few words. 

3) Accusatives in am: &i/aHa»n,, In two parts; mu^/Airiam, in many parts or 

places {partem, understood). 

5. Numeral Adverbs.— See ISl. 

III. Adverbs from Pronouns. 

336. Various adverbs are formed from Pronouns : thus 
from hiCj Hie, and iste are formed 

hlc, here; hiic, hither; hinc, hence. 

illlc, there; iHuc, 



thither ; 



illinc, 



istic, there; istuc, thither; istiuc, 



thence, 
thence. 



U it 



IV. Adverbs from Prepositigns. 

337. A few adverbs are formed from Prepositions, or 
are at least related to them : 

intra, intra, within; ultra, ultra, beyond ; in,intus, within ; sul, suUus, 
beneath. 

COMPOSITION OF WORDS. 

338. The elements of a compound may unite in three 
distinct ways : 



COMroSITIOX OP WORDS. 



N.-. 



161 



fcm^w ^Z "i^"""'"^? '""^" ^^'^^^^«"t ^^^^Se of form-' 
aecem-vm, the decemvirs, ten men- o7)fin tn Jr. 

ante pojio, to place hotore. ' ""' ^"^ ^o avvayj 

case"ge^n"c^.f,rtt'£"t;v"^ l'' ^'"f ' ^^ I^"*^" ^" ^^^'^^^ 

««A<7.-.. ^''''P'*- "^■^"'•^^ iov ab..j,oHo. Ab becomes a« in at./^.. and 

Ante,-uncbanged, except in a«^^.e^> and a^Ui-sto. 
Circum.-unchanged, except in circu-eo. 

-(3) m assimilated before; „ ^ /'j' *>""'' »"^ «■«. ^•'''■'^".^•ir^o.™, 
Wore .he other co„,„„a„.s : llf^^X'Z''"'"''''''^ " *°°^°'' '° " 

often dropped : 4«* orl^lto ' ^ ' '"^"'' '"'"*• « *' «« " 

..■rren;ris:tet::ed"ns'°"' '*'"*•-■ "---^^ '»^- 

Inter,-nDehnnged, except in intd-llgo. 
eh.„°ed'~t»i"'I";;""''°".''' -^^ "' *"• "■ """'- '""«*- Benorally „„. 

ped i°„ oJZ"7i!fZt-I2T""- 1*''"' "**• B"' » « *°°- 

for **„<& (b dropped) '° " "" ""^ ^ *-<'^'«'«'. ««»* 

Perp„„h„„ged exeepl i„^.;.a,-„,^,„ 






!-t 



» Except of course euphonic changes. 






152 



coairosiTioN op words. 



Pro, — sometimes prod before a vowel : prod-eo, prod-igo. 

Sub, — b assimilated before c,f, g, p, getierally before in and r ; dropped 
before sp ; in other situations uncliaiiged; auc-cumho, su-spicio {ov sub-gpkio ,• 
sub-eo, sub-duco. An old form subs shortened to sua occurs in a few words : 
8us-cipio, ms-pendo. 

Trans, — drops « before s, and often ns before d, j, n : trans-eo, trans- 
/ero; tran-silio for trans-dlio ; tra-do ior trana-do ; tra-jkio (or trana-Jicio ; 
tra-no for trans-no. 

2. Inseparable Prepositions (307) also admit euphonic changes : 

Ambi, amb: — amb before vowels ; ambi, am, or an before consonants: 
amb-igo ; ambi-dens, am-2jiUo, an-quiro. 

Dis, di: — dia befoie o, jo, q, t, s before a vowel, and, with assimilation, 
before/; di in most other situations; dia-curro, dis-pdno, dlf-jluo ; di-duco, 
dimdveo. But dir occurs iu dir-imo and dir-ibeo (dia and habeo), and both 
die and di occur before^ : dia-Jungo, di-Judico. 

Re, red i—i-ed before vowels, before h, and in red-do ; re in other situa- 
tions: rcd-eo, red-igc, redhibeo ; re-cludo, I'e-vello. 

COMPOUND NOUNS. 

339. In compoimd nouns the first part is generally a 
noun, but sometimes an adjective, adverb, or preposition ; 
the second part is a verb or noun : 

art-i-fcx, 

capr-T-comiis, 

acqu-i-noctium, 

ne-mo, 

pro-nomen, 

1. Genitive in Compounds. — In compounds of two nouns, or of a noun 
and an adjective, the first part is often a genitive : legis-ldtor, legislator ; 
juris-consuUus, lawyer. 

2. Compounds in fex, cen, and c51a are amoni^ the most important 
compounds of nouns and verbs ; fex from facio ; cen from cano ; cola from 
colo ; art-t-/ex, arthi ; ^wfi-i-cere, trumpeter ; a^>'-*cd/a, husbandman. 

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 



artiat. 


from 


ara and facio. 


Capricorn, 

equinox, 

Hobodi/, 


(1 


capor and cornu. 
aequus and nox. 
ne and homo. 


pronoun. 


(( 


pro and nomen. 



VI r 






340. In compound adjectives the first part is generally 
a noun, adjective, or preposition, and the second a noun, 
adjective, or verb: 



let-T-fer, 


death-bearing, 


from 


Ictum and fPro. 


magn-animus. 


magnanimous, 


<i 


magnuH and animus. 


per-facUis, 


very easy, 


(1 


per and facllis. 



coMPosiTioisr OF Avonns. 



153 



in other situa- 



nost important 



COMPOUND VERBS. 

aed-i-fifco. tn hi, 'hi r 

a.«pl-r-f ICO, : t:iL ''T «-'^7 "-1 n.cio. 

pat.o-ft!cio, toonen^' .. «m,,l„s and fhoio. 

bcno-fscio; to £Zh u f'"''''' "":'/"*^'«- 

^i-aJZ::';:;^:- : ^'^^ '^-^ ^-^ ^^ ^^ -^^ ^^e second . al.a,, 

2. Not'iV or Adjective and Veur _Wl,nr. 4i,„ e t 
jective. tl.e second part is gene al b Jnof J" "' " '""" "'' "'^■ 

verbs then beconie /lo and irof Coi.^ / 'r'^'' *^""' '"' ''■^''- '^''^«« 

nre, to sail, f, om J./, and «X ^ ^^''''' '"' ''^ '"" ' '"''■'^''' 

go c!;tl^:o^Nr nir "^^''^^ ^°"^^°-^^^ ^^^'^ P-^-^^^-« orten under- 

^; yle becomes I : caeJo, i-^-cirio. 

4. CuANGLs IX PRErosiTioNs.-Seo ^38. 1 and 2. 

COMPOUND ADVERBS. 

342. Compornd Adverbs are variously formod l.nf 
most ot them may be divided into three cksis' ^"* 

tin.;; •:^::r::;i*^^^^-^^^'-= a.-^.. hitherto; .«......, so.e- 



'?sm 



I 11 



PART THIRD. 

SYNTAX 



CHAPTER I. 
SYNTAX OF SENTENCES. 



SECTION I. 

CLASSIFICATIO.N OF SENTENCES. 

343. Syntax treats of the construction of sentences. 

344. A sentence is thought expressed in language. 

345. In their steuctuke, sentences arc either tSimpUy 
Comjikx^ or Compound : 

I. A Simple Sentence exprest:es but a single thought : 
Dous mundum aedif Icavit, Ood made the world. Cic. 

II. A Complex Sentence expresses two (or more) 
thoughts so related that one is dependent upon the other: 

DSnec 8ris fiilix, multos niimSrabis amlcos ; So long as you are pros- 
per(,us, you will number many friends. Ovid. 

1. Clauses.— In this example two simple eentonccs, (1) "You will he profiper- 
oiis,'- and (2) "You will numher many friends;' wre, so united that tlie Hrst only 
specifies the time, of the second: You tci/l number many frit nds (when?), so long 
as you are prosperous. The parts thus united are called Clauses or dfembers. 

2. Pbincipal and Subokdinate.— The r rt of the couii.lex sentence which 
makes complete sense of itself— wiwWos numerdbis <imlcos—is <'alled the Principal 
Clause; and the part which is dependent upon ii—doneo eris feliQ>—i& called tho 
Subordiuate Clause. 

III. A Compound Sentence expresses two or more in- 
dependent thoughts : 

Sol rnit et montes umbrantur, 77te sun descends and the mountains are 
ihuded. Virg. 

346, In their rsE, sentences are either Declarative, In- 
teirogative, Imperative, or Exdamato'nj. 

I. A Declarative Sentence lias the form of an asser- 
tion : 

Miltiadeg accnsatus est, Miltiadcs was accused. Nep. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 



155 



u are pros- 



more in- 



qiiition " ^""'"''''^'^^^''^'^'^ Sentence has the form of a 

Qui3 non paupcrtatcm cxtrmeacit, Ulio docs not fmr pova-ty ? Cic 
1. lNTEUuor..vT.vK WouD3.-I„fcrrogative sentences generally contain 
some .nferrogat.vo word-either an interr.,Kative pronoun, adjective, or ad- 
verb, or one of the interrogative parti< les, ne, nonne, num : 

1) Questions with ne ask for Infornmuon : Scibitne, Is ho w.ltln..y m 1. 
a hvays thus „ppen.le.l to some other word. But ne an.cn.le.I to the priu"; palvorb 
oft..„ Bn«,c«ts the answer ye., while appended to any other word. It o'ften sug^ 
tlu ansv,>r „.. I is somethnes nppeuded to utrum, num, or an, without atfS 
their muanintr, and sometimes inserted In the clause after utrum ■ ''=*'"i'i«f 

Utrum tikeamne, an praedfccm, .Shall I be nilent, or hIiuU I sneak t Ter 
2) Questions with nonne expect the answer yes: Jfonne scrlbii Is he not 
Wltin.y Xoniornonn. indicates surpri.. that there should be any d ub on "he 
question : Xon vides. Do you really not see ? J- " "i on too 

8) Questions with num expect the answer no: Xum scrlbit. Is he wrltinK? 
4) Questions with an. S.'e 2. 4) below. 

«) The interrogative word is sometimes omitted, and sometimes numquid is 
used for num, and eciuid for ne or nonne : Ecquid vldea, Do you not see ? 

2. Double Question's. -Double or disjunctive questions ofler a choice 
or alternative, and generally take one of the following forma r 

1) The first clause has utrum, num, or ne, and the second an: 
Utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est, 7. that your fault or ours Clc. 

2) The first clause omits the particle, and the second has an or n» ■ 
Lloquar an sikara. Shall I utter if, or keep Menee t Virg 

8) When the second clause is negative, the particle generally unites with th« 
negative, giving annon or necne : b'-"«='«iiy umics witn the 

Sunt haec tua verba necne, Are these your words or not t Cic 
the sensfof t.""'""""" "" '"' ^'""' '""^ ^""'^^ "«- ^'^^^ '^'o- with an. In 
An hoc tlmOmus, Or do xoefear thiaf Liy. 
6) Other forms are rare. 

3 ANSWEns.-In answers the verb or some emphatic word is usually 
repeated, often with ;....., , .,, and the like; or if negat'e, wfthr?^ 

Dixitnecausam? Dixit. Did he state the cause F He stated it Ci^ p„= 
8umusnctutiessc? Non possumns. Can ^c. be safe f Tfi aZ% ^ 

1) Sometimes the simple particle is used ; aflirmativ ly ^rf^/ya !' ... - 
cert, , etc., tu ,,atively, non, mm>me, etc.. ^' ' "'"' ''"• **'*''' 

VCnitne? Non. Uaahecamef Ko. Plant. 

III. An Imperative Sentence has the form of a com 
niand, exhortation, or entreaty : 

Justitlara cole. Cultivate justice. Cic. 

Rellqait quos viros, Tf7<a/ A«-or,« //<; /i^^ ^<?/^ .' Cic. 
Exclamatory sentences arc often elliptical 




M ' 



106 BIMl'LK bENTENC'liti. 



SECTION IT. 

Slit PL E SEXTEN-CES. 

Elements of Skntenx'es. 

347. Tlic simplo sentence in its most simple form con- 
bists of two distinct parts, expressed or implied': 

1. The Subject, or that of which it speaks. 

2. The PuEoicATE, or thut wliicli is said of the subject : 

Gluilius m(5i'Itur, CluiUua dies. Liv, 

lliTc CluiliuH is tlie eubjcct, and morUur the predicate. 

348. The simple sentence in its most exjmniled form 
consists only of these same parts with their various modi- 
liers: 

In his castiis Clullius, Albilnus rex, morltur ; Cluillm, the Allan king, 
dies hi this cam p. Li v. 

Here Cluiliuit, Albi'inus rex. Is tlie snhjoctln its onlarircd or mmllfied form, nnd 
in his castris mov'itur \n the iindicate in its enlarged or modilled I'oriu. 

349. Pkincipal and Subordinate. — The subject nnd 
predicate, beincj essential to the structure of every sen- 
tence, are called the Principal oy I'Jssential (i\Q\r\Q\\t^\ but 
their modifiers, being subordinate to these, arc called the 
Siibordinate elements. 

350. Simple and Complex. — The elements, whether 
principal or subordinate, may be either simple or complex : 

1. Simple., when not modified by other words. 

2. Complex^ when thus modified. 

Simple Subject. 

351. The subject of a sentence, expressed or implied, 
must be a noun or somo word or words used as a noun : 

Rex dC'crevit, Tlie king decreed. Nep. Ec^o Bcribo, / lorite. Cic. 
Video idem valet, The word video has the same meaning. Quint. 

Complex Subject. 

352. The subject admits the following modifiers : 

I. An Adjective : 

Populus Homdnns decruvit, T7ie Roman people decreed. Cic. 

II. A Noun either in apposition with the subject, in 
the genitive, or in an oblique case with a proposition ; 



eiMPLK SENTKNCKS. 



167 



, „ •*' "'''"' ''"^ «<>«A- OH dutkn. Ciu 

1. MODIFIKIIS OP IVntrvu A 

1^ culled UD Appo,Uive,ma tho o.h.nn """"•'""''''"''''"" **■'"""'""'«•• 
"1'pos.tive. . u tuo other num. ks called the ^V/i/V.^ of .l.o 

3. AnvEims mttii Ncwvu qr>„ i- 

•ions oc.ur as .nodiflers of'„ou„s ' ""' "'''"^'^ ""^ ""^'^'^'^^^ «^lTes- 
Non ifrniiri sinnus ante niiilniiiiM rr, 

^»"^-. v>,. y..o.,. .,„, s;;::; -;,: « - rs/c ""^"- 

Simple Puedicate. 

Jliltiados cat acofi<»nh7a ^rir i 

«vo I; ^™rp:s:"'s jt: T-iT- '° t"- - "°"" - »'«- 

'ccio suut, All things are rigid. Cic. 

Complex Predicate. 

MiltiuJcs ^a, „„, „b,,,,,„, j;;,„.„,,„ ,,j,,.„,^^ ^^,_^__^ 

3. Co^^J/,,,,? 0S>^. consisting of t>vo or more cases • 

II. Adverkial Modifiers : 
!• Adverbs: 

Of nuuns, With or without prepositionst" ^ ^^^^ 



158 



COMPLEX SENTENCES. 



li 



! L 



In his casiris moiltur, He dies (where ?) in this camp. Liv. Vire con» 
Tunere, They asscmNed (when V) in the sprinff. Liv. 

355. II. The Pkedicate Noun is modified in the va- 
rious ways specified for the subject (352). 

356. in. The Pkedicate Adjective admits the fol- 
lowing modifiers : 

I. An Adverb : 

Sittis hiinillis est, Fie is sufficiently humhle. Liv. 

II. A Noun in an oblique case : 

1. Oenitive: Avidi lautlia fiiemnt, TIici/ were desirous of pmise. Cic. 

2. Dative : Omni aetati mors est comiuunis, Death is eommon to tvery 
age. Cic. 

3. Ablative: Digni pant Smlcitia, T/icy are xoorthy of friendship. Cic. 



SECTION" III. 

CO 31 FLEX SE2^TEN0ES. 

357. A Complex sentence differs from a Simple ono 
only in taking a sentence or clause as one (or more) of its 
elements : 

I. A Sentence as an Element : 

"Ciris Romrinu3 sum" aiicUebfitur, "/am a Ro.nan citizen'''' was 
heard. Cie. Allquis dicat mihi : " Nulla babes vltia ; " Some one may say 
to me, " Have you no faults ? " Ilor. 

1. Tn the first example, an entire sentence— ftVzs Eomdnus siim—ia 
used as the Subject of a new sentence ; and in the second example, the sen- 
tence— i\'?/^/a 7iabes vitia — is the Object of dicat. 

2. Any sentence may be thus quoted and introduced without change 
•f form as an element in a new sentence. 

II. A Clause as an Element : 

Traditum est nomCrnm caecum fiiisse, T/int Homer tvas blind has been 
handed doion by tradition. Cio. Qualis sit animus, iinimus nescit, The 
soul knows not what the soul is. Cic. 

1. In these examples the clauses used as elements have undergone cer- 
tain changes to adapt them to their subordinate rank. The clause Ilomcrum 
caecum fuisse, the subject of traditum est, if used as an independent sen- 
tence, would be Hamerus caccusfuit ; and the clause Quails sit animus, tUo 
object of nescit, would be Quails est animus, What is the soul? 

2. Forms of Subordinate Clauses. 

1) Infinitive with Subject Accusative : 

IIdc maioros (Uc're iindivl, I ham heard that our ancestors said this. Cia 

2) Indirect Questions : 



son 



Vere con» 
in the va- 

3 the fol- 



praise. Cic. 
no7i to (Very 

ndship. Cic. 



COMPOUND SENTENCES. , .^ 

Quid dies forat, inccrtiim o<.f tri . 

3) Relative Cause?: ' ^'"^ '^ ''"^ '"^^ ^'--^/-^^ ^---...^m. Cic. 
Sententia, quae truissima vldob-itiiP r/>. • • 
, 4) Clauses with Conjunctions :' ''^"" "'"'' "^"'^'^ ^^^ -^-^- ^'- 

are present he/ore u tughl C^"'^ '" '^''"^' ^'°- ^"•^«<l"»m lucet, adsunt, Uey 

358. Infinitive Cause, son.oti.nos drop their subject.: 
dJif: ^"'"P'^^ oft™ «"PPly the place of subordinate 



i 



•I 

I 

'1 



nple one 
)re) of its 



itizcn'''' vias 
one may say 

nus svm — is 
pie, the sen- 

iiout change 



"incl has hem 
nescit, The 

iergone cor- 
se Ilomcrum 
endent sen- 
animns, tUo 



this. Cia 



SECTI02T IV. 

COJIfPOlTJ^D SE2rTE.VCES. 

I. Copulative Sentptntppo ;,, i,- i 
t-^ougbts are presented\^X?:,7,;^ .W^'ac'Cth^r.'"''"^ 

II. Disjunctive SENTPKnrQ ,-v, i • , 
twe^cntwoorn,oretho„^ftsiroffe?edf'* " ^''""^'^ "^^ 

-■e^p'potZtTeXthr;^^^"'^^--"' ■"•'"* "- t'-'Shts 

JL n,""n '^"'^"^^^-"■'"^"^"tain an inference- 
sonf- ^''"'"^ SK.VTEKCEs-,v-hich contain a cause or rea- 






il ■ 

m 




I 'm 



iL'tJ 



llH 



rt 



•^1 }, 



f! 



1 



COMPOUND SENTENCES. 



1. The CoNNUCTiVES generally used in these several classes of compounds ar*, 
the coiTCSiJonding classes! ofconjutictions, i. e., copulative, dUjunctlce, adveiKUtive, 
Wat. ve, and <-((i' uti, conjunctions. Sec 810. But tbe connective is often omitted. 

2. Disjunctive Questio.ns have Bpecia! connectives. See 846. 11. 2. 

361. Componrid sentences are generally abricli^ed when 
tlieir members luive parts in common. Such sentences 
have compound elements : 

1. Compound Subjects : 

Aborigines Trojanlquc dacem amisore, llie Aboric/hics and the Tro- 
jans lost their leader. Liv. 

The two members here united are: Ahoriglnes ducem amisere and Trojunl 
ducem amisere; but as they have tlie same predicate, ducein amMre, that predi- 
cate is expressed but once, and the two subjects are united into the compound sub- 
ject; Aborigines Trojauhjue. 

2. Compound Predicates : 

Romaui piirant consultantquo, The Romans prepare and consult. Liv. 

3. Compound Modifiers : 

AthCnas Gracciamque llburavit, lie liberated Athens and Greece. Nop. 



CHAPTER 11. 
SYNTAX OF NOUNS, 



SECTION I. 

AGREEMENT OF NOUNS. 

ETTLE I.— Predicate Nouns. 
362. A Predicate Koiin denoting the same person 
or thing as its Subject agrees with it in case : * 

Ego sura nuntius, / am a messenr/er. Liv. Servius rex est dcclaratus, 
Serviux was declared Mug. Liv. Orestcm se esse dixit, He said that he 
was Orestes. Cic. See 353. 

1. In Gendeh A^'r> Number Agreement cither may or may not 
take place. But 

1) If tbe Predicate Noun has diffcreut forms for diflfcreut genders, it 
must agree with its subject in gender : 

Usus milfrister est, E.rperience, is an instructor. Cic. Histona est m'lgistra (not 
luagister), History is an instructress, Cic. 



lit 



i i'oi iT.-d. Isoiin denoting a different person or Ihiiig froiii Us rinhjeet, see -101. 
For convenience of reference the Bales will be presented in a body on page 2T4 



-m 



impounds ar*. 
adversative^ 
!ii umitlud. 
2. 

i^ed when 
sentences 



nd the Tro- 

3 and Trojdnl 
V, tliat prcdi- 
tiupound sub- 



jonsulL Liv. 
Greece. Nop. 



le person 

t dccluratus, 
««/(/ that he 

or may not 
t genders, it 
t m 'igistra (not 



y on page 274 



AGREEMENT OP NOUNS. igj 

2 J.™ F-.T. VE™,.-Predicato N„„„, are most froq„o„t 

Ego sum nuntfus, 7 am a mewnofr T i^ ti/ 
5.c<,;«e (turned out) a great man CIc F^^ > ^ I \ '""^""' '"'''^''■"'' '^''' ^''^ 
forth) m defender of Lertr^^ ''"'" "^"^"^^ ^^'''^'^'^ "^ ^<^^<^rae (stood 

^-%™d S::^'^ "^ ^^^^^■^^^^■«^' -^•^•'^^' ---.> re,ar4in,, es- 

(1) In the poets, Predicate Nouns are ;^sod with ^n-nm- r.r. , 
great variety of s.gniflcations. Thus with a,Su> -aZn n "" '"^''" ^''^' "'" '^ 
J>een callea kino; i. e., have heard yo::^:,rso c^,7erC' """ "^'"^"' ^"^^ '"'^ 

(-2) For Predicate Accusative, see 373 1 

«m;, without ::;:t'.'°.i:i;;e °"""" ''°'' '*''"'"""'■ •■"' x-™- 

1 For Predicate Nominative after me, see 5-17. 

2) For Inactive or Clause as Predicate, see 553, 1. ; 495, 3. 

RITIE n.--Appo£itives. 
363. An Appositive agrees with its Subject in case • 

Cluilius rex moritur, Cluilim the K»« ^;. r- t 
at,„e Ka,„a„ti», .„ „•«.',„.„,. t/ZX t. Zl'T'' 

3. The St^ct of the appositive is often omittoJ : 
«% an cncmii. Liv. ' ^''■'^'' understood) an enemy tohhed to 

3. FoncE OF AppostTivpQ i«^„ •!• 

.0 ne„uive e,a.„, ,, ;«zi^r:„t;:;,r, s i"'^ '''"^■■°- '" '°- 

th. who';:"""" '^-™"--".o parts are sometime, in ,,,„Mo. „i.h 

Conversely tl.o whole may be in appo'siHon with it, part,. 

5. tLAnsB,,_A aoaii or pronoun mav be in .npo.:,i,.. ., i,', , ,, 
oraciauae in anno'iitmn «.{»(. „ -j-j.-i ..rii,„ ,vi(,j a clause 

apposition with a noun or prononn. See 415, 7, 553, il. 



162 



jrOMINATIVE CASE, 



I 



III 



'% 



SECTION" 11. 

NOMINATIVE. 

364. Cases.- — Nouns have different forms or cases to 
mark the various relations in Avhich they are used. These 
cases, in accordance vvith their general force, may he ar- 
ranuced and characterized as follows : 



I. Nominative, 
11. Vocative, 

III. Accusative, 

IV. Dative, 
V, Genitive, 

VI. Ablative, 



Case of tlie Subject. 
Case of Address. 
Case of Direct Object. 
Case of Indirect Object. 
Case of Adjective liclations. 
Case of Adverbial lielatious.^ 



365. Kindred Cases. — The cases naturally arrange themselves in 
pairs : the Nominative and Vocative require no governing word ; the Ac- 
cusative and Dative are the regular cases of the Object of an action ; the 
Genitive has usually the force of an Adjective, and the Ablative that of an 
Adverb. 

366. Nominative. — The Nominative is either the Sub- 
ject of a Sentence or in agreement with another Nomina- 
tive. 

RULE Ill-Subject Nominative. 

367. The Subject of a Finite Yerb is put in the 
Nominative : " 

Servius rcgnavit, Senilis reigned. Liv. Patent portae, 'Ilie gatex are 
open. CIc. Rex vioit, The king conquered. Liv. 

1. Tlie Subject is always a substantive, a pronoun, or some 
word or clause used substantively : 

Ego rogcs cjoci, I have banished kings. Cic. 

2. Subject Omitted. — The subject is generally omitted 

1) "When it is a Personal Pronoun, unless expressed for contrast or 
emphasis, and when it can be readily supplied from the context : 

Discipulos moneo, ut stiidia ament, / instruct pupils to love their studies. 
Quint 

2) When it means men, people : Ferunt, They say. 

3) When the verb is impersonal : Plult, It rains. 

3. Verb Omitted. — Tho Verb is sometinjcs omlctcd, when it 
can be readily supplied, especially est and sunt : 



* This arranfrement is adopted in tliediscussionof tlie cases, beeauso, it is tliouglit, 
it will best j)resent the force of the several cases and their relation to each other. 

2 F«r tlic- Subject of the Infinitive, see 5-15. For the agrceiaeiit of the verb with 
\\a subject, see 400. 



or some 



KOMINATIVE. VOC.ITIVE. (gg 

^«^- I^'^- ^''''''"' Pr^^ectus (est), TAe consul set 

OUO, ''iGEEEMENT A "NT 

another nominative is'either a pJwhv'V^T^ ^^'"^ 

positive. See 362 and 303 *" ^ """^ «^" ^^ -^V 

For the Predicate Ko.i„ative 'after a verb with ess, sc 547. 

SECTION- III. 

VOCATIVK 

BUIE IV.-Case of Address. 

ta JjicI™ '™«— -T1.0 voo..i.e U „,ed both „■!.„ a„, „itL,„. 

2. NOMIXATIVE FOR VoCATIVP Tn «« * 

the vocative : »"wjtci occurs nhere we should expect 

SECTIO]^ IV. 

ACCUSATIVE. 

370. The Accusntivo is used 

II As Ih'. P";^.^^^^..n"^'t of an Action. 
il. As the Subject of an Infinitive. 
Jil. in A<?reement with another Acrronfiv- 




I 





$ . 



1G4 



A.OCUSATIVE OF DIRECT OBJECT. 



I. Accusative as Diuect Object. 



RULE V.-Direct Object. 

371. The Direct Object of an action is put in tlio 
Accusative : 

Dcus mumlum aedificavit, God male the world. Cic. Libera rem 
publicam, Free the republic. Cic. Populi Romani salutena dCfoudite, De- 
fend the safety of the Roman people. Cic. 

1. The Direct Object may bo 

1) The Objcdy person or thing, on which the action of the verb 13 di- 
rectly exerted, as nalrdem above. 

2) Tlie Effect of the action, i. e., the object produced by it, as munr 
diim above. 

3) The Cognate Accumtive. Many verbs, generally intransitive, some- 
times become so lar transitive as to admit an accusative of cognate or 
kindred meaning : 

Earn vitam vivfire, to live that life. Cic. Mirum somniaro somnium, to 
dream a wonderful dreatn. Plaut. Servitutem worvire, to serve a servitude. 
Ter. 

(1) This accusative is usually qualified by an adjective as in the first two exam- 
ples. 

(2) Neuter Tronouns and Adjectives often supply the place of the C' gnato ac- 
cusative: 

Eadeui peccat, I/e makes the same mistal-es. Cic. Hoc stfulet unum, TTe studies 
this one thing {i.h\& one stn(\y). Ilor. Id ns'^i^iilior, I make this asdciit. Cic. Idem 
glOrifiri, to make the same hoast. Cic. 

(3) The ol.ject la often oinitted when it is a reflexive (184, 2) Dr can be easily 
supplied : moveo = moveo me, I move (myself) ; vertit »= vertit so, he moves (him- 
sell'). 

(4) Some verbs are sometimes transitive and sometimes intransitive: augeo, 
duro, inc'ipio, laxo, ruo,8uppMUo, turlo, etc. 

2. "With or Withottt other Cases. — Tlie direct object may 
be used with all transitive verbs, whether with or without other 
cases. See 384. 410. 419. 

3. Transitive and Ixtraxsitite Verbs. — Many verbs transi- 
tive in English are intransitive in Latin. See 385. Conversely 
some verbs intransitive in English are transitive in Latin, or at 
least are often so used, especially verbs denoting 

1 ) Feeling or Mental Slate : despn'o, to despair of; dolco, to grieve for ; 
gemo, to sigh over ; horreo, to shiuldcr at; I'tcrimo, to weep over ; tnocrco^ 
to mourn over ; ralror, to wonder at ; r'ldeo, to laugh at ; sitio, to thirst for, 
etc. 

Hunnres dcsperat. He despairs of honors. Cic. ITaec gcmebant, Th";/ 
were sighing over these thing.i. Cic. Deti'Imenta ridet, He taxghs at losses. How 

2) Taste or Smell: oleo, sapio, and their coinpounds, both literally and 
figuratively : 



f 1! 



"~1 



DIKECT OBJECT. TWO. ACCUSATIVES. 105 

4. Co„Pou„:,s or I'„KPos,T,o^-,._Wo notice two classes : 
<«■, fran,, »s^,,, and .»jL ■ °"1'°°'-'")' «»n'l'"u.,ds of «(«»»., j,ff,^,„,. 

as Dtct'objec" °'"'"'--^^ I-toi'i" or a Clause „„y be used 

oonsmS" ^™»™^-™OK.-Wben a verb tale, the passive 
AbLUivo of Ago,,. .vi.Jrr :; (.14. 5,;°" "" ^"'""■° ■" "»'» (*») »■■ "'• 

^vith the accusative :' " ^ ^^"^"' ^ ^^^^ ^'^^'l^^l "ouns, ^jccur 

Vltabimdus castra, avoiding tie camn Liv Qu\i\ i\u; ^ 
rem, What care have you o/this? riaT ^ '''"° '"'^''° '^^^ 

1. The same person or tliino-. 

2. DifFercnt persons or tliin'^s 

RULE VI-Two Accusatives-Same Person. 
373. Verbs of makinq, choosing, calling, kegard- 
NG, SHOWING, and the like, admit two Accusatives of 
tlie same person or thincr ; 

IKmilcarem impcn-aturem ftcgrnnt, my made Hamilcar commander 
^op. Ancum r.gcn pop.llus crcavlt. Ue people elected Ancu.lZ' 

council Se».f nn T ^^^'-f ' -^^^^"''""> -«^7/ t'«/^cc/ ^/veeV hiohcst 
councU ScnaL. Cic. fee praostitit propugnutorem libortutis, He sLcd 



f 



, ,(1 



166 



TWO ACCUSATIVES. 



himself the champion of liberty. Cic. Flaccura hilbuit collOgam, He had 
Flaccus an coUcafjuc. Nop. 

1. PuiiDicATE Accusative.— One of the two accusatives is the Direct Ob- 
ject, and the other au essential part of the Predicate. The latter may oo 
called a Predicate Accusative. See 3u2. 2. (2). 

2. Veubs with Pueuicate Accusative.— The verbs which most frequent- 
ly admit a Direct Object with a Predicate Accusative are verbs of 

1) Milking, electing: ficio, efl'Icio, rt'ddc*,— creo, cligo, dcsigno, dccliiro. 

2) Calling, regarding: appcllo, nOunno, voio, dico,— arbitror, existimo, duco, 
judico, liabeo, p&to. 

8) Shoicing : praesto, praebco, cxliibeo. 

3. Adjective as Puedicate Accusative.— The Predicate Accusative may 
Le either Substantive or Adjective : 

Ih)iii!no3 caecos rcddit avuriti.i, Avarice renders men Hind. Cic. 

<. ]' v,ssivE CoNSTiiucTiON. — lu the Passive these verbs take two Nomina- 
tui-^,\xSuhJect and P/V(/iea^e, corresponding to the two Accu.satu'es of the 
.Aciiver 

Sevvlus rex est dcclaiiltus, Servius was declared king. Liv. Seo 302. 2, 2.) 

EULE VII.— Two Accusatives— Person and Tiling. 
374. Some verbs of asking, demanding, teaching, 
and CONCEALING, admit two Accusatives in the Active, 
and one in the Passive: 

Me sontentiam rogfivit, lie asked me m?/ opinion. Cic. Ego soiiton- 
tiam rogatus sum, I was asked my opinion. Cic. Plulosophia nos res ora- 
nos ducuit, Philosophy has taught us all things. Cic. Artes edoctus fue- 
rat, He had been taught the arts. Liv. Non te celavi sermonem, I did not 
curtceul from you the conversation. Cic. 

1. Pkrson and TtiixG. — One acousativo generally designates 
the j>erson, the other the thing: Avith the Passive the aocusiitive 
of the Person becomes the subject and the accusative of the thing 
is retained : see examples. 

2. Veebs with two Accusatives.— Those most frequently so 
used are 

1) Regularly: celo— doceo, Cduceo, deduceo. 

2) Sornetmes: oro, exoro, rogo, interrogo, pcrcontor, flagtto, 
posco, r^'posco. 

H. OxiiEi? CoxsTRucTioxs also occur : 

1) Celo: Ablative witli a preposition : 

Me de hoc libro cehlvit, ffe kept me ignorant of this hook. Cic. Passive : Accns. 
of Neuter pronoun or Abl. with de: Hoc cOlari, to be kept ignorant of this. Tor. 
CCIari de consilio, to be kept ignorant of the plan. Cic. The Dative is rare: Id 
Alclbiaili cohtri non potiut, This could not be concealed from Alcibiades. Nop. 

2) Verbs of Teaching : Ablative with or without a preposition : 

De sua re me doeet ; I/e informs me in regard to his case. Cic. Sucrutem fidi- 
bus dOcuil, Jle taught Socrates (with) the lyre. Cio. 



TWO ACCirSATIVES. 

S) Verbs 0/A.kinff, Dananding : Ablative with a prepoaitlon • 
Hoc a me noscSrc. to demon., //./„ ^ ,.. ^ preposition . 



167 



/a«* 2..« in regard to tU savu thinaiZ "^'"^ '^'^ ''^''"^ """""go. 

rrepoif : : • '^^^''^' ^"' ^""'''^ ^^« *^^ ^^'^"vo of the peon with a 

4. I. z.mvK or 0...sk as Accusative of thing . 
Te sfipfire dScet, //. ^.acA<^ yo« to he wise. Cic 

s^^iS^^;Si:£t^rs^-S^^^ 

tl^e other upou the l^^lSiou : ^ '"^'''' ^^' "^^ "^^^^ *''« verb.' 
Iberum co-pius trajScit, //. lea Us forces across the Ebro. Li. 

^^ Jraotcn.Lor ostia Pant.,iae, Za. carried ly tu moutl. of tU. Panta^ia. 

ciotiLg'i'Sotiinn;.^^ ';.ri^^^^^^ ^^ p--^ --bs of 

soraetimes take in the P. Swf ' ^'^' «««'"J/'^> *>''^^cfl, etc — 
Greek; *^° ^'"''^^^ ^" accusative in imitation of the 

'nmdensattiredin long robes. Lir. ^"S^^^s iongam ludutae vestem, 

II. Accusative as Subject of Infinitive. 
itiveTfee?45:'^''"'''^'' " "^^'^ ^-^^ ^^^^ ^"^^J-^t of an Infin- 

/'^aWnem is the subject o^vevisse. 

ni. Accusative ,:, agheemeot with ak Accusative 

Orestem se esw dixit. He ,nid thm k. ,.,^„ p.,,,,, .. . ' 
362 andat53. ' ^^^' ^'^'^t^^'h (^e faiaer of history. Cic. Sea 



^ 



108 



ADVEUniAL ACCUSATIVE. 



If RT ■■- 



iyu 



IV. Accusative in an Adverbial Sexsb. 

377. In an Adverbial sense tlie Accusative is used 
either witli or without Prepositions. 

1. Wi'^n I'liEPOSiTioNS. yce 133. 

ti. Wrniuur I'ltiii'oanioxs.— The Adverbial use of the Accusative without 
Prepositions is presoutcd iu the fol. jvviug rules. 

RULE VIII.— Accusative of Time and Space. 

378. Duration of Time and Extent of Space arc 
expressed by the Accusative : 

ROniulud tioptem et tilginta regnavit annos, Romtdus reigned thirty- 
seven years. Liv. QuiiHine luillia [)assunm anibulaie, to walk fire miles. 
Cic. Pfidcs octoginta disture, to be eighty feet distant. Cacs. Nix quat- 
tuor pfidcs alta, snow four feet deep. Liv. But 

1. DrnATioN OF Time is ?omctimes expressed hy the Ablative 
or the Accusutive with a Preposition : 

1) By the Ablative: Tugnatum est lioris quiuquc, 77ic battle wat 
fought five hours. Cacs. 

'2) "By tlic Accumiive with Preposition : Per annos viginti ceitatum 
est, 2 ho war was waged for twenty years. Liv. 

2. Distance is sometimes expressed by the Abhitive: 

Milllbus passuum sex consrdit, He cncnwpnl at the diftance of six miles. 
Caes. Sometimes with a proposition ; Ab millibus iJassuum duobus, at thi 
distance of two iiiiics. CaoB. 

RULE IX.— Accusative of Limit. 

379. The Name of a Town used as tlie Limit of 
motion is put in tlie Accaisative : 

Nuntius Piomam r6dit, 77ie messenger returns to Romt. Liv. Pltito 
Tiircntum veiiit, Plato came to Tarentum. Cic. lu'igit Tarqulnios, He fed 
to Taripiinii. Cic. But 

1. The Accusative witii Ad occurs : 

1) In the sense of— /o, toward, in the direction of, into the vicinity of : 
Tics sunt viae ad Miiiinaui, There are three roads to Mutina. Cic. Ad 

ZSuiam pcrvCnit, Jle came to the ticlnity of Zarna. Sail. 

2) In contrast with a or ab : 

A Biaiuo ad Siiwpca, from Diaiiium to Sinope. Cic. 

2. ITrhs or Oppuhnn with a Preposition: 

Pervfiiiit in oppiduni Cirlani, IR came into the town of Cirta. Sail. 
8. Like Names of Towns urc used 



1 



AnVER-JIAL ACCUSATIVE. 



169 



U li 



ftclpio Mnnm iCcluctus os( i "»■ 

sum, /ye went to the V/urmnc,,,,. Sou ^ "" ^ ' * t'er.sOnO- 

4. Name, of Other I'luccs u.ed as 'the limit of mo.; . 
Accusative will, ,i J'rq.osition : of motion are gcnorally in the 

In Aslam rt.iit. //. ...^«;.„, i„ta A,ia. Nop 

came to the La,>!„i,ni ,h,> . Virg ^^^ ^"''^"''' ^^'°'t Utora, y/e 

occuL^ '^"''^ ''"^^^^ ''-' the-acc«sativc with or without a p. ,ion 
It elu-mor coelo (for .. coelu>n), The .hout ascends to hea.en. V,r,. 

c.«n A^^.^^ ^-^ccusative of Specification. 

Ilor. Miles fn.rtus men ^m ri IT'^"'' '"'"^'P"^ ^" « ^^««'A 

c ffod lu appearance, y!^^' ^''''''' <>' ^^^o suums, Aeneas like 

it is most,, poetic, hut oZ::r^::^t^^^'''- ^^ "--^ ---' 

P'.n.., .;««.j7^««., guoa^jenue (for .>4^.eW etcTe '" T'' "^^'^' ''' 

and of numy neuter pronouns and acUoctivest!' • ' '/ T ''*''^"*' ^'^''^ 

MaxTmam partem lacte vivnnt Tf, , ; ?' ''^'"'non 'n {.rose. 

^>pon rank. Cael Nihil no i 2' Jf f "' ""'f' ^? '"^ "^« '^^^ P- 
id fomporis vacuus firrtrzl/' ^^''^^^''f ^ «^^ «^ «« "^om/. Liv. Lckn.s 

V. AccTJSATivE IX Exclamations. 

RUIE XI-Accusative in Esclamations. 

381. Tlie Aeciimtlvo ojther with or without an In- 
terjection may be used in Exclamations : 



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170 



ACCUSATIVE. DATIVE. 



Heu me misurum, Ah me unhappy ! Cic. Me misSrum, Me miserable ! ' 
Cic. fallucem spem, deceptive hope ! Cic. Me caecum, Blind that 1 
am 1 Cic. Pro deOrum I'ldem, In the name of the gods I Cic. But 

1. An Adjective or Genitive generally accompanies thl3 accusative, as in the ex- 
amples, 

2. 0, iheu heu are the Interjections most frequently used with the Accusative, 

though others occur. 

8. Other Cases also occur in exclamations : 

1) The Vocative— vrhcQ an address as m ell as an exclamation is intended : 
Pro sancte Jupiter, holy Jupiter. Clo. InfGlix Dido, Unhappy Dido, Virg. 

2) The Ifominative— when the exelaination approaches the form of a statement: 
En dextra, Lo the right hand (there is, or that is the right hand) 1 Virg. Ecce 

tuae litttrae, Lo your letter (comes) 1 Cic. 

8) The Dative— to designate the person after hei, vae, and sometimes after ecce, 

en, hem . 

Hei mihi, Woe to me. Virg. Vae tibi, Woe to you. Tor. Ecce tibi, Lo to you 
(lo here is to you = observe). Cic. En tibi, mis for you, (lo I do tiiis for you). Liv. 
SeeSSP. 2. 

SECTION V. 

DATIVE. 

382. The Dative is the Case of tlic Indirect Object, 
and is used 

I. With Verbs. 
II. With Adjectives. 
III. With their Derivatives—Adverbs and Substantives. 

I. Dative with Verbs. 

383. Indirect Object. — A verb is often attended by 
a noun designating the object indirectljr affected by the 
action, that to or for Avhicli something is or is done. A 
noun thus used is called an Indirect Object. 

ETJLE XII.-Dative with Verbs. 

384. The Indirect Object is put in the Dative : 
I. With Intkansitive nnd Passive Verbs : 

Tcmpori cedit, He ijiclds to the time. Cic. Sibi timu6rant, Theij had 
feared for themselves. Caos. Lahori strident, Tlieif devoie ihemsclves to 
labor. Caes. Mnndus dco parct, T/ie tcorld obei/n God.'' Cic. Caeaari 
Bupplicabo, / will supplicate Caorn:'' Cic. NObia vita data est, Life has 

TmIUoii. Par. Lo-.t. iv. 73 

s Is subject to Ood. 

' Will make supplication to Caesar. 



to be 



DATIVE VriTIl VERES. 



171 



heen granted to us. Cic. Xflnilton dGdltur 77. ;, ^ ,• . 

Liv. ^^aanr, j/o ts delivered to Numitor. 

If. "With TfiAxsmvE Vci-hcs in «^^ 
tive: ^ ''"''' '" connection with the AocrsA- 

Pons iter hostibus dM'it Th« i • j 

t e Ablative of the th.ug : altcui rem l^V to tTT\ '' ^'" P^^^^" '"^ 
ah^uem re dOndre, to present any oneT tb a » -^ J '^ "''"^ *« "">' «««> «r 
son. the Dat. of a thing sometimes o'.- - * "'' ^'''- "^ ^^'<^ P^^- 

is in a measui^ perso^ed ' ""''' "'^^"""^ ^^ ^^ ^-^volves persons or 

goes to heaven Virg. " '^^ P°^*« • ^t clamor coelo, T/ie .,/,o«i5 

2) Fob, in defence of in helnif^r • 

Where .„e E„,„sh "be"' sr:r,'rr:::^"' """'» " '"'™ "-" 

Deo psrere, (0 o{,„ g.^ f.i„ p. . '™P«'"<'. to command destrrs. tie 

-•Co. Mr„r.n„. p„„i„, ,jt.„„„,^ ^*; « " 'Knoseta, ,„ ,ardo„ 

'? <" ""y-y "'A friend,. Cie. MM cradl T ''' ''''""■■' «""™. 

tee, (0 ;»,„„,& «„„. raes. • ''** "'=• ««■ I« persua; 



172 



DATIVE AVTTH VEKBS. 



I li 



1. Other Cases. — Some verbs of this class take the Accusative : deUdo, 
fuvo, laedo, offendo, etc. ; fido and confido generally the Ablative (419) : 

Mariuin jQvit, He helped Marias. Nep. 

2. Special Verbs.— With a few verbs the force of the dative is found 
only by attending to the strict meaning of the verb: nubo, to marrj', strictly 
to veil one's self, as the bride for the bridegroom ; medeor, to cure, to adminis- 
ter a remedy to ; satisfacio, to satisfy, to do enough for, etc. 

S. Accusative or Dative with a difference of signification: cavdre all- 
quern, to ward off some one ; cavere alicui, to care for some one ; consuUre 
allqiiem, to consult, etc.; alicui, to consult for; metuere, timere aliquem, to 
fear, etc. ; alkui, to fear for ; prospicere, providere aliquid, to foresee ; alkui, 
to provide for ; temperdre, moderdri aliquid, to govern, direct ; alkui, to re- 
strain, put a check upon ; temperdre (sTbi) ah uliquo, to abstain from. 

A few verbs admit either the Ace. or Dat. without any special difference 
of meaning: udulor, to tiatter; comitor, to accompany, etc. 

4. Dative rendered From, occurs with a few verbs of differing, dissent- 
ing, repelling, taking away : difforo, discrcpo, disto, dissentio, arceo, etc. . 

Differre culvis, to differ from any one. Nep. Discrepare istis, to differ 
from those. Hor. Sibi dissentire, to dissent from himself. Cic. See 412. 

5. Dative rendered With, occurs with misceo, admisceo, permisceo, jun- 
go, certo, dicerto, lucto, altercoi', and sometimes/cicio (434. 2) : 

S6v5rTtateni miscere comitSti, to unite severity with affability. Liv. 
Misceo and Us compounds, as also jtmcius and conjunctus, also take tbe Abl 
with or without cttm, 

386. Dative with Compounds. — The dathe is used with 
many verbs compounded with the prepositions : 



con, 



m, 



inter, 
super : 



ad, ante, 

ob, post, prae, sub, 

Adsura amicis, / am present with my friends. Cic, Omnibns ante- 
stare, to surpass all. Cic. Terris cohaerct, It clcdves to the earth. Sen, 
Voluptati inhaererc, to be connected with pleasure. Cic. Inicrfuit pugnac, 
He participated in the battle. Nep. Consiliis obstare, to oppose plans. 
Nep. Llbertati opes postferre, to sacrifce iveallh to liberty. Liv. Populo 
pracsunt, They rule the people. Cic. Succurabere dolon'bus, to yield to 
sorroivs. Cic. Siiperfuit patri, He survived his father. Liv. 

1. Transitive Verbs thus compounded admit both the Accusative and Dative : 
Se opposuit hostibus, lie opposed himself to the enemy. Cic, 

2, Compounds of other Prepositions, especially ah, de, p.t, pro, and circnm, 
Bometimes admit the D.ative ; while several of the compounds specified under tlio 
rule admit the Abl.: assuesco, consueseo, insuesco, acqiiiesco, sitpersfdeo (also with 
Ace.), etc. 

Hoc Caesfiri dC'fuit, 7;(M/(f27<?(^ (was wanting to) Caesar. Caes. 
8. Motion or DruECTiON.— Compounds cxpressini; mere moUi>a or direction 
generally take the Accusative or repeat the preposition : 



DATIVE WITH YEllLS. 



and Dative : 



or direction 



173 



Adire iiras, to appvoadi the altars do ^^ 
*^l8. Cic. «''°'»- Cic Ad consules udlre. to go to the con- 

In some instances wliere no nioH«n t 

admit s,..„e o.Ler construction for trDative •''''''''''' ''''''' '' ^''"^ ^^n'Pounds 
^...t.^in..sc.^ 

1. The Dative ot the Name as n 
sions of naming: nomen e.t, nonun duZ etf • '''" ""'"""''"' '' •='""'"°° '^ «-?«»- 

Scipionl Afrlcano cognomen fuif e- ' 
Here. ^/Wc«.., instead ofl-ingmp^^^^^^^^^ ''' --«-« ^/Wea.«,. SaH. 

apposuion witli .Scv^.V^i. PP^^'tion ,^ Uh cog lomen, Js put by attraction ia 

2. The Genitive op thp TSTiMB j 

Nomen Mercurii est L"L /Z T '"* "^°" '"^^"' °<^«°"-- 

dative of possessor: ' '''^*' ''"^^^^"*' °' "'^''"« sometimes accompanies the 

Quibus bellum yolentihns ;srnt t, 

' ^~t, Z/.wa.. ....„,(,, ,„, ^ them.ls,in,). 



Tac 



1. Dative with Compound Tensp<! tu. r, .• 

iMihi coDsnium captum iam din Bc* /; 

^) The Dative of A,ent Ji h t! " ! """'''"'^ '''"^"'"^^'^^^ Cic. 
J"gatio„ ,esi,nates theS: :^ trtle^Vrdr: ", •? ^'^ "''""''''-^"^ ^"n- 
Tensesofpassiveverbsjt designates the per^^^^^^ with the Compound 

examples above. ^^°" ^ '^'^ ^"^ the work already doiic See 

Perrc^l ?a^crp;^■;3sJ^^)!'^'^•^^* ^-"^-^^^ »>- the same force as est .im .,, ^he 
J^st a v.^1. eonsaiendum, ...«.„,,, ,,,, ,, ,^,^„ ^^ ^^^^_ ^^^ 

pLrastic conjugation, does lot Srd Tu" "''°" "^^' *'^ ^«««-« P^"" 
rather as possessor or indirect oS tL'^T" '^"'-'^ ^" "^^"*' »^"* 
f • "i««n«. Everyone has his trouble J ' f!'"'!^ "^^'^''^ ^^<'ommodum 

«o too. MUn .onslUun. est I haveTn !: 7J ' ""' T '"' ^^""^'"^ *" l>'^«''- 
tt plan {already) formed. ^ ' "^' ^'^«*'^^«>« e«^i!«m ..^, I have 

^' I^ative WITH Simple Tenses —TJ,„n *• • 
incomplete action, to designate tl; nor nn r.'' "'"'^ ^'"'^ ^'^'^ t^"«^« ^<>r 



Hi 



TWO DATIVES. 



Ildnesta bSnia vlris qnacruntur, Honorable things are sougU hy good men, 
i. e., for themselves. Cic. 

4, Dative of Agknt in- Poets.— In the poets the Dative ia often used 
for the Ablative with a or ab, to designate simply the agent of tbo action : 

2Jon iutelllgor ulli, lam not understood by any one. Ovid. 

389. Ethical Dative. — A Dative of the person to whom 
the thought is of special interest is often introduced into 
the Latin sentence when it cannot be imitated in English ; 

At tXbi vgnlt ad mo, But lo, he comes to me. Cic. Ad ilia mihi in- 
tendat animum, Let him, I pray, direct his attention to those things. Liv. 
Quid mihi Celsus 2git ? What is my Celsus doing ? Ilor. But 

1. The Ethical Dative is always a personal pronoun. 

2. Ethical Dative with volo and interjections : 

1) With VoLo: Quid vobis vultis? Wiat do you tolsh, intend, meant Liv. 
Avaritia quid sibi vult, Tf7i.at does avarice mean, or what ohject can it have'i Cic. 

2) With Interjections: hei, vae and some others: Ilci mihi, ah me.yirg. 
Vae tibi, Woe to you. Ten See 381. 3. 3). 

RULE XIII-Two Datives-To which and Eor which. 

390. Two Datives — tlie object to which and the 
OBJECT FOK WHICH — occur witli a few verbs : 

I. With Intransitive and Passive Verbs : 

Malo est hominibus gvaritia, Avarice is an evil to men (lit. is to men 
for an evil). Cic. Est mihi curae, It is a care to me. Cic. Domus dedg- 
cori domino fit, Jlie house becomes a disgrace to its owner. Cic. Vcnit 
Atticis auxilio, He came to the assistance of the Athenians. Nep. Hoc illi 
tribuebatur ignaviae, This was imputed to him as cowardice {for cowardice). 
Cic. lis subsidio missus est. He was sent to them as aid, Nep. 

II. "With Teansitivb Verbs in connection with the Accusa- 
tive: 

Quinque cohortes castris praesidio rSliquit, He left five cohorts for the 
defence of the camp (lit. to the camp for a defence). Caes. Pericles agros 
8U0S done rei publicae dcdit, Pericles gave his landi to the republic as a 
present (lit. for a present). Just. 

1. Verbs with Two Datives are 

1) Intransitives signifying to be, become, go, and the like; sum, flo, etc. 

2) Transitives signifying to give, send, leave, impute, regard, choose, and 
the like: do, ddno, duco, habeo, miUo, relinquo, tribuo, verto, etc. These 
take in the Active two datives with an accusative, but in the Passive two 
datives only, as the Accusative of the active becomes the subject of the pas- 
sive. See 371. 6. 



pect 




l>ATrVE WITH ADJECTIVES. 



175 

-. One Dative OyiTTKn r>„« j <> 
. P-»il».c N... : "■°-°"' """v. 1' often .n.lt,.a o, ,u ph., .„p„„, . 

11. Dative WITH Adjectites. 
RUIE XIV.-Lative. 

iupo est, ^ e/o^ „ ^.„^^y^^ ^^ ./ «(7e. tic. Cams sim- 

1. Adjectivks with Dativp TI,„ X " 

together with oJ:{;:::^!^^;:z;:::^^^^> '""'''^'^ ^''^^^^' -m 

^. ^ Such are : aceo.^ad.tus, aoq„I TC "^' ''' ^"'^"'^ ^ ^'^^ 

cnndus and injQcundus, molestus XsS^^ '^"" ^"gratu;. idS.S "^• 

2. Other Coxstkuctions .nn^.f """• "'""""«' ^t"- 

pect 3 Dative : ' '""^^''^^^ «^^"^ ^^ere the learner would ex- 

1) Accusative with a jpi-eposiimn . n\ t 
'P^f,fyir^^fnen,l,,,ostTZ^^^^^ with adjoc- 

for v>^^c;., with adjectives signifying wil f'. " '^'"''^^ "^« ^*>^ «>• ^^'^ 

PSrinduIgens in patremf .1 S j/^ '?^'' '"'^^^^^^ 

^c>^/.«..«. Cues. See 433 and 437 '"'''• ^'^"- ^^'^-^^^'nus i«3re, «eami! ;, 
S) ^JA/«^»;. ,.;^;, o,. without a Preposition • 

-^^y^.^^:::;L":5;^^^E:tn;V"'^'"'^^^ H^^me fi,ieni.r.„n, ' 
^^scim (with Roscius). cic ^"'''" °"'"'"*^"'«' ^'"-'"^'^ ^« M^Z 



176 



DATI\E WITH NOUNS AND ADVERBS. 



dissimilis, asaimlUs, constmilia, par and dii^par, especially to express likeness 
in character ; (<'5) with adjectives used substantively, sometimes even in the 
superlative ; (4) sometimes with afflnis, ulienus, insuitus, and a few othert* : 
PcJpuli Romuni est propria libertas, Liberty is characteristic of the lioman 
people. Cic. Alexandri slmllis, ^il*e ^^exaret/cr, i. e., in character. Cic. Dis- 
^a,T s,\x\, tinlike itself , Cic. Cuj us pares, Zi/;«trAoTO. Cic. Amicisslmus h5m- 
Inum, tke best friend of the men, i. e., the most friendly to them. Cic. 

3. Idem occurs with the Dative, especially in the poets : 

Idem ficit occidenti, Jle does the same as kill, or as he who kills, Hor. 

4. For the Genitive and Dative with an adjective, see 390. 6. 

III. Dative wmi Derivative Nouns and Adverbs. 
RULE XV.— Dative. 

392. A few Derivative Nouns and Adverbs take 
tlie Dative after the a'nalogy of their primitives ; 

I. Verbal Nouns. — ^Justltia est obtemperiltio leglbus, Justice is obe- 
dience to laws. Cic. Sibi rosponsio, repli/ing to himself. Cic. Opulento 
homini scrvltus dura est, Serving a rich 7nan (servitude to) is hard. I'laut. 

II. Adverbs. — Congruenter naturae vivere, to live in accordance with 
nature. Cic. Sibi constanter dicoro, to speak consistently with himself. Cic. 
ProxJrae hostium castris, next to the camp of the enemy. Caes. 

1. Dative with Nouns.— Nouns construed with the Dative are derived from 
verbs which govern the Dative. With other nouns the Dative ifa generally best ex- 
plained as dependent upon some verb, expressed or understood : 

Teglmeata giileis nillites facere jubet, JTe orders the soldiirs to make coverings 
for their helmets. Caes. Here j^aieis is probably the Indirect object of /ac^re and 
not dependent upon tegimenta. In conspectum vCncrat hostibus, He had come in 
tight of the enemy. Caes. Here hostibus is dependent not upon conspectum, but 
upon venirat; the action, coming in sight, is conceived of as done to the enemy. 
See 398. 5. 

2. Dative with Adverbs. — A few adverbs not included in the above rule occur 
with the Dative: hula una =» una cum hoc, with him. 

SECTION VI. 

GENITIVE. 

393. The Genitive in its primary meaning denotes 
source or cause, but in its general use, it corresponds to tiio 
English possessive, or the objective with of, and expresses 
various adjective relations. 

1. But sometimes, especially when Objective (390, II.), the Ocnitive is 
best rendered by to, for, from, in, on account of, etc. : 

Bfinfificii grsitia, gratitude for a favor. Cic. Laborum fiiga, escap« 
from labors. Cic. 



GENITIVE AVITII KOUNS. 



177 



394. The Genitive is used 
I. With Nouns. 

,JJ- W?^'* A-'J^'ctives. 

III. With Verbs. 

IV. With Adverbs. 

I. Genitive with Nouns. 
HULE XVI-Genitive. 

dexccCaes. See 3G3. '^''^ *=^°'"" '"^S"'. « »»«« o/y;.,a^^n,. 

«^i^ ^'tlfc™JoT ftelL™iri''^r>»''«,«>« »*>* or 
possessor: ' =' *'"•> '"eluding the aut/ior and 

AmorglOriao, //iefowo/»/o?-?/ Cic Xfiir^- • 

«»«»/.#«■».,. c,e. Bei^„«L:i;^r~ra'''''-'*- 

^vl.ioh•aS' t™™T ^™"^ '^^^'°"*'^^ "'^ "/'«fe of 

Quis vestrum, 7vhich of mxi? Cio l^ifon 
Omnium s.pic„.,.„„„, «{ ,L, .;:„ ,1'„%P"-'' " ^«'-' «/ 'i/^'- Cic. 

1. A'OSTRDM and VFSTn7T>r A^ 

^. UsE.--The Partitive Genitive is a^ed 
^^^':^f!^^:!Z:i^U^ wei,H etc.: 

e^^i^r "K::^^rr :^s.s:. M.di.nu.-t.trc, . ....^ 

o/«;7.o;^i Ca/«^. Cic. ' ^ "/"W^e^. Nep. Quorum Cuius, 

2) With iViir«cra& used Substantively: 



,- \ 



178 



GEMTlVIi: WITH KOLTNS. 



Quorum quattuor,/o«/' of whom. Llv. Sapicntum octilvus, tie eighth 
o/thetuUeinen. llor. 

(1) But the Genitive should not be used when the two words refer to tl)e same 
nuniber of objects, even though of be used in Kngllsh : Vivl qui (not quorum) dKo 
Bupersunt, the living, qf whom two nurvice. tie 

8) With rrononns and Adjectives used substantively, cspecinllv ri) 
with /uc tile, qim, qui, alt.r, idcr, uadcr, etc. ; (2) with conipaiHtives and 
ti.iperlativos; (3, wuli neuters : hoc, id, illud, quid; tnultum, pins, plnrh 
mum minm, rulnmum, tautum, quantum, etc. ; (4) with omnea and cuntti, 

Qui? vestrum, wJdch of you t Cic. Consilium alter, one of the consuls. 
Liv. Prior horum, the former of these. Ncp. GaliCrura fortisslmi, tht 
bravtot oj tL Gauls. Cues. I '. teinpdris, that {of) time. Cic. Multuin 
dpfirac, much (of) service. Cic. HOinlnum cuncti, all of the men. Ovid. 
But omnes and cundi generally agree with their nouns : Omues hSuiIues, 
all men. Cic. 

Pronouns and A(yectlves, except neuters, when used with the Part. Gen. take 
the gender of the Gen. unless they agree directly with some other word; see 6'owaw- 
lu7n alter above. 

^ 4) With a im Adverbs used substantively; (1) with adverbs of Quan- 
tity — abunde, affatiin, nmm, parnm, pnrtim, quoad, sotis, etc. ; (2) with 
adverbs of Vhicc— hie, hue, misquam, i<bi, etc. ; (3) with adverbs of 
Extent, degree, etc.— <?o, hue, quo ; (4) with superlatives : 

Armorum affatim, abundance of arms. Liv. Lucis nimis, too much (of) 
light. Ovid. SapicntiaeiiSiram, little (of) wisdom. Sail. Partim copiarura, 
a portion of the forces. Liv. Quoad ejus facfire potest, as far as (as much of 
it as) he is able to do. Cic. Nusquam gentium, nowhere in the world. Cic. 
Hue arr(5gantiae, to this degree of insolence. Tac. Mailrae omnium, most 
of all, Cic. 

3. LCci and locCrum occur as partitive genitives in expressions of 
time : 

lyiihv<is.\oci,in the mean time. Tcr. MhMC Iwijvxiim, hitherto. Plaut. 

4. For id genus = ejus gcnivis, sccus, libra, etc., see 380. 2. 
6. For Predicate Genitive, see 401. 

IV. The Genitive of Characteristic dcsiirnatcs 
character or quality^ including value^ price, size, weight, 
age., etc. 

Vir maximi consilii, a man of very great prudence. Nep. Mitis inge- 
iiii juvenis, a youth of mild disposition. Liv. Vestis magni pretii, a gar- 
ment of great value. Cic. Exsiliura decern annorum, an exile often years. 
Nop. CtjrOna parvi ponduris, a crown of small weight. Liv. See 402, IIL 1. 

1. A noun designating character or quality may be either in the Gen, 
or in the Abl. See 428. 



OE.VITIVE WITH NOUXS. j-g 

397. Peculiaritiea-We notice the°foUo,vi„^ • 
!■ TI,o GovER.v,No Wo„D is often omitted. Tims " 

coinraOJi (causa) fiicorat m t,.„l k . FT ^ "^'^ '■"■■ "ives »ui 
Into .1,, 0.™ „„„„ „„„„, „i ; '™ ,^™ """»■ «™. I> ™,e.ln,„ .„„e, " 

, ^. (xENITIVE AND PoSSFqqivi^ A n -x- 

nies a Possessive, especially the (Sif S"'^"^' sometimes accompa- 

338. other Constmtl:n,-for the Genitive oeeur 

1. Ablative OF C.,ARAc™,sno. See 408 

2. A» Ar^.c„.E i, ,„„elime, used f„r .he Genitive • 

= c„„j:';HeXt:!:|:;^*^^^^^ «„. Co.^ nee*. 



' *! 



;[! 




p™' 



'1 



UJO 



(iKMTlVE >VIT11 NOUNS. AMI II ADJKCTIVKS. 



3. Tlio PossKSsiVK 58 rogulaily used for the Subjective Gen. of rc^ 
soiial pioiiouurt, mrc'ly for llie Objective : 

Mfu di5aui8, vuj home. Cic. Fflma tua, your fame. Cic. 

4. Cask with I'uki'osition.— A case with a prei)o.sitioii may be used for 
the (Jen. ; especially, 1) For tlie Objective Genitioe, tlie Accusative with 
in, erga, adversus :— 2) For tlie I'urtitii'e Gminvt; the Aeeus-ativo with 
inter, ante, Spud, or the Ablative witl> ex, de, in: 

Odium in hoiulnum y:iinm, hatred of or towards the race o/ men. Cic. 
Erga vos iinor, love towards you. Cic. Inter rOjjes opiilcutiHsbnus, the mod 
wealthy of (ixaxoiig) kiiuja. Sen. Unus ex vlris, one of the heroes. Cic. 

5. A Dativk depending on the vkub is sometinies used, insteail of the 
Genitive depending on a noun : 

Urbi iwnC^'imcwia l^c'trG, to lay the foundations of {{or) the city. Liv. 
Caesari ad p6des projTcSrc, to cast at the feet of Caesar, i. e., before Caosar 
at his feet. Caea. See 392. 1. 

1) Tho two constiuctions, tho Gen. and tho Ciuo with Prep., arc sometimes com- 
blued iu tho some Bcutence. 

II, Genitive with Adjectives. 
RULE XVII.- Genitive. 

399. Many Adjectives take a Genitive to complete 
tbcir meaning : 

Avidus laudis, desirom of praise . Cic. Otii cupTdua, desirous of leis- 
lire. Liv. Amans sui virtus, virtue fond of itself. Cic. Efficicns vtilup- 
iM\s, productive of pleasure. Cic. Gloriae m6mor, mindful of glory. Liv. 

1. FoncE OF THIS Genitive.— The genitive here retains its 
usual force— o/; in respect of— and may be used after adjectives 
which admit this relation. 

2. Adjectives -with the Genitive. — The most comtuon are 

1) Verbtils in ax and participles in ana and ens u?ed adjectively : 
Virtutum K:Yi\-x, productive of virtues. Liv. Tfinax x>TlJ\)o^\i\, tenacious 

(steadfast) of purpose. Hot. Amans patriae, ^i-in^^ (fond of) his country. 
Cic. Fiigiens l&boris, shunning labor. Caes. 

2) Adjectives denotin,nf desire,^ hiowledge, slill, recollection, 
participation, mastery, fulness, .ind their contraries: 

(1) Desire, Avunsioy— avidus, cupidus, siudio-ius ; fastidiosus, etc. ; 
sometimes aemulus and invidus, which also take the Dative : 

Contentionis cupidus, desirous of contention. Cic. Sfipientiae stiidiOsus, 
studious of (student of) ivisdom. Cic. -■ 

(2) Knowledge, Skill, Recollection with their contraries— ^ndrw*, 



GKNITIVE WITH Ami^CTIVKS. j^j 

«*^/«./.. etc.: "^ '"^ ^'*"'«''' '''"^"''•'^'''. '•^^-. i'^ouHuJJu^J,.!^Z 

«•«!?. nnd a Oc„. having ,hf Sf T ^ ^ "'°''° *"'°''"8 "»""<". °r/».i. 

Ai.xais iiJtcniiac, „„3.,-„ . _ 

'.*"'■*'«""■«■ llor. ScoCcn.witbV°lT4l, , ''f '""""'"»''. 'Wo/ „.7. 

«: Sr c:.v™;r.:f '■ f,*";"™- «- «»«• n^- 3). 

n n. ... ^'"'^'^^^'^^o^^ f''r the Genitive also occur- 

c;c. Hi, do ...bus c„„sl, ',': : ,;i;ww ■ 7"™*^ »» «>« ^'' 

'■ortab5„i,,„yfc,,„,.,„,,^.^J pf;'""ac'"'»,/«./«».«.». Cic. KS. 



\ 



182 



GENITIVJS WITH VERBS. 



:A'' 



[t„A£ i I 



ni. Gexiiive with Verbs. 

400. The Genitive with Verbs includes 

I. Predicate Genitive. 
II. Genitive of Place. 
lU. Genitive in Special Constructions. 

I, Predicate Genitine. 
aULE XVIIL-Predicate Genitive. 

401. A Predicate Noun denoting a different person 
or thing from its Subject is put in the Genitive : 

Omnia hostium grant, All things belonged to the enemy.'' Li v. Sgnfitua 
Hanuibalis grat, The senate was HannibaVs, i. e., iu his interest. Liv. Judl- 
cis est verum sequi, To follow the trvih u the duty of a judge.'' Cic. Parvi 
pretii est, It is of small value. Cic. 

1. PaEDicATE Gi'NiTivE AND P:-DiCATE NoMiNATivE.— The Predicate Gen- 
itivc is distiiiguidied from the Predicate Nominative and Accusative by the 
fact that .t always designates a different person or thing from its subject, 
whde they always designate the same person or tiling as their sulijects * See 

2. Predicate Gemtive and Pijedicate Adjective.— The genitive is 
often nearly or quite equivalent to a predicate adjective (353. 1) : homuds est 
= humamim est, it is the mark of a man, is human ; stulti est = stultum est, 
It IS foohsh. The Gen. is the roguhir construction in adjectives of one end- 
itg : sapieniis est (for sainens est), it is the part of a wise man, is wise. 

402. Varieties of Predicate Genitive.— The principal are, 

I. Sl-bjectite or Possessitb Gexitive— generally best rendered by— 
of property of d'-Iy. business, mark, characteristic of: 

Ua-G hostium grant, These thijigs were of {hoUmged to) the enemy. Liv. 
Lst impgrat'^ris superare, It is the duty of a commander to conquer. C&cs. 

n. Paiititive Genitive : 

Fics nobUiura fontiura, You will become one of the noble fountains. 



Hot. 



etc. 



ni. Gknixive of Ciiaracter'stic— incladin- value, price, size, weight. 



Summae^cultaf is est, lie ?s (a man) of the highest ability. Cic. OpSra 
ma^ni luit, The assistance wa.i of great value. Nep. 

1. The Genitive of True or Falue is generally an adjrctivc belonging to 
pretii understood ; but sometimes jore/'w is expressed : 



> Lit wppfi oftJif. en iny, or were the enemy't. 
* Lit. is of a judge. 



M 



I! 

t: 



'■ -isl\ 



<s~ . - * r 



GENITIVE WITH VERBS. 



183 



nt person 
e: 

iv. Senfitua 
Liv. jQdi- 
Cic. Parvi 

•cdicate Gen- 
;ative by the 
I its subject, 
ibjects See 

genitive is 

: hdmi/iis est 
stultum est, 
of one end- 
wise. 

icipal are, 

idered by — 

memy. Liv. 
uer. Cacs. 

! fountains, 
size, weight, 

1\<i. Op6ia 



lelongiug to 



i^ 



farviprfitiiest, /{tVo/;/«^tfva;„<,. Cic. See 39G IV 
pr.«fed^'"'' ^"'^ ^"^''' ''''^ '"■''" '^ ^"^^■''^' *^^^^«^' ^"*^ t^° "1^^' are ex- 
i) Regularly by the Ablative. See 416 

■2) Sor.etimes by the Genitive ofadjeetives,Iike the Prcd. Gen. of price- 
Vendo frunaentum pluns, I sell cjraia at a lugher jrice. Cic! ^ ' 

and vtl'^ A^'°n '> *^"' ""'"^ *"■ '^ '" ^«c?.j?„ete and general expressions of price 
and vame. A dofliuto price or value regularly requires the Ablative. 

pUilt S: oth'ers :""" ""^""^^^ ""' '^' «^"^'^-^' --'>-' ^"^^^ 
Noil flocci pendSre, not to care a straw (lock of vvool)/or. Plant 

aen^'h^'''/^^ "^TH "' ^'■'*^''^*' Genitives, occur in such expre'ssions as 
aeqm bom/acere and bmi consulere, to take in good part. 

493, Verbs with Predicate Genitive.— The Predicitf. 
genitive occurs most Ireqiientiy with sun^ and facTo but 
sometimes also with verbs oi' seeming and regarding: 

Ilaec hostium grant, These tJwigs were the enemrh Liv Omm Pn 
manae dU.onis fecit, He brought the Last under (oT)ll«n ;«/? ITv. ^" 

1. Transitive Verbs of this class admit in the active, an Accusative with 
the Genitive, as in the second example. 

2. With Verbs of Seeming and /iV^a/-^/«y_v][deor, habeo, duco 'puto 
ctc.-me may generally be supplied: ^^o, auco, puto, 

HSminis videtur. It see?ns to be (esse) the mark of a man. Cic. 

404. Other Constructions for the Genitive also occur. 

1. The Possemve is regularly used for the Pred. Gen. of personal pro- 
nouns : ^ 

Est tuum (not ."wi) videre. It u your duty to see. Cic. 

2. The Genii.ve with Officium, Mimus, Mgotium, Proprium • 

^ Senutus ofTicium est, It is the duty of the senate. Cic. Fuit oroprium 
V^m^i, It was ch(c>'actcristic of the people. Cic. ~ 

«..l, In' rtl'T ^""""' '"""' '" "'"^'^ '■"^'''"''^^ ''^ ^^Pl'''"'e^l tv siipplvin-^ some 
8. The Ablative of Characteristic. See 428. 

JTZ Getiitive of PkiQc. St ; 421. 11. 
ZZ7. Genitive in Special Comtmctions. 

is ntd^-'nTf ^'"^"''^y^' ^l^^^^'' •'^^"."e or with an Accusative, 
lion! "^ constructions which deserve separate men' 



?» 



i. 



- r' 



ill 



184 



GENITIVE WITH VEKI3S. 



8 

i 



RULE XIX.-Genitive with Certain Verbs. 
406. The Genitive is used 

I. With misSreor and miaeresco : 

UUveve laborum, Fllj; the labors. Virg. Miseresclte regis, Pity the 
king. Virg. o » y ' 

II. With rScordor, mSmini, r^miniscor, and obliviscor: 

Meminit praeteritorum, He remembers the past. Cic. Oblltus sum mei 
I have forgotten myself. Ter. riagltiorum recordari, to recollect base deedl 
tic. Kemmisci virtutis, to remember virtue. Caes. 

III. With refert and inteiest; 

Illorum refert, It concerns them. Sail. Interest omnium. It is tJie in- 
terest of all. Cic. 

in J' ?''r'"°''-"'^''° ^''""^'" "'^y ^° ^^P''^'"^'! °« dependent upon re 
m refert and upon r. or causa to be supplied with interest. With th« other 

>r^.«^^.y .t also conforms to the analogy of the Gen. with the adjectives 
memor and imniemor (391). 2. 2) ). 'lojeciu es 

,«.«L^r"'""'? ACcouDiNa TO SExsE.-The expression Fem^ mild in 
Zfd^^lrerr^' '"'"'' ^^"''"'^^"^ to, .WW,, sometimes cou^ 
ygnit mihi Piaionis in mentem. The recollection of Plato comes to mn 
rmnd, or / recollect Plato. Cic. IJ«t the Norn, is also admissible : 11 vfiTu 
m mentem pugna, Does not the battle come to mind? Liv. 

_ 407. Other CoxsTRucriojfs with verbs of Hememher- 
iiuj and Forgetting also occur ; tc/z^emoer 

1. Theyfco«sa^i«,.. MfimJuSram Paulum, /rmmJ.,.,^ Paw^,/.. Cic 

otjj's. C?c. ^*^"''"' ""''^ ^' •■ ^^'"'■'^''■^ ^' ^*^'^^^^' ^^'^^^''^'^ ^^"'■^'^■:/' «/ i^^^ 

This is the regnhr construction for the person with rf^ordor, and occurs also 
w.th memnu, though that verb takes the Ace. ofa mz^.„,^.o.a,.y. 

folbws^; ^^^^'' ^^^^^^^^^^^^"«^ ^vith 7?e/-«.^ and Interest is as 

1. The Person or Thing interested is denoted 
1) By the Genitive as under the rule. 



GENITIVE WITH VEKBS. 5 

2) By the Ablative Feminine of the Possesdve : 

MeS rCk'Tt, It concent, me. Tor. Interest meS, It interei^t!, me. CIc 
mav J 'r..!r''f' ' '■'^'""''^ '""'' "'" J^'''^'-' "^ """ ^'^ "■ °f I'^'r«'>Dal pronouns, and 

3) By thei?a/ii;f, ov Accusative witlo or rwVAawi ^rf; but rarely, and 
chiefly with refert, which moreover often omits the person : 

Quid refert viventi, What does it concern one living t nor. Ad me rGfert It 
concerns me. I'laut. ^ "' ■'* 

2. The Subject of Impohtance, or that which involves the interest, is 
expressed by an Inhuitive or Clause, or by a Neuter Pronoun : 

I"l^rc^t omnium recte faccre. To do right is the interest of all. Cic. Vestru Loo 
ixiiMXiisX., This interests you,. Q,\<i. .cowauuo 

S. The Degree op Interest is expressed by an Adverb, V a Neuter 
iised adverbially, or by a Gen. of Value (402. 1 and 2) : 

Vestru maxime interest. It especially interests you. Cic Quid nostra refert 
What docs It concern us f Cic. Magni inturest meS, Jt greatly interests me. Cic. ' 

4. The Object or End for which it is important is expressed by the Ac- 
cusativo with aJ, rarely by the Dative : 

Ad honorom nostrum interest, It is important/or our honor. Cic. 

409. Genitive with otiiek Verbs.— Many other verbs 
sometimes take the Genitive : 

1. Some Verbs of Bent?/ and Want, as e^eo, indigeo, like adjectives of 
the same meaning (S'J9. 2. 2) ) : 

neeZS" cle""''^"""'' '"'''°^*' ^'"'^"^ '•<'ff««>«8 eT^ercise. Cic. Auxflii egere, to 

2. Some Verbs oi Emotion or Feeling like adjectives 6399. 3. 4) ) : 

Animi pendco, / am uncertain in mind. Cic. Discrucior animi, / am troulled 
in mind. Plaut. 

3. A few Verbs denoting Mastery or Participation like adjectives (390. 
2. 2) ), potior, adipiscor, regno : 

Sicilian potitns est. He hecnme mn^er ofSicih,. Nop. Eerum adeptus est He 
obtained the power. Tac. Kegnavit populoruni, lie was king of the people. Ilor. 

4. A Genitive of Separation or Cause occurs in the poets, with a fc\y 
\CY\)9,—ahstineo, decipio, d'esino, desisto ; mlror : 

Ab-tinero Trfirum. to abstain from, ang^r. Ilor. Laborum declpitur, He is &* 
guiledofhislnbo.^s. Ilor. TiQsine (^ni'Ymmm, Cease from complaints. Hot. Do- 
slsturc pugnae, to desist from the battle. Virg. 

5. Sdtugo and S'dagUo admit a genitive dependent upon sat (390. 4) ), 
and verbs oi Promising admit the Gen. damni infecti : 

KOrum fiatiigure, to be occupied tcith (have t-nough of) business. Ter. 

6. Genitive of Gerunds and Gerundives. See 5C3 and 663. 5. 



186 



ACCUSATIVE AND GENITIVE. 



m 



^t 



^i 



RULE XX.— Accusative and Genitive. 
410. A few transitive verbs take both the Acciisar 
tive of the Person and the Genitive of the Thino' : 
I. Verbs oi Bemindlng, Admonishing. 
II. Verbs of ^cci^sm^, Convicting, Acquitting. 
III. Miseret, Poenltet, Pudet, Taedet, and Piget. 
^ I. Reminding, etc.~Tc amicitiac commoneftlcit, He reminds you of 
fnen(hh>p. Cic. Milltcs necessitatis monet, He reminds the soldiers of the 
neccssiti/. Ter. 

II. Accusing, etc.— Viros scSleris arguis. You accuse men of crime. 
tic. Lcvitatis eum convincere, to convict him of levity. Cic. Absolvure 
injuriae cum, to acquit him of injustice. Cic. 

III. MiSLRET, PoENiTET, ETc.-E<lrum nos mtsSrct, We pitu them (it 
moves our pity of tliem). Cic. Consilii me pocnitet, / repent of my pur- 
pose. Cic. Me stultitiue meae pfidet, lam ashamed of my folly. Cic. 

1. The Genitive of Thing designate5=, with verbs o£ remi7idinr/, etc 
that to which the attention is called ; with verbs of accusing etc the 
crime, charge, and with miseret, poenltet, etc., the object which produces 
the feeling. See examples. 

2. Passive Construction.— The personal verbs included under this 
Rule retain the Genitive in the Passive : 

AccusStus esi pioditiouis, He was accused of treason. Nep. 

3. Verbs of Reminding, moneo, admonco, commoneo, commonefucio 
sometimes take, instead of the Genitive, ' 

1) The Accusative of a neuter pronoun or adjective, rarely of a sub- 
Btantive, thus admitting t\. o accusatives : 

Illud me admCncs, You admonish me of that. Cic. 

2) The Ablative with de, moneo generally so: 

De proelio vos admSnui, I have rtmindtd you of the lattle. Cic. 

4. Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, sometimes take, instead of the 
Genitive of the crime, etc., 

1) The Genitive with nomine or crimtne : 

Nomine conju.atiouis damnati sunt, They were condemned on the charae 
of con ''piracy. Cic. 

2) The Accusative of a neuter pronoun or adjective, rarely ; 
Id me accQsaa, You accuse me of that. Plant. 

3) The .maiive alone or with a preposition, generally de .• 

De pgcuiiiis rSpgtundisdaniiiatus est, Jle wtus coniated of extortion. Cic. 

5. With Verbs of Condemning, the Punishment may be expressed 



GENITIVE WITH VERBS AND ADVERBS. 187 

1 

1) By the Genitive : 

capitis condemnure, to condemn to death. Cic 

(1) VoU damnari, to be condemned to fulfill , vow'= to obtain a wish. 

2) By the Accusative with a preposition, generally ad ■ 

Ad bestias condemnare, to condemn to the tvild beasts. Suet. 

3) By t^e Ablative; and, iu the poets, sometimes by the Dative: 
l^apite damnare, to condemn to death. Cic. 

6. With MisEUET, PoENiTET, PuDET, Taedet, aud PiGKT, an lufinitive 
or Clause u sometimes used, rarely a neuter pronoun or nihil: 
Me poenitet vixisse, I repent having lined. Cic. 

LT^M^fZ^'T '';-^^"- "'^'" ^"^''" '"^''^« ^^''^''- «''« ^* "Shamed: 

8) Pertaesm cJmits the Accusative of the object- 

Pertaesus ignaviam suam, dUgmted with his own inaction. Suet 

7. The Accusative and Genitive occur with other Verbs.-Thus 

1) With some Verbs of Freeing with the accessory notion of acquitting- 

fault nv^"'i:: '"'T'-'^- ^''' ''"^ ''-'^ ''^"^^ '- ^' '^ ac^s iiim :; 

idult. lAv. bopunjo, decipio, and the like. 

roo'l^^i'^'^/ZTf'''"^^''"''^"' ^'^^ ^^^J'^"*'^^^ ^°^ verbs of plenty 
(.99 2. ■>) and 409. 1), especially compko and i,,pl,o : ^ ^ 

3) With a fe^v transitive verbs of Emotion or Feeling (409. 2) rarely 
Te angis animi, You make yourself anxious in mind. Piaut. ' 

lY. Genitive with Adverbs. 
411. The Genitive is iised with a few Adverbs: 

1. With Partitives. See 396. Ill, 2. 

in tl!" ^^'''!; ^rf ;'*"'^ ^'^'''"^^'^ P^'^^aps dopondont upon die contained 
m them, and with Ergo and TSnus, originally nouns : 

Pridie ejus diei, on the day before that day. Caes. Postrldie oius dici 
on the day after that day. Caes. VirtQtis er,o, .. acco^rnt IflSZ C ' 
Lumborum tfinus, as far as the loins. Cic. For tenus with thelbl., !«; 2l' 

SECTION" vir. 

ABLATIVE. 

kfPdln;iTo^r'^^i'^^'''V" '^^ primary nicinin,!. is closel v ro- 
to the English objective with--/row, ^y /; ?/,.•//> o, .1 pv 
presses various adverbial relations. It is'accoJd^; u^l" 




188 



ADLATIVJi OF CAUSE, MANNER, MEANS. 



witliYerbs and Adjectives, while the genitive as the case of 
adjecve relations, is most common ^?ith Nouns S^e^D^f 
413. The Ablative is used as 

I. Ablative of Cause, Manner, Means— includin<^ 

1. Ablative of Price. " 

2. Ablative after Comparatives. 

3. Ablative of Difference. 

4. Ablative in Special Constructions. 
n. Ablative of Placov 

III. Ablative of Time. 

IV. Ablative of Characteristic. 
V. Ablative of Specification. 

vl. Ablative Absolute. 
VII. Ablative with Prepositions. 

I. Ablative of Cause, Manner, Means. 

EULE XXI.— Cause, Manner, Meani 

414. Cause, Manner, and Means are denoted by tbe 
Ablative : '' 

^v^^xmmi^UnA^,inv,Anart is praised became of its usefulness Cic 
Gluna ducJtur //. /. M by c,lor,, Cic. DuGbus modis fit, It is done in two 
ways C.c. Sol omnia luce collustrat, T/te sun illumines all things wUh its 
hoht. Cic. Aoger orat vulneiibus, //. was ill in consequence of his wounds 
iSep. h'AQim soTiQ inn, pleased witJi your lot. B.OT. 

1. Application of Rm.E.-This ablative is of very freonon^ 
occurrence, and is used botli witJi verbs and adjectives ^ 

2. The Ablative of Cafse (le«iio-mfp<3 timf h„ ..? • i x 

opinion^'tl"?'!''/"'^- "''''""'' '^ ""'" •^"^''«''' '" accordance with my 
opinion; mea senteniza, jvssu, impulsu, monitu, etc.; also the Abl with 
doleo, gaudeo, glanor, laharo, etc. ' '"^''^ 

u:irnri, <o ,ulmire. '"^ '"' ' " ^«"'"-^' «■ ^o honor ; admlratime aff\cire = ad- 

.1. ! k7'!1' ^'T""' ""'^ ^r,.ransitice verbs, C««., is regularly expressed bv 
the Abl., though a p,vpositiou with the Ace. or Abl. ronietbnes'occ:.rt 
Amicltia propter se expfetltur, Frio Mip is sought for itself Cic * 
3) With Transitlce verbs the Abl. y. ithout a Prep, is rare • but cavm 
ffr.tta^d ablatives in . of nouns used only in that ease (1.S4) ^.^ XZ' 
r^andatu, etc.. arc thus used; sometimes ul.o otJ.er words ' ' 



Ci 

u 



i 






ABLATIVE OP CAUSE, MANNEE, MEAICS. 189 

In other cases, Came in the sense of-on account of, became of, is gone- 
rally e.xp,vs.ed-(l) by a Preposition with its case: ob, propter, I I ta! 
etc. ; or (2) by a Perfect Participle with an Ablative : ' '^ ' 

In oppidum propter timoren. .ose rficipiuut, They betake themselves into 

tionca lecit, Injluenced b. the desire of ruling, he formed a conspiracy. Caes 
Cupiditatem the 2d example really expresses the cause of the action fecit but 
by the use of ^nductus, it becomes the Abl. of Cause with that partible 

t^o, -^'^ i^^^TiYE OF MANNER.-This ablative is regularly accom- 
pa ued by some modifier, or by the Prep, cum; but a'few ab at'ves 

cur without such accoiapaniment : , --i,.. uo 

«.r ./ the 1 ersmns. Nop. Cu.n silentio audirc. to hear in silence. Liv. 
Per with the Ace. sometimes denotes J/r/nw^;..- per vim, violently. 

4. AnLATivE OF MEAxs.-This inoludcs the ImtTument and nil 
other Means employed. See also 434. 2 ; 414, 2, 1). 

or^vf^ ^^.^V'^ ^>^ AGEXT.-Thisdesi/rnates the Person by whom 
anything is doiic as a voluntary ayent, and takes tJie Prep. Iovm!^: 

Occlsus est a TliSbauis, He teas slain by the Thebans. Nep 

1) The Abl. without a Prep, or the Accus. with per is sometimes used 
espeaally whenthe Personis regarded as the Jr.«... .4ther than as theX^ 

Per Fabrieinm"f' " "'"">. f ''''''''''"'' ''' ""'"^^ ^^^^ Nnmidians. Liv. 
Per Fabricum, by means of (through the agency of) Fabricius. Cic. 

2) Dativeof Jyc«,(. See 388. 

1 Ablatit.! op AocoMPA.N,ME.NT.-TI,is generally takes raw: 
V ivit cum lialbo. He Imt toUlt &»««. Cic. Dut 

Ingcntl exercitu profectus est, m set out with a large army. Liv. 

ihJ^xuJ^'"'^^'^'' ^^'''' ^^ ''"^ ABLATivE.--Kinared to 
the Ahliitive of C:inse, etc., are 

effoctoT''' ^^'''^''''' ""^ Price— tlmt by which the trade is 

II. Tfie Ablative with Compai-ativcs— that by whicli the 
comparison is effected. ^ 

,."/-J^'« Ablative of Difference-that bv whioh one 
ubject ciinTeis from another. '' " 

IV. The Ablative in Special Constructions. 



'~T- 



190 



ABLATIVE OP PRICK 



RULE XXII.-Ablative of Price. 
416. PijicE is generally denoted by the Ablative : 

Vemildit auro patria.n, Ih sold his country for gold. Virg. Couduxit 
magno dO.uum, //. hired a house at a h:,h A/cio. Slulto "^ I 
Poen,3 vetoru stetit, The victory cost the Carthaginians (stood to tho 
Carthagnnans ^i) rnuch blood. Liv. Quinquaginta talentis acstlmun, to he 

lt:f P,f ' '"'"^^' ""''' '^''^ ''' ^^^''"" --^^' '^ - ''^-^ «^ '-<V 

1. Th Ablative of Price is ijsed 

ldco,^lIo!ir^' '^ ^"^''"^'' ''"'"^'' ^'""'"S' ''"^"S- ^''«^' ^^«'^^. ^°«''«^''. 
^^^^ 2) With verbs of costing, of being cheap or dear, eto, consto, liceo, sum, 

S) With verbs of valuing, aestXmo, etc. 

4) With adjectives of value, earns, vindlis, etc, 

2. ExcriANGixG.-With verbs of exchanging-TTz^^f, comviuto ofn ih. 
tlnng received is general,, treated as the pric'e. Is with ;c^;7 ft]/ " 

the , . : 'i eTis";:! r l' ''■ r'"-^^' -/-..«.. Sa... But sonietimea 

le ( mg g, en is treated as the p.ice, as with verbs of bum,u, or is i,ut in 

the Abl. Willi cum; Exsiiiuui natria muir,,u it i 7'"i'' °^ '^ I'"*^ '" 

(;p,.t, ^simmi pail i.i nmtav it, m exchanged country for exile. 

3 Adverbs OP Price are sometimes used : bene emire, to purchase well 
I. e., at a low price ; care aedimdre, to value at a high price. ' 

4. Genitive op Price. See 402. III. 



.531 % 



RULE XXIII-Ablative with Comparatives. 

417. Comparatives without quam are followed by 
tiie Ablative : ^ 

abbreviation is admissible on y if pla^ro^.^^nltTh'tf T' ^'''^ 
tive or Aocua;itivp, but is not nocA".?^! ^ ^ ^'*'' ^^'^ Noniina- 
with a llelative : necessary «veu here except for ^luam 



ABLATIVE WITH COMPAKATIVIS. DIFFEKimCE. 101 

y c/ «w. t,ic. bee also exumplca uuder tLo Itule 

liuve been used. ^ "'""* """^ ^««'« l^oultun, which unght 

3) Instead of the ALL, a Prenosllinn wff i, u= „ 

bor and quantity, wi.Uoi^.^i"," '^^llro™ T'T'""' "^ """■• 
also »,«/<,,, „,iw, „tj . "'' "J""" ""= '""slrucUou; soaiclhiics 

«..<........3,..„..,Zt.!;;;r::--^^^ 

A.c'lLTalc^?; ^""' ""'T' '''''''' •" P-^^3' nnd late prose [ 
Ai ct.us atque Ua6ta, more cUcbj thaa ivlth Uy. Hor. 

5. Alhts with the Ablative somctiincs occurs It thpn -..^ i 
parison. o/;,c;- tlnm : occurs, it then invokes a com- 

QuacMit fil ia Lis, //, ,,,^, o^;,,^ ;;^;,^^, ^;^^^ ^^^^^^_ pj_^^^ 



RULE SXIV.-Ablativ© of Difference. 

fi ^^\^; T'"" ^^^'^suRE OF Difference is denoted by 
the Ablative : -^ 

Uno die longiorcm mcisera fiiciunt, They mahe the month one dav 

1 r J^T"/ /; r '"^"•"^'■^^^"^ P^"J" '"^'-^ ^■I'^Pl^antos, r% are in .ii 
a little below the elephant. Caes. 

1. The Ablative is thus used with all words invnlv.'n^. « „ 
but Pdvorhs nfton -uppiv ils nliro ■ i- // ; ""oUing a comparison, 

o m ., ="PP'3 »'!' piacc: Multu„i. robustioi- much more rohn«f 
2 The Ablative of />.J.,v.,« includes the Abl. of /;/teT4 of" , 
the Abl. with ante, post, and abUnc in expressions of time (42?! ^' ^ 



T 



392 



AULATIVE IN SPECIAL CONSTEUCTIONS. 



EULE XXV.— Ablative in Special Conptrnctions. 
419. Tlio Ablative is used 

I. With utor, fruor, fungor, p5Uor, vescor, and their corn 
pounds : ' 

^ Plurunis rebus frulmur ct Qtlmur, We enjoy and use very many thing,. 
cic. JJagna est praeda putitus, lie obtained great booty. Nop. Vescimut 
bcstiis, We live upoii animals. Cic. 

II. With fido, confido, nitor, and innitor: 

Nemo potest foitunae stabilitato conf idrrc, Ko one can trust (confido 
m) the stabildy of fortune. Cic. Salus veiltfite nititur, Safety rents upon 
truth. Cic. 

III. With Vekds and Adjectives op Plenty and Want : 

Non egeo modlclna, / do not need a remedy. Cic. Vjlcare culpa, to be 
free from fault. Cic. Villa abundat lacte, caseo, nielle ; The villa abounds 
in m,lk, cheese, and honey. Cic. U.bs nuda piacsidio, a city destitute of 
defence. Cic. Virtute praodltus, endowed with virtue. Cic. 

IV. With dignus, indignus, contentus, and fretus : 

Digni sunt iimicltia, They are worthy of friendship. Cic. Xfitura parvo 
contcnta, nature content with little. Cic. Fietus umlcis, relying upon hia 
friends. Liv. 

V. With opus and usus: 

Auctorltate tua nobis opus est, We need (there is to us a need of) your 
authority. Cic. Usus est tua mihi opera, I need your aid. Tlaut. 

1. Explanation.— This Ablative may in most instances be readily ex- 
plained as the Ablative of Cause or Meam: thus utor, I use, serve mysulf 
by means of; fruor, I enjoy, delight myself with; vescor, I feed upon 
feed myself with; /<(/o, confido, I confide in, am confident because of, etc! 

2. Accusative and Ablative.— iJ^Vjmor and transitive verbs o{ Plenty 
and Want take the Accusative with the Ablative: 

Me (Vi-novhrmoro I deem myself worthy of honor. Virg. Arn.is naves 
m.rnt He loads the sups with arm,. Sail. Oculis se privat, He deprives 
htmsi/f oj his eyes. Cic. See 371. 2. ^ 

1) Transitive verbs of Ploni!/ and Want signify to fill, furnish with, deprive of 
cte.j c^iao, cumulo, eompleo, impleo, imbuo, instruo, fmero, orno, ^i^-orho 
■priro, f,pnl,o, etc. Bignor in the best prose admits only the Abl 

2) For the Accusative and Genitive with some of these verbs', see 410. 7. 2). 

3. Dative and Ablative.- ^^,/s est and vsvs est admit the Dative of 
the person with the Ablative of the thing. See examples. 



n 



ABLATIVE IN SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS. I93 

2) With .^«« ^^ rarely with usus est, the thing needed may be denoted- 

(1) By the iNonuuative, rarely by the Genitive or Accusative • 

/.. «?cif T ,!n". "> ''' I'Z', "" '''"""' "■• " ""^^'' ^"^ "^^■''**"--' (- necessity) 

(2) By an Infinitive, a Clause, or a Supine : 

Opus est to vulGre, /< w neccsmnj that you he well. Clc. Onus est nt l.Wom r* 

4. Other Constrcctions also occur. Thus 

Mo utc-tur pHtre, Ife uilljina (nso) me a father. Tor 
2) /-u/f,, conf-ido, and i«;uto;- udmit the Dative, rarely the All with in 
Virtuti conf ia.-re, to confide in virtue. Clc. See 3S5 1 

Acc. or Abl. ^^ith rrr),., and some verba of Want the Abl. with Prep 

> .icaie .lb opero, to hefreefrom tuorl: Caes. 
..rh'*^ ^^f«f '•''•-For the flr,„,7/,, „.,th pWor, see 409.3. For the ,7c««u-e with 
verbs and acUectivcs of Ptenty and Want, sec 409. 1, 410. 7, and SOD. gj^""'"' ^"^ 

II. Ablative of Place. 
420. Tliis Ablative designates 

l\ Tn,^ ''"^^^'^ ^^^ ^^'^"<^" anything is or is done: 
11. llie place from which anythinu proceeds -^in 
clMdmg jSource 'Md >Sepamtion. ° F oceeas ,~m. 



RULE XXVI-Ablative of Place. 

421. I. The place in which and tlie place from 
WHICH are generally denoted by the Ablative with a 
x^reposition. But 

II. Names of Towns omit the Preposition, and in 
S-^-nlar of the First and Second declensions desi ^- 
3 PLACE IN WHICH by tbc Gciiitive : 



the 



nate 



:i 



194 



Hi 

gf if ' 



ABLATIVE OF TLACK. 



H 



I. Hannibal in IWIia fuit, Hannibal was in Kali;. Nop. In nostris 
castria, m owr camp. Caes. In Aj)pia via, on tke Appum way. Cic. Ab 
uibe pronciscUur, lie departs from the city. Cues. Ex. Africa, from Afri- 
ca. Liv. "^ •' 

II. Atlii5nl3 fuit, Jle was at Athens. Cic. Bilbylfme mortuua est, He 
died at Babijlon. Cic. FQgit Coiiutlio, Uejlvdfrom CoritUh. Cic. UOmao 
I'uit, lie was at liome. Cic. 

422. Names of Places not Towxs sometimes omit 
the preposition : 

1. Tho Ablutivo of place in Avmcn, sometimes omits tho 
preposition : 

^ 1) GtMierulIy the Ablutives-/(Jcvj, Ucis, parte, partlhm, dextra, laeva, 
avudra, tcna.jnurl, and oilier Abiiitivea when «iuuliliud by totu,-< : 

Allquid loco poiiCro, to put anything in its place. Cic. Terra ndilquc, 
•n land and sea. Liv. Tola Grueciu, in alt Greece. Nop. 

i') S'onictiiiics other Ablatives, especially when qualified by adjectives : 

Hoc libro, in this look. Cic. 

In poetry tho preposition is often omitted oven when the ablative Lns no inodiflnr: 
Silvis agrisquo, in theJoret,ta andjielda, Ov. 

2. Tho AMativo of place from wmcn sometimes omits tlio 
prepositlo!!, especially in jiootry: 

C;.{lcre nubil)U8, to fall from the clouds. Virg. Labi oqiio, to 
jalljrom a horse, llor. 

423. Names op Towns differ in their construction 
from other names of places, 

I. Generally in simi)ly omittincf the preposition. But 
ir. In the Singular of the First and Second declcnsioiiS 

they designate the place m which by the Genitive. See 

examples under the Rule. 

1. PnEPOsiTioM Retained.— The preposition is sometimes retained, 
especially lor cnipliasis or contrast : 

Ab Ardca Romarn v6n6runt, They came from Ardea to Rome. Liv. So 
also when the vicinity rather than tho town itself is meant : Discessit a l]run- 
dlsio, lie departed from Bruiidisium, i. c, from the jtort. Caes. Apnd Alan- 
tinfiam, near Mantinea. Cic. Ad Trftbiam, at or near the Trehia. Liv. 

2. Tho Genitive, it must be observed, never denotes the place from 
wnicu. 

The Genitive-Forms denoting the place ir, v)hich. nre pot itivrs only in form. 
They probably belonged oriirinaily to a ease cdled ti. .v entire, afterward blended 
with the Ablative, except in the Sing, of Dec. L . i . ! vhorc is, is united with tho 
Gen. Accordingl.N these genitives are in force oji Ab . . -e,^ 

3. Other Consthgctions for the Geutiv^ also occur: 



'i;,. 



ABLATIVE OF PLACE, SOUHCK, HEPAIiATION. 



105 



'^) Ablatice by Attraction f 

1.1 ^nouiy\mmL^^\u\Z.^,,,,ontheAlbanmountandat Larhiinm. Liv. 
-) Ablative Without Atlvuction, geneiully will, a ..m.oHition 

Lc^^jl 'l';;;,^^'^'^""^'^''' »■« ^^i^^<^nUna it.e//. Cic. Longa Alba, at Alba 

Thl« l« the ropnlnr construction when the no,,n takes an a.llectivo or adicctlvo 
Vronoun, but the Uw.. ,6»U (4i.. ••) udu.lts .po..e..ive or aileZ ^ 

Uouil suae, ut hh home, do. 

Gen'i- a'l? i? f''''^'''^^^.^-^'-*^' o/>?.V.m-tl,c name of the town is in the 
Gen «■ Ab but the appelhU. .c U«df i. i„ the Abl.. generally with a ITep. : 
la o,,,, do Anhochiac, i. the cUy of Antioch. Cic. In oppfdo Cl.io u 
^U>.n Ca.u,n. ^.p. Albao. in urbe oppurtflua. at Alba, a lluvenierU^Uy, 

424. Like Names op Towns are uacci 

1. Many numcs of I,-laiids : 

fromLdoI.^S'J^' ^''"^ "' ^'•^'^''"'- ^^'P* ^'^"^ Prof kiscrtur, He procccch 

2. Dcmua, rus and the genitives humi, militiao and belli: 

Ruri iv^CvQ x-dam to »prnl life in the country. Liv. Domi milltiacfme 
at home and m the field. Cic. Uomo prolugit, he fled from Aow^J. Cic? ' 

3. The Genitive of otlicr nouns also occurs: 

1) Ry Attraction after names of towns : 

IJoniae NfiinWiaeqiio, at Home and in KumiJia. Sail. 

2) Without Attraction in a few proper names and rarely also the ceni- 
lives urhine,fovi, terrae, viclniae : " t, ■ 

DSnunn ChersonOsi habuit, He had a house in the Chersoncsus. Nep 
Truncum leiiquit fiienac, He left the body in the sand. Virg. 

HULE XXVII.-Ablative of Source and Sepr ration. 

425. SouECE and SF.rAiiATioN arc denoted Lj the 
A])Iat;vo, generally with a preposition : 

^ SoiniCK.— Hoc aiidivi de pitrcntc mco, / heard this from my father. 
'->■'-■ Oiu;.,di ab Sjtblnis, descended from the Sabincs. Liv. .^tatua ex aero 
facta, a statue made of bronze. Cic. Jove nfitus. son of Jupiter. Cic. 

yKPAr;ATiON._(^aedetn a vobis dr-pcllo, / ward off slavghter from you. 
tic. Ilunc a tuis aris arcebis, You will keep this one from your altars. 
Cic. Expulsiis est patria, He was banished from his couiitry. Cic. 

i\.-J'-'^Y Ablative of Sofrce designates th.nt from which any- 
tning 13 derived, niol!;d!ng parentage^ nuUerial, etc. 

2._ The Ablative of Sepauation designates tliat from which 
anything is separated, or of which it is deprived, and is used : 



19G 



ABLATIVE OP SOUIICE, SEPARATION, TIME. 



etc, 



1) With lutrausilive verbs signifying, to ahstain from, be distant from, 

2) In connection with the Accusative after transitive verbs signifvin.^ 
to hold from separate from, free from, an J the like : arceo, abdineo, dUerrZ 
«jmo, excludo, exsolvo, llbero, pdlo, froMhto, removeo, solvo, etc. : 

8) A few verbs of separation admit the Dative: uUeuo, furor, etc. See 
385. 4. 

3. Preposition Omitted.— This generally occurs 

1) With Perfect Participles demtiug parentage or birth-gMtus, ndtus, 
ortus, etc. : 

Jove natns, son of Jupiter. Cic. 

2) With Verbs of Freeing, except llbero, which is "scd both with and 
without a preposition : 

Soinno sol vi, to be released from sleep. Cic. But in the sense of acquitting 
these verbs admit the genitive (410. 7) : AKquem culpae libSrare, to free one 
from blame, i. e , acquit him. Liv. 

3) With Moveo before the ablatives— ^ot-o, senatu and tribu : 
Signum niovere IcJco, to move the standard from the place. Cic, 

4) The preposition is sometimes omitted with other words, especially in 
poetry. 

III. Ablative of Time. 

RULE XXVIII-Time. 

426. The Time of an Action is denoted by the Ab- 
lative : 

Octogesimo anno est mortuus, He died in Jm eightieth year Cic Vere 
convGnere, They assembled in the sprinr,. Liv. Xatali die sue. on his birth- 
day. Nep. Iliemo et aestato, in winter and summer. Cic. 

1. DfisiGXATioxs OP TiME.-Any word, so used as to involve the time of 
an action or event, may be prt in the ablative: hello, in the time of w»r- 
pugna, in the time of battle ; ludls, at the time of the games ; memoria, in 
memory, i. e., in the time of one's recollection. 

2. The Ablative with Ix is used to denote 

1) The circumstances of the time, rather than time itself; 
In tali tempore, under such circumstances. Liv. 

2) The time in or within which anything is done: 
In diebus proximis decern, in the next ten days. Sail. 

(1) This is used cspocially after numeral advcrba and in desixnatln-^ the periods 
of life : bis in die, twice in the day; i,i puerUia, in boyhood. 

(2) In a.]vindrcd sense occur nL^o the Abl. with de and the Accus. with intsr or 
intra: De media noete, /;, fU ^nldlle of tho night. Cacs. Inter unnos quattuordo- 
elm, in (wiUnn) fourteon years. Caea. 

(3) The Ablative with or witliout in sometimes denotes the time within which 
or after which: paucis dli'.bus, within (or after) a fjw days. 



e; 



to 

lln 



cat 
tivc 



pre; 
l)ar( 



ABLATIVE OP TIME, CIIAEACTEEISTIC. 197 

427. Accusative or Ablative.— The time since an irv 
uon or event is denoted by A6kinc or .l^^with tlie A^ 
cusa ,ve or Ablative a..d the time between two event? 
by Ante or Post with the Accusative or Ablative : * 

Abhinc annos trgcentos fuit. //. lived (was) three hundred years since Cic 
A^hmc aims quattuor, four years since Ci^ H/?,. r. '^'^''"' ^^"^f f^nce. Lie. 

ajeu, days before. Co. Post dies paucos v5aU, //. came after afeTdt^Z', 

tion of JreTsrTh'^ ?" ■^''""''"^^ "'"^ «*^^«'' •« ^-P'-««d as Dura. 
rTh?An 5 ' Z u "''''' ""^ ^"'^ '^^ dependent upon those prepositions 

.«err;rLt-Hisrr:sr^c-j^^ 

2. Numerals with Ante and Post Thooj ^„ t, -it 

or<linal Thn« . fi„ \ ^osT.— ihese may be either card nal or 

ord.ua . Thus : five years after = quinque annis post, or quinto anno pod- 
or postqmuque annos, or post quintum annum; or with Lrbetrefu^ 
Dumeral and the noun, quinqnepost annis etc 

be unlte^d t^»hT '^'''' "'" ^^^^-^"^'^ '""^ ^oHow ante and ^..^, mr.y 
be united with them, or may even be used fox postquam : ^ 

J<ep ^ono anno postquam, «*«« years after. Nep. Sexto anno quam 6rat 
expulsus, SIX years after he had been hanislied. Nep ^ 

Oul'lr/!'""''" °-' '''' K-^^^^^'^or Q-^™ may be used iov postnuum: 
Quatuduo, quo occisus cst./o«r days after he xoas killed. Cic. 

IV. Ablative of Characteristic. 

EXTIE XXIX.-Characteristic. 

428. The Abhitive with an adjective may be used 
to cliaractcrize a person or thinnr 

gumma virtutc adolescens, a youth of the Jd'jhcst virtue. Caes. C3tl. 
hna inger.io -^alo fuit, Catiline was a man of a bad spirit. Sail. 

1. AULATIVE OP CnARACTERISTIC IS UScd 

1) With Substantives as in the first example 

..Jr ^w-'^'.^lof "*° ""'"' '"'^' ""^^ *'^° °*^^^r ^«rb3 which admit a Predi- 
cate r.enitive (403) as in the second example 

tive I s?m°etr;::dT"" ' ""^""^^ '"^'^'^' ^^ ^''° ^^'^"^'« "'^"> - -^j- 

S^'VpvIv;^''' p""' '^^'"''''"^'of'^'^PP^-'-^^nceofabull. Caes. 
iJ. ixEMTivK OP Charactkristic— See 806. IV. 

4. OrNiTivE AND AiiLATivB DisT,NODisiiFD.-The Gcnitivo Eenerallv ex 

;;:srz:r;:;lr°""' '"''"'"'-*" ^"""'--°' "--^^^^^^^^^^^ 



i 



198 ABLATIVE OF SrECIFICATION. ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

V. Ablative of Specification. 
RULE XXX.-Specification. 

429. Tlie Ablative may be used with a word to de- 
fine its application : 

Agcslluus nomine, non potcstate fuit rex, Agesilaus was kmn m name 
not m power. Nap. Claudus altSro p6de, /amc m owe /oo^. Nep. Morlb.is 
similes, similar in character. Cic. 

1. Force op Ablative.-TIus shows in what respect or particular any- 
thmg IS true : thus, king (in what respect?) i,i name : similar (in what re- 
spect y) til character. 

2. Accusative of Specification, See 380. 

VI. Ablative Absolute. 

430. A noun and a participle, a noun and an aclisctive, 
or t MO nouns maybe grammatically independent of («6. 
solved from) the rest of the sentence, and yet may express 
vai-ious adverbial modifications of the predicate. When 
so used they are said to be hi the case Absolute. 

EULE XXXL-Ablative Absolute. 
431. The Ablative is used as the Case Absolute: 

Servio rcgnante vigufirunt, They Jlourished in the reign of Servius 
(Servius reigning). Cic. Regibus exactLs, consules creati sunt. After the 
banishment of the kings, consuls were appointed. Liv. Sereno coelo, ivhcn 
the skg is clear. Sen. Canlnio consule, in the consulship of Caninius. Cic. 

1. Use.— The Ablative Absolute is much more common than the Eng- 
lisli Nominative Absolute, and expresses a great variety of relations,— (-//we, 
cause, reason, means, condition, concession, etc. 

2. How Rendered.— This ablative is generally best rendered (1) by 
a Clause mth—when, while, for, since, if though, etc., (2) by a A'bw/i with 
a Preposition,— in, during, after, hy,from, through, etc., or ;3) by an Ac- 
tive Participle with its Object: 

^Servio regnante, while Servius reigned, or in the reign of Servius. Cic. 
Eeliirione neglecta, because relhjion was negltcted. Liv. Perdltis rCbus oiiiiil- 
bus, tSincn, etc., Though all things are lost, still, etc. Cic. EquItStn praemis- 
so, subs*quebatur, Having sent forward his cavalry, he followed. Caes. 
3. A Connective sometimes accompanies the Ablative : 
Nisi munltis castris, unless the camp should be fortified. Caes. 



d#| f 



CASES WITH PIIEPOSITIONS. 19 j 

dpla ttdj!.™'" " ""''"^ ""^ ''^ ^" ^^^ ^^'- ^'>-'«t« with a neuw parti- 

vltnrent, intC-ri^nt/j/a^flc'.a 4 iiw /, """r^ ""''''• ^"'"' '""'"^ 1-^ 
being uncertain), perMed.'uv ' ''^ *''""''' '^^""''^ (^^''"^t '^'V^ «t«^. 

5 A P.«„er,.. or Ao.Hcrxv. r.ay stand alone in the Abl. Absolute: 

much cle^^^^^^^^ ''' --^--'^ «/^- « '-^ *^.n.,,.. (it having been 

6 Quis,u. X. XHK NoMXK.xxvB may aeeompany the Abl. Absolute: 
Mult. s.b, quxsque pctentlbu, ^,Ue man, sought, eackfor kunself. Sail. 

VII. Ablative with Pkepositio.^s. See 432 and 434. 



SECTIO>T VIII. 

OASES WITH PREPOSITIONS. 

RULE XXXII.-Cas2s with Prepositions. 

wiffp^: ^^^' "^'^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ Ablative may be used 
witli Preijositions : 

Ad amicmn scrips!, / have mnilcn to a friend. Cic. In curiam into 
the senate house. Liv. In Tfili i ,•„ Tfnl,. v r, curiam, into 

^a.mi>. ' •''• ^'^P- ^'.'O c»st"s, 6f/b>-e the 

433. Tlio Accusative is used with 

Ad, adversus (advorsum), ante, apnd, circa, circum, circitor, cis citr-i 
contra, crga, extra, infra, inter, intra, jnxta, oh, pCne , per, ^On ' p ^' 
praetor, prope, propter, secundum, supra, trans, tdtra, ;e'u; ^ ' 

iucem^./«r. ^,^^7,;. Cic. Apud concilium, in the presenee of the council 



434 Tlio Ablative is used with 

A or ab (abs), absque, coram, 
t w- ex, prae, pro, 



cnm, 
sine, 



de, 
t6nas 



200 



CASES WITH PREPOSmONS. 



I ' 'if! 



P' 



Ab urbe, from the city. Caes. Coram conventu, in the presence of tin 
OMembly. Nep. Cum Antiuciio, with Antiochus. Cic. De fovo, from thefo-, 
rum. Cic. Ex Asia, from Asia. Nep. Slue corde, without a heart. Cic. 

1. Many verbs compounded with ab, de, ex, or sitper, admit the Ablative 
dependent upon the preposition : 

Abire mdgistratu, to retire /ro,n office. Tac. Pugna exccdunt, They retirt 
from the battle, Caes. 

Sometimes the Prep, is repented, or one of kindred meaninfr Is used : 
De vita ducGd<3re, to depart from life. Cic. DGccdure ex Asia, to depart from 
Ana. Cic. 

or6'LyL%bl!!,«47'''"^ °' without 2>. is sometimes used ^y\ih' mo, Fio, 

Quid hoc hftmlne tiicias. What are you to do tcith this man t Cic. Quid te (or 
de te) futfinim est, What will hecome of yoii t Cic. 

The Dative occurs in nearly the same sense : 

Quid hiiic liSmIni facias, Wfiat are you to do with (or to) this man t Cic, 

8. ^, ah, ahs, e, ex.— A and e are used only before consonanU, ab and ex either 
before vowels or consonants. Ab>s is antiquated, except before te. 

4. Timm follows ita case : 

C«llo tenus, up to the neck. Ov. 

6. Cum with the Abl. of a Pers. Pronoun is appended to it : micm^ tecum, etc. 
generally also with a relative : qudcum, qulbuscum. 

435. The Accusative or Ablative is used with 
In, sub, subter, super: 

In Asiam profugit, He fed into Asia. Cic. Ilanuibal in Italia fuit Han. 
mbal was in Italy. Nep. Sub moutem, toward the mountain. Caes.' Sub 
monte, at the foot of the mountain. Liv. Subter toyam, under the toga. Li v. 
Subter testudiue, under a tortoise or shed. Virg. Super Numidiam, h.yond 
^umidia. Sail. Uac siiper re scribam, /will write on this subject. Cic. 

1. In and Sub take the Accusative in answer to the question whither. ? 
the Ablative in answer to where/ In Asiam (whither?), into Asia: In Italia 
(whera^), in Italy. 

2. Subter and Super generally take the Accusative, but super with the 
force o{-conciruing, of, on (of a subject of discourse), takes the Ablative ; 
see examples. 

436. Prepositions as Adverbs.— The prepositions were originally 
adverbs, and many of them are sometimes so used in classical authors. 

437. Adverbs as Prepositions.— Conversely several adverbs are 
sometimes used as prepositions with an oblique case, though in most in- 
iitanees a preposition could readily be supplied. Such aie 

1. With Accusative: prftpius, proxlme, prldie^pofitridie, ufiqve, dlv'/per • 
_ Propius perlculum (ad), nearer to dav{/er. Liv. Prl.lle Idus (ante), the day 
t^j.T.-e the Ides. Cic. Usque pedes (ad), even to the feet. Curt. 

SS. With Alihttlve: pdlam^prncul, *5?nM; (poetic): 

Pulam popaio, in the presence of the people. Liv. Procul c.nstris, at a distant 
from the camp. Tac, SIrnul h's, with thene.. Tlsir, 

3. With Accusative or Ablative: ctam^insdper: 

Clam patrem, without the father's knowledge. Plaut Clam vobls, withoutvour 
inotbiedge. Oaea. 



: 



CHAPTER III. 



SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 

EULE XXXIII-Agreement of Adjectives. 

438. An Adjective agrees with its l^oun in gender 
i^uiiBER, and CASE : ' 

Fortuna caeca est, FoHvne is mud. Cic. Vcrae amicrtiae, t^'ve friend 
ships. C.c. Magister optimus, the best teacher. Cic. '^'^^ friend. 

1. This Rule includes Adjectives. Adjective Pr.nouns, and Participles. 

2 Attribctive and Predicate AojECTivES.-An adjective is called 
attriutu., unless it unites with the verb (generally sZ) to Znile 
pred^cate; M is then called . predicate-adject^e : as La est, IJ^ 

3. Agreement with Clause, etc-Au adjective may agree with anr 
word or words used substantively, as .pronoun, clause, infiniti^l. ' 

Quis clanor, Who is 7nore illvstriovs? Cic Certnm ^et M^i-^., - - • 
It IS certmn that children are loved. Quint. See 35. Ill "'''"' 

An ndjective agreeing with a clause is sometimes plural, as in Greek. 

4. Neuter with MAScuuNE.-Sometimes the Predicate Adjective is 
neuter, when the subject is Masc. or nm. : j ^ •» 

Mors est extrCmum, Death is the lad (thing). Cic. 

5. Neuter WITH Genitive.-A neuter adjective with a genitive is often 
used instead of an adjective with its noun : 

Multum 5i)6rae (for mvlta oph-a), much service (much of serviced CV 
Id tempons, tU twu. Cic. Vana rGrum (for vanae re!),Tai^tUngi: fi' 

6 CoNSTRncTioNAccoRniNGToSENSE.-Sometimesthe adjective or par- 
ticple conforms to the real meaning of its noun, without regard to gram- 
matical gender or number : ^ 

rf..r«r/rH]r.P"''^*\'' ^'a/'^ (some), prepared to contend. Yirjr. Nobis 

7. Agreement with Predicate Noun or ArpnsirivE.— See 4(;2. 

8. AoREKMENT WITH ONE NouN FOR ANOTHER.-Whcn a Doun govcrns 
another m the Genitive, an adiootive belonp-inir i-, ^pn-„ f„ -,, f u 

„„ .. v---"^^ ^^'""b'"g I'l oenac to one of the two 

t'ouns, sometimes agrees with the other: 

I iv^'"&^5''"^ »^/y^/-ww) Inltia rerum, the heqinmmjs of or cater ihinas 
Liv. Cursus justi {justus) amnis. the regular course of thirivei^{\y . ^ 



202 



AGIIKEMKNT OP ADJECTIVES. 



439 Wnu TWO or more Nouns.— An adjoctive or 
participle, bclongin^^ to two or more nouns', niay ao-reo 
Avith them all^ conjointly, or may ag-ree witii one and be 
understood with the others : 

Castor et Pollux viai sunt, Castor and Pollux were seeti. Cic. Temfi- 
ritas iguoratioque vitiijsa est, Jiashnm and iguorance are bad. Cic. 

1. The Attributive Adjective generally agrees with the nearest noun : 
Agri omnes et ma^^a, all lands and seas. Cic. 

2. Different Genders.— When the nouns are of different genders 
they may denote ' 

^ 1) Persons: then the adjective or participle agreeing with them con- 
jointly is masculine : Puter et muter mortui sunt, Father and mother are 
dead. Ter. 

2) Persons and ntngs : then the adjective generally takes the gender 
of the person : Rex regiuque classis profecti sunt, The king and the royal 
fleet set out. Liv. 

3) Things : then the adjective is generally neuter : IlonOres, victoriae 
fortulta sunt, Honors and victories are accidental (things). Cic. 

3. Neuter with Masculine or FEMiNiNE.—With masculine or feminine 
nouns denoting inanimate objects, the adjective is often neuter: 

Labor et di5Ior sunt f iuitluia, Labor and pain are kindred (things). Cic. 
Nox atque praeda hostes remorata sunt, Mght and plunder detained tin 
enemy. Sail. 

4. Two OR MORE Adjectives.— Two or more adjectives in the singular 
may belong to a plural noun : 

Prima et vicCsima legiones, the first and the tioentieth legions. Tac. 
So in proper names: Gaaeus et Publius ScIpiOues, Onaeics and Publius Scioio 
Cic. ^ * 

440. Use of Adjectives.— The Adjective in Latin 
corresponds in its general use to the Adjective in English. 

1. An adjective may qualify tbo complex idea formed by a noun and an adjec- 
tive: aes dlienum gramle, a prcat debt. Here grunde qnalifles not aes alone, but 
««8 aheniim. In such cases no connective is used between the adjectives. 

But the Latin uses the conjunction after multi even where the Euglish omits 
it: multae et magnae tempest^tes, many great emergencies. 

441. Adjectives are often used substantively. chctL 
the learned; multi, many jjersons ; multa, many thino-s. 

1. In the Plural, Masculine Adjectives often designate person.s, and 
NcufiT Adjectives things: /or^d., the brave; dUUc.% tlie rich; paup're^, 
tlio poor; 7nulti, many: patici, few; omncs, all; mei, my friends ; ntilla, 
tiseful things; mea, nostra, my, our things; omnia, all things; haec, ilia, 
these, those things. 

2. In the Singular, Adjectives are occasionally used substantively, 
especially in the Neuter with an abstract sense: docttis, a learned man' 



USE OF ADJECTIVISS. 



203 



IhZ'c' ''"' *'"^' *'' *"'"' "'''■' ''''^'''' "«'^-« «f sincerity, nothing 

3 Noon UNDERSTOon.-Many adjectives become substantives bv th« 
omission of tlieir nouns- naf,-;„ fi,.,....,\ .• ""usuimives, oy tlie 

theirs poftbemglU; .«;.«„..,«,, the Ligi.estparUfthe'^^oTnt:^^^ 

tin,.s octl^ir' '''" "'■'"'' ^'"^ '^^•"'^'' ''^ ^'^'^^^ "^'y-"- -^^^ "» g-'itivo some. 

Ad ultimum iu6„iae,/<,r ad ultlmam hiopiam, to extreme destitution. Liv. 

442. Equivalent to a Clause.— Adjectives liko 
nouns m apposition, are sometimes equivalent ?o clauses 

JSomo saltat sobrius, .V. one dances when he is sober, or when sober Cic 
ortensmm vivum amavi, Iloced Ilortensius, whil he was llil f^^ 
Homo nunquam sobrius, a man., who is necer sober. Cic. 

tive daCsl?^'"^"'' "^'''"^"^'^^^^'•^^«*' ^ro often best rendered by a rela- 

P^-Imus morem solvit, He was the first rcko broke the custom. Liv. 
then id Itthi^g'e^r""'"' '"'^ ''""^"' ^^'""''^ '^^' ''^^■'••^' ^'"''^•^ ^^^ -*^-< -d 

feen. h6natus//vv„,«« convenit, TA^^ ...«a^, «5..dm4/c'^ in or eat numh'r 
Co. Rosems .rat Uomae frequens. AW.'.., was frequently ^l^r^-:" 

pos.'?!:::!^ z:;t::^i^^'^''' '^'''-^'^ ^^•^''^ ^"""•^^^^^ -• ^^-'- ^-i^- 

. 444 Comparison.-.— A oomimiisoii between two ol>- 



ve 



that) two, the superlati 

Prior liCrum, the former of these (two). Nep. Galloi 



um fortissimi, i:/<# 



204 



AD-JKCTIVKS. rUONOUNS. 



1. With tub fohce op Too or Veiiy.— The comparative sometimes has 
the force of too, unvsualli/, somewhat, and the superlative, the force of 
ve)ij : doctior, too learned, or somewhat learned ; doclisshnus, very learned. 

2. CoMPAF'.vTiVE AFTKu QiiAM.— When an ohjoct is said to possess one 
quality in a higher degree than another, both adjectives are put in the 
comparative; but when it is said to possess one quality rather than an- 
other, both are in the positive, the former with miif/is ov potius : 

Clarior quam gratior, more illustnous than 2'liasl»g. Liv. Discrtus 
migis quam sipiens, fluent rather than wise. Cic. 

In the first case tho positive is Siiraetimcs used hi one or both members ; and in 
the Second case mdgis is sometimes omitted, and occasionally tlic adjective before 
quam is in the comparative. 

3. Strenutiie.mng Words.— Comparatives and Superlatives are often 
strengthened by a Prep, with its case, ante, prae, praetvr, supra (117. 2. 3), 
unus, ft nus omnium, alone, alone of all, far, by far; Comparatives also by 
eiiam, even, still ; multo, much, and Superlatives by lonffe, viulto, by far, 
much, quam, quantus, as possible : 

Multo maxima pars, by far the largest part. Cic. Res una omnium difficillima, 
a thing by far the most dij/icult of all. Cic. Quam maximae e(".p;ae,/wt'e,s' as large 
as possible. Sail. Quanta maxima vastitas, the greatest possible devastation. Liv. 

4. Comparison in Adverbs has the same force as in adjectives : 
Quam saepisslme, as o/i!(?/i as possible. Cic. Fortius quam fclicius, with 

mere bracery than success. Liv. 




CHAPTEE lY. 



SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS. 

RULE XXXIV.— Agreement of Prononns. 

445. A Pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gen- 
der, nujSIbee, and person : 

Animal quod sanjiulncm hSbet, an animal which has blood. Cic. Ego, 
qui te confirmo, I who encourage you. Cic. Vis est in virtutibus ; eaa ex- 
cita, There is strength in virtues, arouse thern. Clc. 

1. ArPLiCATioN OF Rule.— This rule applies to all Prononns when 
used as nouns. Pronouns used as adjectives conform to the rule for adjec- 
tives. See 438. 

The Antecedent Is the word or words to which tho pronoun refers, and whose 
place it supplies. Thus, in the examples under the rule, an'imal is tho antecedent 
vtquod, and tirlUllbus tbe antecedent of eas. 



aghekmejvt oif riioNuu^v.i. 



205 



2. Agreement with Personal ruoNouN.-Wl.on the antecedent is 
a Dc-monstrative in agreement witli a Pergonal pronoun, the relative a-reos 
with the latter : ° 

Tu es ia qui me ornasti, You are the one who commended me. Cic. 

3. With two AxTECEDENTS—Whcn a relative or other pronoun, re- 
fers to two or more anteeedents, it generally agrees with then, eonjointly 
but It sometimes agrees with the nearest : 

Pueri maiieresqup, qui, bo;,; ami women, who. Caes. Peccatum ac 
culpa, quae, error and fault, which. Cie. tcciium ac 

J) With antecclents of different genders, tho pronoun conforms in gender to the 
rule for adjectives (439. 2 and 8) ; hence puf>-i mulieresque qui. above 

2) With antecedents of different persons, the pronoun prefers the "first person to 
the second, and the second to the third, conforming to the rule for verbs. See 463. l! 

4. With Predicate Nou.v or Apros,TivE.-A pronoun sometimes 
agrees with a Predicate-Noun or an Appositive instead of the antecedent: 

«^«/r.>'^ ^nT ^^"^ ''"f ) ''^''""•" '>^"il"'-'"'- ih^ anhnalivJuch we call 
man. Cic Ihebae, quod (y/m.) cSput e.t, Thebes which is (he capital 

fession. Liv. Humen Rhenus, qui, the river Rhine, which. Caes. 

In the last example, qui agrees with the appositive Rhenus ; in tho other exrun- 
pies, the pronouns quem, quod, and ea, are attracted to agree with their predicaTe 
nouns homlnem, caout, and confemio. pr*^'iicaie 

5. Construction according to SENSE.-Sometimes the pronoun is ' 
construed according to the real meaning of the antecedent, without re-^ard 
to grammatical form ; and sometimes it refers to the class of object, to 
which the antecedent belongs : j j ^ 

Equltatus, qui vl.Jerunt, /^^ cavalry who saw. Caes. Earum rCrura 
nimnyqne,ecu-h of these thinr,.^. Cic. remocritum omittamus ; apudistos- 
let us omit Dcmocritus ; " o., as he). Cic. ' 

to. f •,^^'T=?^!'^f Omittel. ccodent of the relative is often omit- 

ted when it .s indefinite, is th. . >, or is implied in a possessive : 

Sunt qui censeant, T/wre are ,„,.• who think Cic. Terra reddit nnnH 
aceepit, The earth returns what it has received. Cic. Velt", qui c .nTn. 
e^i^te _^..shs. hoc interest, This inter^ts you who ha.e lild wltlZ. 
Ujnty. Cic. Here the antecedent is vos, implied in vestra. 

7. Clause as AxTECEOENT.-When the antecedent is a sentence or 
clause the pronoun, unless attracted (445. 4), is in the Neuter Singular 
but the relative generally adds id., an appositive to such antecedent 

(nt.s :^s^ ::::' ^st "^--^^ '- -^'^^-y ''^^^^^ -> -^^ -^^^ 

8. Relative ATTRACTED.-The relative is sometimes attracted into the 
case of he antecedent, and sometin.es agrees with the antecedent reverted 

Judice quo (for quem) nosti, the judge whom you know. Hor. Diea iu- 




-4 



:oo 



PERSONAL AND roSSKSSIVJi: rilONOUNS. 



slat, quo dip, The day is at hand, on which day. Caes. Curaao, quam 
urbeiiJ tiinObant, Cumae, which city thy hdd. Liv. 

0. AxTEOEBENT Attii.vcteij.— Ill Poetiy, rarely in proso, the antecedent 
is someumes altructoil into tiie case of the relative; and .sometimes incur. 
l)oruted in the relative clause in tlio same case us tlie relative : 

Urbcm quam stituo, vestra cat, The city which I am building is yours. 
Virg. ilalarum, quas amor curas hiibct, obllvisci (for mddruni curdru/n 
quae), tofonjd the wretched cares which love has. Ilor. 

I. Personal and Possessive Pronouns. 

446. The Nominative of Personal Pronouns is used 
only for emphasis or contrast : 

SignificSmus, quid sentiiimus, We sJiow what we think. Cic. Ego 
rOges ejeci, voa tyrauuos iutroducltis, I have banished kinijs, you introduce 
tyrants. Cic. 

1. "With 7«?r?m the iiroiKnm is usually expressed, and then the third person is 
supplied I)y Mo, /«, iUe, which are then often redundant: tuqiMem. you indeed, ille 
j»<lt?t'/«, he indeed. (2'*5t/6M adds einphwis; f'quiJem - efro qiiidem. 

2. The writer sometimes apeulcs of himself in the plural, using nos for ego, noa- 
UriiirmeuH. and the plural verb for the sin-uiur. 

3. For ^"osti'um aud Vestrum, see SOU. 1. 

447. Possessive Pronouns, when not emphatic, arc sel- 
elora expressed, if they can be supplied from the context : 

Manus lava, Wash your hands. Cic. Mihi mea vita cara est, J/y life is 
dear to me. Plant. "^ 

For Possessive with Genitive la the sense of own, see 397. 8. 

TieJIexive use of Pronouns, 

448. Stii and Suus have a reflexive sense (himself 
etc.) ; sometimes also the other Personal and Possessive 
pronouns, together witli Is, Ille, and Ipse: 

Se diirgit, He loves himself. Cic. Sua vi mSvCtur, He is moved by his 
own poiver. Cic. U& consolor, I console myself . Cic, Persuildent Tulingis 
flti cum lis proflciscantur, ney jiersuade the Tulingi to depart with them 
Caes. 

1. Tnter noR, inter vos. inter .w, have a redprocnl force, each other, one another, 
together; but instead of inter se, the noun may be repeateii in an oblifiue case : 

Coll6quiraur inter nos, We converse together. Cie. Amant inter se. They lore 
one another. Cic. llOiijines iiOmiuibus utiles sunt, Men are useful to men, Co., t« 
each other. Cic 



REFLEXIVK UMK OF PUONOUNS. 20V 

1. In SuDonuiNATE Clauses e\imw«in.r ♦!,« „ i- . „ . 

nM/nfn (that I would be).^ C c Pe tosK oITi;/^' «.s'^W ( from ) m. /o Z 
tntHto a^crtain what hufMow ciUs^nlthinL^x^ *''''*''' <="elteut, //e 

1) As Sui and ^Smk* thus refir \n siilii,.nfo .i, i 
crally refer dth.r to other w, rds or L « ■ ' \ f "nonstrnfivc, /., ///,. etc.. ccn- 

obn,at crvitLo, nihil ^ u^^^^i'j '^^ ^ Z";;: "/f '"T"'' "'" "•'"•'•*• ^^"'• 

(that they will). J„st. ' "''' "'' *'"'* '"^^ '^' ^'''""l/f anything 

ownl" c!c' '"""" '"''^"' '''^"''' '^"''"' ^"''* '' "'^'^ "^"'^ ^^* '^"^ (hi« 

3 CoN'STiincTiox AcconniN-G to Sense. -When the subject of the verb is 
not the real agent of the action, sui and .uus refer to the latter • 

...\rf7- 'r""" ''^' "* '"" '^'^^^'^«' ^ «»^ *'^^'*'!^^ *^^ Cam. (real 
agent) to be 7m lieutenant. Cic. ^ 

4 Sues SuBSTAXTivELY.-The Plural of Suvsnsed substantively-;,/, 

froi^^^tsC"'^' ^^^-^^ "^^'^ '"''' ''-'' ^'•^^^-- «^^-^ -'-^'^-s 

Fuit hoc luctuosum suis. r/./. was atflicting to Im friends. Cic Here 
m^s refers to an oblique ease in the preceding sentence. 

5. Si:i and Suus sometimes refer to an omitted subject- 
Deforme est de se praedlcare, To boast ofon^sself is disgusting. Cic 

6. Reflexives refer„ino to mf^ri^nENT SrDJECTs.-Sometimes a clause 

o'li?:.:. \-"r^''T-'"'^ ^^ "^ ^^^'''^ ^""^J-*' -^^ another 4 r; 
to tlio subordinate subject : ^'"ug 

Respondit nemlnem secum sine sua pornicie conteudisse, He replied 
that no one had contended mtk hhn ^.Uhont (his) destruction cls ^ 



208 



ritONOUNS. 



■4 I 



II. Desioxstiutive Pronouns. 

450. Iltc, Iste, Ille, are often called respectively de- 
nioiistrath es of the First, Second, and Third IVrsciKs, as 
/</c' deai<jjnates that which is near the sjwaker ; isfe, t'hat 
whieh is near the person addressed, and ilk, that which is 
remote from both, and near only to some third person. 

Ciiat03 hujiis urbis, the guardian of this cily. Cic. MQta istain mcn- 
ti'in, Vkange that purpose of i/ours. Cie. Si illos nogllgLs, if i/ou dinrct/arj 
those. Cic. 

1. Hic AND Tlle in Contrasts. — Hie dcsignatos an object conceived 
us near, and illc as remote, wliether in space or time : 

Xon antique ilio more, sod hoc nostro fult Cruditu.«(, lie was educalaf, 
not in that aneient, but in this our modern toai/. Cic. 

2. IIlC AND Il,LE, FOU.MER AND LATTER. — In rcforCnCC tO twO objocts 

previously mentioned, (1) Ilia generally follows Illc and refers to the lat- 
ter object, while Ille refers to the former ; but (2) Hie refers to the more 
important object, and .lie to the less important : 

Ignavia, labor: ilia, hic; Indolence, labor: the former, the latter. Cels. 
Pax, victoria: haec (pax) in tua, ilia in deorum potestate est; Peace, vie 
tort/: the former is in your power, the latter in the power of the gods. Li v. 

3. Hic and Ille are often used of what immediately follows in dis- 
course, and Me sometimes indicate:! contempt : haec verba, these words, 
i. e., the following words ; isle, that man, such a one. 

4. Ille is often used of what is well known, famous : 
Medea ilia, that well-known Medea. Cic. 

1) nic with or without Mmo, is sometimes equivalent to Hgo. Alone it Is some- 
times equivalent to mens or nosier. 

2) I/ic, ille, and is are sometimes redundant, especially with quMem • Sclpio 
non muitnm ille quidera diccbat, Scipio did not indeed say much. Cic. See 440. 1. 

3) A Demonstrative or Kelativc is sometimes equivalent to a Genitive or a 
Prep, witd its case: hie dfilor = d(Mor hujus rei, grief on account of this; haec ciira 
= cura de hoc, care concerning this. 

451. Is and Idem refer to preceding nouns, or arc the 
ant ecedents of relatives : 

Dionysius aufugit : is est in pruvincia, Diom/sim has fed: he is in 
the province. Cic. Is qui satis habot, /t^ who has enough. "Cic. Eadem 
audfre mfdunt, Theg prefer to hear the same things. Liv. 

1. Is is often omitted, especially before a relative or a genitive : 

Flcbat pater de f ilii morte, de piitris » Iliiis, The father icept over the death of 
Vie son, the son over (that) of the father. Cic. See also 445. 0. 

2. /«or Ipae with a Conjunction Is often used for empha.sis, lilie the Enjjiisb 
and that ton, and that indeed : 



DEMONSTUATIVIO AND KliLATIVE PRONOUNS. 20D 



ITnnm rem txpllcabo oatnoin' maximain, One thing I wi/t eseplaln and that too 
a niofil iiiipor/ant one. CIc, 

/(/ thus iiHcl oiuii it'lers to a clause or to tbe jroncrni thoiitfbt,nn<l et lj,-<e is 
ofiou Lost n-n(ler.Ml. too or oho: AuUIro Criitlppiiuj, Ulqtio AtbOuis, to hear Oatip. 
pus, and that too at At/ienn. (.'ic 

8. /item l8 »i>uit'tluiiij boat rfiuliTC«I. aho, yet: 

Nihil uiik.. (juod iioii hUiu bomsnim. Solhing mfful,xehich In not also honor- 
able. Cic. (iuum dicat-uipit idem, Thonyh he asmt^he yet denies (ibu buiiu) 
denii's). CIc. 

4. /8—)/ui = ho— who, such— aw, such— that: 

li sfimiis, qui ossc (libiuius, HV are Mich an we ought to be. CIc. Eaestgeni 
quae ncsclat, The rave in mich that It Aiiowh not. LI v. 

6. Jdein-qui; idem—ac, atquc, qiiam, qtuhi, ut, cum with All. = the suino- 
who, llio sniau— as; 

Iiikui mr.iTd, qui, The name manners which or as. Cic. Est Idem ac fuit He 
is the name an he wan. Tor. ' 

6. Isli^exive. See 448. 

452. Ipse luMs t'ini)Iiasia, gciicnilly rciulcrcd self: 

Ipse Caosar, Cacmr hiinsdf. Cic. Fuc ut tc iusiun custodiiis. Sec that 
you guard ijoursclj'. Cic. 

1. Ipse with Sun.rKCT.— //ma Ijclongs to the emphatic word, whether subject or 
object, but with a profm'iice for tlie subject: 

Me l(..se consulor, / myneffimt another) console mynetf. CIc. 

2. Ii'SR, Veiiy.- //w<? i3 often best rendered by very : 
Ipse ille Oorgias, that very Gorgian. Cic. 

8. With Numerals Ij>f,e has the force oH—jmt so manyjttat: 
Trljrintadies i])s\,jiiKt thirty dayn. CIc. 

4. Ipne in thi< Genitive with possessives has the force otown, one's oum: 
Nostra ipsorum amicitia. Our ownfriendnhip. Cic. See !)!)7. 8. 
6. Ipne B^fteHre, sometimes supplies the place of an emphatic sui or nuus: 
Legatos misit qui ipsl vitam petiircnt, Ue sent mensengera to ask li/e for hiin- 
teif. Sail. 

TIT. Relative Pronouns. 

. ,. '^^^- ^y^ relative is oflcn used where the Ensjlish 
ifliom requires a demonstrative or personal pronoun • some- 
times even at the beginning of a sentence : ' 

Res Imiuitur ipsa ; quae semper valet ; TIic fact if^eJf f^pcals, and tJm 
winch) cvcrhnn wc>(jht. Cic. Qui proolium co.ninittunt, The,, cnaaqc bat- 
tic. Cues. Quae quum ita sint, since these thinz/s are so. Cic. 

1. Relative with DEMOxsTnATivE.—Relatives and Demonstratives are 
often correlatives to each other : Mc-q,n, ide-qui, etc. These co.nbina- 
tions generally retain the ordinary force of the separate words, but see is 
—qui, idemr—qui, 451. 4 and 5. 

1) Qu'icuntjue tim\ (?»M9?n-,?, whoever, whatever, sometimes have the force of 
every by the ellipsis of fieri potest: quacunque rdtione, in every way, i. e.Au what- 
ever way it IS possible. 



210 



RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 



wis/f'wt ,°f r'"'?""^' ""'^ '"PP'-^ ^^' P'^'=« "f '^ Relative when other- 
Wise two relative clauses would be brought to-ether • 

S Two Relatives sometimes occur in the same clause- 
Artes quas qui tenent. arts, whose possesm-s (which, wlio possess) Cic 
4 A IlKLATiVE Clause is sometimes equivalent to >>. with the Abl 
Quae tua prudeut.a est = qua es prudeatia = pro tua prud ntil -suck 

5. Relativk with Adjective.— Ad ipotiVna ^«I« • 

antecedent, sometimes stand in the tit !e 1 '''"^ '" sense to the 

^„i *• ■ .. """"u ill me relative clause m agreement with thp 

relative, cspeaally o„„,p„rativc,, superlative,, a„<i „„„L|,, 

Vaaa, quae pulcherrima vldSrat, «« „„< l,„„f,y„, „^,,, „,-. , , 
»m (veasel,, wbieh the most beautiful l,e had scen^ Cie. Dc scTvis .u,° 

IV. Interrogative Pronouns. 

1. Qtris A»» Qr,.-Occ.-istor«Ily ,„/, I, „sr,, a.Uoctlvelv ,nj q,n substaiillvolv 

2. Quid. «•%, Amp ,•« « Wa?. etc., is often used advorbiallv f3S0 o^ „^ ^ton - 
8. 1 wo INTKRROOATIVES Sometimes occur in tiie same clauso- 

4 Atth.^ott^n' -The intrrro-ativo oflfii u-rees with the nre<Hcnf(' n,.,,-.- 
Quam (for ,uul) dicam vOluptatem vidotis, Vou .ee .,aU aJ^^J.ZZe. Cic 



■ 



/ 



PROXOUNS. 



211 



V. Indefinite Pronouns. 



455. ATiquls, quis, qnl, and quispiam, are all indefi- 
nite, soma 0716, any one : 

^ Est Hllquis, there is some one. Liv. Dixit quia, some one said. Cic. Si 
quid rex, if any king. Cic. Alia res quaepiam, antj other thing. Cic. 

1. Anqtds is less Indeflnlte than quia, qui, and quisplam. 

2. Quh and qui are used chieHy after ,v% ^ilsi, ne, and num. Quis Is generally 
Dsed substantively and qui adjectively. Anquin after si, etc., is emphatic. 

456. Qmdarn, a certain one, is les3 indefinite than 
aUqiiis: 

Quidam rhetor antiquus, a certain ancient rhetorician. Cic. Accurrit 
quidara, A certain one runs up. Hor, 

1. Quidam with an Adjective is sometimes used to qualify or soften the state- 
ment: 

Justltia mIrlfTca quaedam videtur, Justice seems aomexchnt wonderful. Cic. 

2. Quidam with quasi and sometimes without it, has the force of a certain, a 
kind of (IS it were : 

Quasi alumna quaedam, a certain faster child as it were. Ci& 

457. Quisquam and uUus are used chiefly in nej^ative 
and conditional sentences, and in interrogative sentences 
implying a negative : 

_ Nequo me quisquam agnovit, Xor did nng one recognize mc Cic Pi 
quigquam, ,f any one. Q\o. Num censes ullum uuimal esse, do ijou think 
tnere is any animaU C\{i. 

1. ITemo is the negative ot quisquam, and like quisquam is generally used sub- 
stantively, rarely adjectively : 

NOininom hiesit, lie Iianned no one. Cic. Nemo poOta, wo poet. Cic. 

2. Nullus is the negative of ullus, and is generally used adjectively, but it some- 
times supplies the Gen. and Abl. o^iemo, which generally wants those oases : 

Nullum ilnimal, no animal. Cic. Nullius aures. the ears of no one. Cic. 
8. A'-ullus for non.-Nullus and nihil are sometimes used for an emphatic tion: 
Nullus venit, I/e did not come. Cic. Mortui nuUi sunt, 77te dead are not. Cic. 

458. Qinvis, Qitimet, any one whatevei', and Quisqite, 
every one, each one, are general indefinites (191) : 

Quaellbet re.s, any thing. Cic. Tuorura quisque n'-ccssnriOrum, each 
one of your friends. Cic. 

1. Quisque with Superlatives and Ordinals is generally best rendered by all or 
by ever, altvays, with primus l)y ?v/'y, pos-sihlo : 

i:i)Tcruvosd'.ctissimu8 quisque coutemnit. All the most learned despise t'lc Fii- 
cureans. or the most learned ever despise, etc. CIc. Primo quuquc die. the earlL' 
day possible, the very fifst. Cic. 

2. Ut Qnisque-ita with the superlative iu both clauses is often best rendered, 

the mAii'c—the wore : 

^ Ut quisque sibi plurlniura cnfldit, ita ma.xime cxcellit. The more one confides 
\n himself, the more he excels. Cic 



M 1 «W 



K 



PRONOUNS. VEIMJS. 



459. ^^«^,s and Alter are often repeated : iUms-^diae, 
one-another; «//^-a/«, some-othirs ; cdter-alter^^^^ 
one-the other; a/^cH-^^^^eV.-, the one par^-thfot^^^^^^^^ 

1. Alius repeated in difforent cases often involves an ellipsis : 
Alius alia via civltutem auxOrunt, They advanced the state, one in aie v,a» 
another rn another. Liv. So also ^,1^ alias or dlUer : Aliter ali vfyum SS 
in one way, others in another. Cic. ' '* "''^ 

2^ Alter Alius, Ahter, and the like, atgue, ac, and .^ often mean than : 
Non alms essom atque sum, Iwouldnot be other thanl am Cic 

Wh^n f/ ' "^f"' f ' ""'' '^'' "'''''' ("'■ *'^°>' ^''« «^«''«^.- "lius, another other 
4 Uterque means 6o^A. .acA o/i«;o, and in the Plu. hoth, eatii of tuo pariie». 



\ 



€« 



i 



16 



CHAPTER y. 

SYNTAX OF VERBS. 



SECTION I. 

agree:siext of verbs. 

RULE XXXV.-Verb with Subject. 

460. A Finite Verb agrees witli its Subject in num- 
ber and PERSON : 

_ Deu3 mundura aediflcavit, God made the world Cic. E-o re-os 
ri'l'/cTc.*"''"""' ^'^*''"^'"'^J^'^. ^ /""- banished kin^s, you introduce^. 

ThCbani aecusati sunt, TAe Thehans toere accused. Cic 



iA.*"! 



aoreej:e:s"t of verbs. 



213 



2. Subject Omitted. See 307. 2. 

r- .^^ ^"/"'l^fi""" S"bJect is often denoted by the Second Pers. Sin-^ or bv tho 

sircr"'-^ ""'"" ""' ""' ■"' -'■■ •"'""-•- '^-"'•' »'* 

3. Verb Omitted.— See 867. 3. 

fl.ol?^-^?'^-''^^''"'''' ACCORDING TO SENSE.-Sometimos 
of tL « i'"^ /' ".?P«^^'"^^ according to the real meanmg 
immti' Tims'' '' ''°^ ^"^ grammatical gender or 
1. With Collective Nouns, pars, muUUudo, and the like : 
Multrtudo abeunt, The multitude depart. Liv. Pars per agros dilansi 
a part (some) dispersed through the fields. Liv. ^ ' 

1) Here «i«m«^7^o and pars, though Sing, and Fem. in form, are Tlur and 
Masc. in gense. See also 438. 6. 

indiviiurirT.n.''/-f'T''"l' S""^"''-"- may be used in addressing a multitude 
h,d,v.dually . Adde dcfectionem Siclllae, Add (to this, soldiers,) the revolt of Sicilu. 

the latter Plur. : Juventus ruit certantque, 7 he youth rush forth and contend Virg. 

2. With Millia, often masculine in sense: 

Caesi sunt tria millia, Three thousand men were slain. Liv. 

3. With Quisque, Uterque, Alius-Alium, Alter-Alterum,&nAihG\{kG- 
Uterque educunt, theij each lead out. Caes. Alter alterum vldemus 

n e see each other. Cic. ' 

4. With Singular Subjects accompanied by an Ablative with cum: 
Liv ^""iJm ?""'''^'''"^ capiuntur, The leader with his chiefs is taJcen. 

5. With Partim^Partim in the sense oi pars—pars : 

Biinorum partim necossiiria, partim non necessaria sunt, Of qood 
things some are necessary, others are not necessary. Cic. 

Tvr.^^^* /^^^^'^^^'^ ^^'^'^" ^rposiTivE OR Predicate 

h„'J'''''.T "r^""'^' ^^'^ ''^''^ '^-•■^^^' "«t with its subject, 
but with an Appositive or Predicate iS^oun : 

//,. vl"!''^""' ^PPi^'""^ Tuscurum, concrcmatum est, Fo/^mV, « toum-of 
the 7 means, was burned. I'lin. Kon omnis error stultitia est dfeenda /ot 
every error should be called folly. Cic. uittnua, i\ ot 

or J'J^''- ^"*^' '■''^!"""^ ""■■"'' "''"' *^' "PPOsitive when thut is nrbs, oppidnm, 
or cmtas, in apposition with plural names of places, as in the first example. 

vUi ot7!'y,!n' TT~7 "'"""" ''"' " """" '" " subordinate clause after quam, 

nh.,i!'.r'",7''^ ■^^''' "'"^ '''" ^•■'''"'•'"*" """°' ^^-^^^ »»>"' '8 "^'"rer or more cm- 
phat.c than the subject, as in the second example. 



214 



AGREEilENT OF VERBS. 




463. Agreemext with Compound Subject.— With 
two or more subjects the verb agrees 

I. With oue subject and is understood with the others : 

Aut mores spectari aut foitOiia s(Ai^t, Edhcr character or fortune U 
wont to be regarded. Cic llonie.as luit t't llCsiodus ante Ku.mun condi- 
turn, Homer and Ueuod liued (were) before the founding of Home. Clc, 

Phird'XunV" ^^^ ^^'^J®*^^^ conjointly, and is accordingly in tho 

Lontulua, ScTpio periCruiit, Lcntulus and Sapio perished. Cic. E-o 
C ,eo.„ valemus Cicero and I are well. Cic. Tu ct Tullia valOtis, Yon 
and I uUia are well. Cic. 

1. PERSox.-With subjects differing in Person, the verb takes the First 
Person rather than tlie Second, and the Second rather than the Third, as iu 
the examples just given. 

2. PAKTicu'Liis.— See 439. 

S. Two Subjects as a Unit. -Two singuhir subjects forming in sense a 
unit or whole, admit, a singular verb: 

Sei.atus popuh.sque mtelligit, The senate and people {[. e., the state as a 
unit) understand. C.c. Tenipus neces.itas.jue posluhit, Time an ' necmsltu 
(i. e., the crisis) demand. Cic. 

4. SuujECTS WITH A,;t ob x\EO.-With singular subjects connected by 
aut, vel, nee, nlque or sen, the verb generally agrees with the nearest sub- 
ject, but with subjects dilleriug in person, it is generally Plur. : 

Aut lii iitns aut Cassias .jrulicanf, Either Brutus or Gassius judged. Cic. 
Jlaec nc pie 6^o u6ciuc tu fe.'imus, I^^either you nor I have done these things. 
ler. ' 



uaiiii.1 



SECTION II. 

USE OF VOICES. 

464. In a transitive verb, the Active voice represents 
the subject as actincr upon some object, the Passive, as act- 
ed upon by some other person or thing: 

Deus mnndum acdTfTcfivit, God made the world. Co. A Deo omnia 
lacta sunt, All things were made by God. Cic. 

^ 465 Active AND Passive CoxsTRucTiON. —With trans- 
itive verbs, a thoug})t may at the pleasure of the writer be 
expressed either actively or passively. But 

I. That which in the active construction would be the object must bo 
the sulyect in the passive ; and 

II. That which in the active would be the subject must be put in the 
•blative with a or ab, for persons, without it for things: (371.6) ; 






VOICES. TEXSES. 



215 



k 



Deus omnia consfituit, God ordained all tldnga, or: A Deo omnia constl- 
tOta sunt, All thuuj, were onluined hy God. Cic. Dei piovideutia niunduni 
aaniinistiut, The proviUtnce of God rules the world, or : Dei p.ovldeutia 
mundus aUuiluistratur, T/u^ world ,s ruled by the provideuce of God. Cic. 
_ 1. The Passive Voice is sometimes equivalent to the Act. with a reflex. 
ive pronoun, like the Greek Middle: 

LSvuntur in fluminlbus, They bathe (wash tiiemsolves) in the rivers. Caes. 

2. Intransitive Verbs (1«j;3) have regularly only the active voice, but 
they are sometnnes used impersonally in the passive : 

Cunltur ad praetorinm. They run to the praetorium (it is run to), Cic. 

c Deponent Verbs, though Passive iu form, arc in signification transi- 
tive or intransitive: 

Illud ml.abar, I admired that. Cic. Ab urbe proficisci, to set out from 
the city. Caes. '' 

4. Semi Deponents (272. 3) have some of the Active forms and some of 
sue J ussive, without change of meaning. 



SECTION III. 

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE. 

I. Peesext indicative. 

466. Tho Present Inflicativo represents the action of 
tlio verb as taking place at the present time : 

Ego et Cicgro yaleraus, Cicero and I are well. Cic. Hoc te r*>o / 
ask you for ths. Cic. " ' 

467. Hence the Present Tense is nsecl, 

I. Of actions and events which are actually taking place at 
the present time, as in the above examples. 

II. Of actions and events which, ns belong'ng to all time be- 
long of course to the present, as general truths and customs: ' 

Nihil est amahllius virtute, Nothing is more lovely than virtue Cic 
Fortes lortuna adjiivat, FoHune helps the brave. Ter. 

III. Of past actions and events which the writer wishes, for 
effect, to picture before the reader as present. The Present when 
so used, is called the Historical Present : ' 

rar>,pa?Lt2\ ^'''"° '"''™''' "rcumdat, Jugurtha surrounds the city with a 

1. niSTORicAL PRESENT.-Tho historical proscnt may sometimes bo 
best rendered by the English Imperfect, aud somctiaies by the English 
Present, as that haa a similar historical use. 



216 



TENSES OF TUB INDICATIVE. 



If : 

I J 

i" 

I. 

I 






m 




2. Present with Jamdiu, Jamdudum.— The Present is often used of a 
present action which hus been going on for some time, reudcied have, espe- 
ciully alter ja)n(liu,Jar?idudum, etc. 

Jamdiu iguoro quid iigas, / /lave not known /or a long time what you 
are doimj, Cic. 

1) The Imporfect is used In the same way of a past action wblch had been 
{Toing on for aome time. Thus iu the example obove, Jamdiu ignordbam,, would 
mean, 1 hud 7tot known/or a long time. 

2) The Pi-esent In the Infinitive and Participle Is used in the same way of 
action which has been or had been going on for some time. 

3. Present applied to Authors.— The Present in Latin, as in Englisli, 
may be used of authors whose works are extant : 

Xfinophon ficlt Socratem disputantem, Xenophon represents Soa'atea 
discussing. Cic. 

4. Present with Dum.— With dum, in the sense of while, the Present 
is generally used, even of past actions: 

Dum ea parant, SSguntum oppugnabatur, While they were (are) making 
these preparations, Saguntum was attacked. Liv. 

5. Present for Future.— The Present is sometimes used of an action 
really future, especially in conditions : 

Si vincimus, omnia tuta 6runt, If we conquer, all things will he safe. Sail. 

II. Imperfect Indicative. 

468. The Imperfect Iiiclicative represents the action as 
taking place in past time : 

Stabant nOhilissimi juvenes, TJicre stood (were standing) most nolle 
youths. Liv. Colles oppidum cingebaiit, Hills encompassed the town. Caes. 

469. Hence the Imperfect is used especially 

I. In lively descrijjtion, whether of scenes or events : 

Ante oppTdura phinitios p3tcbat, Before the town extended a plain, 
swords i^-f'^^''^ S^^^'""^ videbant, 77iey saw (were seeing) the yleaming 

II. or cusfomartj or repeated actions and events, often render- 
ed by teas leont, etc. : 

• ,,^'^"^S"'»'^ epulabatur mOre Porsarum, Pausanias was wont to banomf 
in the Persian s(i//e. \ep. •' 

1. Imperfect of Attempted AcTiON.-The Imperfect is sometimes used 
of an attempted or intended action : 

Sedabaut tumultus. They attempted to quell the seditions. Liv. 

2. Imperfect in Letters. — See 472. 1. 



t 



n, 



FUTURE AND PERFECl'. 

III. Future Indicative. 



217 



470. The Future Indicative represents the action as 
one which will take place in lUture time : 

1. Future with Imperative Force.-Ih Latin as in English, the Future 
Indicative sometimes has the force of an Imperative: 

Carabis et scribes, You will take care and write. Cic. 

2. Latin Future for English PRESENT.-Actious which really belon- 
to future time are almost invariably expressed by the Future Tense, though 
sometimes put in the present in English : 

Naturam si sgquemur, nunquam ^h^^nmmn^, If we follow nature, we 
shall never go astray. Cic, 

3 Future Indicative with MELius.-With melius the Future Indicative 
has often the force of the Subjunctive : 

Melius peiiblmus, We would jperish rather, or it would he letter for us to 
perish. Liv. '' 



I 



IV. Perfect Indicative. 

471. The Perfect Indicative has two distinct uses: 
I. As the Present Perfect or Perfect Definite, it 

represents the action as at present completed, and is ren- 

dered by our Perfect with have: 

De genere belli dixi, I have spoken of the character of the tear. Cic. 

ir. As tlie Historical Perfect or Perfect Indefi- 
nite, It represents the action as a simple historical flictT 
Miltiades est accusfitus, Miltiadcs was accused. Nep. 

whoit h'T',*'''''"'! "^'^.^^^^-^ ^« BE-The Perfect is sometimes used 
wheie the emphasis rests particularly on the completion of the action, im- 
plying hat what was true of the past, is .ot true of the present: 
^ _^^Ilabuit, noa h^bet, He had, but has not. Cic. Fuit Ilium, lUum was. 

wifh^'J"''"'"^- Indicative with Paene, PROPE.-The Perfect Indicative 

mJ/TV"" "'^"f ^^r^o, paene did, cinam ie, I love Brutus not les., I 
mi<jht almost say, or / had almost said, than I do you Cic 

Porft/^'Tp? ^''% ^''''"''' FRESENT-The Latin sometimes emplovs the 
Perfect and Pluperfect where the English uses the Present and Imperfec 
especially in repeated actions, and in verbs which want the Present (oyr) 



«f I'V 



218 



PLUPEKFEOT AND FUTUBK I^ERFECT. 



MSmlnit practcrltorum, Tie remembers the past. Cic. Quum ad viliam 
vOni, hoc me dclectat, When, 1 com,e (have come) to a villa, this pleases me. 
Cic. }ilQm\\\Qram Vii\x\nm, I remembered Faulus. Cic. 

4. Pekfect with Po.sTguAM.— /W</«<ow, nt, ut prlmum, etc., in the 
sense of as soon as, are usually followed by the Perfect ; sometiuies by the 
Imperfect or Historical Present. But the Pluperl'ect is generally used of 
repeated actions ; also after postquam when a long or delinite interval 
intervenes : 

Postquam cecldit Ilium, after (as soon as) Ilium fell. Virg. Anno 
tertio postquam profugerat, in the third year after he had fed. Kep. 

1) As a IJaro Exception the Imptrlcct and Pluperfect Subjunctive occur alter 
postquam (posteuquam) : Posteuquam aedilicasset classes, q/'ter he had built Jleets. 
Cic. 

V. Pluperfect Indicative. 

472. The Pluperfect Iiidiciitive represents the action 
as completed at some deliiiite past tiuie : 

Copias quas pro eastris ooUocavcrat, reduxit, He led back the forces 
which he had stationed Ocjorc the camp. Cues, 

1. Tenses. — In letters the writer often adapts the tense to the time of 
the reader, using the Imperfect or Perfect for the Present, and the Pluper- 
fect for the Imperfect or Perfect : 

Nihil habCbam quod scriberem : ad tuas omnes cpistolas rescripsSram, 
IJiavc (had) nothimj to tvrite : I hare already replied to all your letters (I had 
replied, i. e., before writing this). Cic. 

1) The Perfect is eomi'timos nsod of Future actions, as events which happen 
after the writinjr of the letter but before the receipt of it will he Future to the writer 
but Past to the reader. 

2. Pluperfect for English Imperfect. — See 471. 3. • 

3. Plitperfect to denote Rapidity.— The Pluperfect sometimes denotes 
rapidity or completeness af action : 

Urbem luctu complevfirant, I7iey (had) filed the city with mourning. 



Curt 



VI. Future Perfect Indicative. 



473. The Future Perfect Indicative represents the ac- 
tion as one which will be completed at some future time : 

Romam quum venSro, scrlbam ad te, When I shall have reached Rome, 
In-ill write to you. Cic. Dum tu haec leges, ego ilium fortasse convenero, 
When you read this, I shall perhaps have already met him. Cic, 

1. Future Perfect to nKKOTP, Crrtainty.— The Future Perfect is some 
times used to denote the speedy or complete accomplishment of the work : 
TIgo moiim o«ironjm prnestHfiro, I will surely discharge my duty. Caes. 



'' 



Auno 



" 



INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE. 219 

.0) J:^:s:,tr ;n::r;!ir *' ''"- <*-" "-- "- *■« 

SECTION IV. 

USE OF THE INDICATIVE. 

RULE XXXVI-Indicative. 

4?4. TJie Indicative is used in treating of facts: 

Dcus mundum ae Jlficavit, God made the warhl r\n v 

BUS .. patw^ ... .. ., ,..: ,.,^.,„^ ,,:t:::^ c : n^nirr 

hcuit, / c/,,^ //,,« as long as it was pcrndlted. Cic. 

wh^rourSi'vS:;^-^^^^ Indicative is sometimes used 
»nnt oui Idiom v\ould suggest the Subjunctive: 

the l!' .!'" ff '■"'"' "'" ""' ^'^'-'/'^-^^^''^ Cow«/eon. is oHcn so used in 
the b.toncal tenses, especially in conditional sentences (512 '>) • 

2. The Historical Tenses of the hnlicative, particnlarly the Pfe«.r/-../ 
M hich ,s shown by the context never to have become fully so : 

.,./?'f "!'?"^' "'"' '•^'^^Pi^^^et Antonium, We should have {lit. had) con- 
guered, had he not received Antony. Cic. See 511. 2. 

3. P>-o»o«„s and ;?./«//^e Adverbs, made general by being doubled or 
by assummg the sufRx cunque (187. 4), take the Indicative : 

Quisquis est, is est sapiens, Whoever he is, he is wise. Cic. Hoc ulti 

4. /« ^a-;»-m/o,,s o/7)«(y, J\rccessit>/, Ability, and the like, the Latin 
often uses the Indicative where the English does not : 

Tardius qnam dobugrat, more slowbj than he should have done. Cic. 

SECTION V. 

TEXSES OF THE SUBJUN-CTIVE. 

tim^If^'ihpTor '" ^'''^T ^"bj^ctive does not designate the 
1 aik. u i h T "^^ clehnitely as in the Indicative, but it 
niaiks Hith greut exactness its continuance or completiou 



220 



TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 



477. The Present and Imperfect cxpi*css Incomplete 
action : 

Yillcant civps, Maij the citizens he well Clc. Utinara vOra inv(3iilro 
posaciri, that I were able tojind the truth. Cic. 

478. The Perfect and Pluperfect express Completed 
action : 

Oblltus es quid dixSrim, You have forqotten what I mid. Cic, Tlig- 
nii.Htocles, quutri (Jraociara liWriussct, expulsus est, Thoimtodea was ban- 
iahed, thouyh he had liberated Greece. C'io. 

479. The Future Tenses are wanting in the Sulijunctive : the mood 
itfclf — used only of that which is merely conceived and uncertain— h so 
nearly related to the Future, that those tenses are seldom needed. Their 
place is however supplied, when necessary, by the periphrastic forms in 
rus (481. III. 1). 

480. Sequence op Tenses.— The Subjunctive Tenses 
in their use conform to the folio win <? 



V! 



RULE XXXVIL-Sequence of Tenses. 

Principal tenses depend upon Principal tenses : His- 
torical upon Historical : 

Nitltu" ut vincat, He strives to conquer. Cic. Nemo erit qui ccnscat 
There loill be no one who will think. Cic. Quaesigras nonne putarem, You 
had askcd^ whether I did not think. Cic. 

481. Application of the Eule.— In accordance with this 
rule, 

I. The Suhjunctlve dependent upon a Principal iQX\&Q— present, 
present perfect^ future^ future perfect— is pnt, 
1. In the Present for Incomplete Action : 



Video quid agas, 
Vidi quid agas, 
VidC'bo quid agas, 
Videro (juid agas, 



/ see what you are doifir/, 

J have seen what you are doing. 

I shall see what you do. 

I shall have seen what you do. 



2. 



In the Perfect for Completed Action ; 



Video qnid egCris, 
Vidi quid egeris, 
Vidf'bo quid ogeris, 
VidSro quid egeris, 



/ see what you have done. 

I have seen v;hat you have done. 

I shall see what you have done. 

I shall have sec7i what you have done. 



c 

t; 

ca 



SEQUENCE OF TENSES. 



221 

^JL'^!r/^''^''r''''' ^'^'"^''"* "P"" * Historical tense-m- 
perfect, luntorical perfect, pi uj>crfect~Uinxt, 

1. In the Imperfect for Incomplete Action • 

VidOmn. qulS Seres I jZ tf Tr'" '^"''"^• 

1 u«j,crc8, J 'iad seen what you were doing, 

2. In the Pluperfect for Completed Action • 

Vxderam qu.d ogisses. I hud seen ilJ^^aon.. 

ni. The Periphrastic Forms in rn, conform to the rule: 
Video quid actQrus sis, / ^ec what you are qoinn to do ' 

Vxdeba,n qu.d actQrus e..ses, Isau, what'you wefejU^fodo. 

1. Future SupPLiEo.-The Future is supplied when necessnrr a•'o^ ns 

,ln„?T' "'° "I"™"'""- ''■"^»'=" is «™ate<] sometimes «s a Prin- 

s :nr ":,;' •""'«" '" """■"• """ ^™^'»- - - Hutori !• 

lense, as it really is in Sense • 

1. As Principal tense according to its Form • 

I'ras;;:^^ Jiil^^t^iS:.^^- '^ ^-^ '^^ ^-• 

V The LiPEKFECT SunjrxcTivE often refers to present time 
especially in conditional sentences (510. 1); accordingly, ^Z' 
thimised^s treated as a Principal tense : 

cait;„Je;:«c::2;toT^^^^ 

cal tel^f '"' ^'°- """■ ''^'"^'^^^ '^'^^ --'^futarum eseet, etc., after Ilistori 



I 



222 



SRQiriCNCE OP TENSKS. 



vv 



I ill" 

■It I 



¥ 

I' "' 

m 
m 



MunioiAro po^som (|un)iis in locis hostcs faJorit, I might {novi) state tn 
what places he muted the cnrmi/, bull. 

Vf. Tho PunsENT AND FuTuuE Infixitives, Present and Futiiro 
Partioii'Les, as also Geuunds and Suimxes, sliarc the tense ot'tlie verb 
on which they depend, as tliey express only relative time (540. 571) : 

SpOro fore ' ut contingat, I hope it will happen (I hope it will bo tliat 
it niuy happen). Cic. Non supGravdnit fore ut ud so dof leorent, JJc had not 
hoped that they would revolt to him. Liv. 

482. Peculiarities in Sequence. — Tho following 
pcculhirities in the sequence of tenses deserve notice: 

1. After Perfect Texse. — Tho Lathi Perfect is sometiraea 
treated as a Historical tense, even when rendered with havc^ and 
thus admits tho Imperfect or Pluperfect : 

Quoniiim quae subslJia hibcros expoaiii," nnnc dieam, Since I have 
shown what aids you have (or had\ I will now speak. Cic. 

2. After Historical Tenses. — Conversely Historical tensci, 
when followed by clauses denotinj? consequence or result^ often con- 
form to tho law of sequonco for Principal tenses, and thus admit 
tho Present or Perfect: 

Epamlnondas fide sic uaus est, ut possit judlcari, Epaminondas used 
such fidditi/ that it may he jndycd. Nop. Adeo exccllobat Aristldes ab- 
stlnuntia, ut Justus sit appellatus, Aristidcs so excelled in self-control, that 
he has been called the Just. Nep. 

This peculiarity arises from tbe fact that the Resiilt of a past action may Itself 
be present and may thus be expressed by a Prinfii)al tense. When the result belongs 
to the present time, tlie Present Is used: pass! fjiidlcari, may be judged now; when 
It is represented as at present completed, the Perfect is used : sit appelldtm, has 
been called i. e. even to the present day; but when it is representel as simulta- 
neous with the action on which it depends, the Imperlect is used In accordauce 
with the general rule of sequence (4S0). 

3. In Indirect Discourse, Oratio Orltqua.— In indirect dis- 
course (528. and 533. 1) dependent upon a Historical tense, the 
narrator often uses the Principal tenses to give a lively effect to 
his narrative ; occasionally also in direct discourse : 

Exitus fuit Orutidnis : Noque ullos vacure agros, qui ditri possint ; 
The close of the oration was, that there were (are) not any lands unoccupinl 
which could (can) be given. Oaes. 



> Here /ire shares tho tense otspero, and is accordin-rly followed by tbe Present 
contingat. but below it shares the tense oi sjJ&rdcerat, and is accurdingly followed by 
the Iinperrect defic^rent. 

■•^ E.rp<mii. though best rendered by our Perf. Def with Jicve is in the Latin 
treated as the Historical Perf. The thought is as follows: SLme in tlie preceding 
topics I set forth the uitu which t/ou had, I will now apeak, &c. 



ti 

rli 
ni 
di 
do 
do 

Be 



SECTION" vr. 

USE OF TUB SUBJUNCTIVE 

notis an I?n,!i ^f "I' V''? ^^P''^«^"ts the action of tl.e verb 

1. As Possible, Potential. * 

2. As Desimblo. 

8. As a Piiri)oso or Pesult. 
4. As u Condition. 
6. As a Concession. 

6. As a Cause or Keason. 

7. As an Indirect Question. 

tt' rT^ I^t?"tinl Subjunctive. 
Tir' ri, ^"^'.mnetive of Desire. 
Tv' T '"^ S""^i""^'t?^-e of Purpose or Result 
V-* rp ^u^junctive of Condition. 
vV „V^o"l'i""''*^^'^ of Concession. 
VIT t"" ^"^""«M^'« «^ 0«use or Reason. 
VI r To ^;; ••l""^';i^^' l" In<l"-ect Questions. 
TY tL &uf>)""ctive by Attraction. 
lA. -ibebubjunctive in Indirect discourse. 

I. The Pgtejjtial Subjunctive. 
BITLE XXXVIII-Potential Subjunctive. 

tiontf/n?' ff T'''^ Subjunctive represents tbe ac- 
tion not as real, but i\% ;pomhle : 

486. ArrLicATioN of the RuiT'—Tn fiw. n ^ .• i 
sense, the Subjunctive is used, '^'^'''=—-^" ^^^^^ Potential 



*%i- 



224 



POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE. 




w 



ff I 



I. In Declarative Sfntences, to express an ai^rmation doubtfulli) 
or conditionally, as in the lirst and second examples. 

II. In Questions of Appeal,^ to ask not what is, but what may 
le or should Je, generally implying a negative answer, as in the 
last example under the rule. 

III. In Suhordinate Clauses, whatever the connective, to rep- 
resent the action as possible rather than real: 

Quamquam Epulis careat sfencctus, thovah old oqe may he wWiovt its 
feasts. Cic. Quoniani non possent, since tJiey would not be able. Cues. 
LIbi res poscCrct, whenever the case might demand. Liv. 

Here the Subjunctive after quamquam, qiu'miam, and I'thi, is entirely indeiien- 
dent of those ccnjunctions. In this way many conjunctions which do not require tlie 
Subjunctive, admit that mcod whenever the thought requires it. 

1. UsK OP THE Potential Sibjunctive. — Tliis Subjunctive, it will be 
observed, has a wide application, and is used in almost all kinds of sen- 
tences and clauses, whether declarative or interrogative, principal or sub- 
ordinate, whether introduced by conjuncticus or relatives. 

2. How rendered. — The Potential Subjunctive is generally best rendered 
by our Potential signs — may, can, must, might, etc., or by shall or will. 

3. Inclination. — The Subjunctive sometimes denotes inclination : 
Ego ccnscam, Ishordd think, or I am inclined to think. Liv. 

4. Imperfect for Pluperfect. — In the Potential sense, the Imperfect 
is often used where we should expect the Pluperfect : dicires, you would 
have said ; cr'edhres, putdres, you would have thought; videres, cernirts, you 
would have seen ; 

Moesti, credcres victos, rfideunt in castra. Sad, vanquished you would 
have thought them, they returned to th", camp. Liv. 

5. Subjunctive of Repeated Action. — Subordinate clauses in narration 
sometimes take the Subjunctive to denote that the action is often or indeji- 
nitely repeated. Thus with iibi, whenever, quUies, as often as, quicunque, 
whoever, vt quisque, as each one, and the like : 

Id fetialis ubi dixisset, hastam mittebat, The fetial priest was wont to 
hurl a spear whenever (i. e., every time) he had said this. Liv. 

6. Present and Perfect. — In the Potential Subjunctive the Perfect 
often has nearly the same force as the Present : 

Tu Platonem laudavSris, You would praise Plato. Cic. 

1) The Perfect with the force of the Present occurs also in &ome of the other 
uses of (lie Subjunctive. 

7 Conditional Sentences. — The Subjunctive in the conclusion of con- 
ditional sentences is the Potential Subjunctive, but conditional sentences 
will be best treated by themselves. See 502. 

1 These are olso variously called Deliberative, Doubting, or lihetoricn' 
Questions. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 225 

II. The Subjunctive of Desiee. 
EULE XXXIX.~Desire, Command. 

487. The Subjunctive of Desire rei^resents the ac- 
tion not as real, but as desired : 

Valeant elves, May the citizens be well. Cic. AniGmus patiiam, Let us 
love our country. Cic. Eobore utare, Use your strength. Cic. Scriberc 
ne pigrore, Bo not neglect to write. Cic. 

488. Application of the Rule.— Tlie Subjunctive of Desire 
is used, 

I. To express a wisn, as in prayers, exhortations, and entrea- 
ties, as in the first and second examples. 

II. To express a command mildly, as in admonitions, precepts, 
and warnings, as in ihe third and fourth examples. 

^ ^ 1. With Utixam. -The Subjunctive of Desire is often accompnuicd by 
utinam, and sometimes— especially in the poets, by ut, si, od: 

Utiuam conata efficSrc possim, May I be able to accomplish my endeav- 
ors. Cic. 

2. Force op Tenses.— Tlie Present and Perfect imply that the wish may 
be fulfilled ; the Imperfect and Pluperfect, that it cannot be fulfilled : 

Sint beat!, May they be happy. Cic. Ne transigiis Ibcrum, Do not cross 
the Ebvo. Liv. Utinam possem, utinam potuissem, Would that I were able, 
would that I had been able. Cic. See also 48(5. C. 1). 

The Imperfoct and Pluperfect may often be best rendered, ahould have been 
ought to hare heen: ' 

IIcc diceret. Ue should have said this. Cic. Mortem oppetiisses. You should 
have met death. Cio. 

3. Negative Ne.— With this Subjunctive the negative is ne, rarely non : 
Ne audeant, Let them not dare. Cic. Non rficedauius. Let us no: recede 

Cic. 

4. In AssEVEnATioNS.— The first person of the subjunctive is often found 
in earnest or solemn affirmations or asseverations : 

MSriar, si piito, May I die, if I think. Cic. Ne sim salvus, si scribe, 

May I not be safe, if Itvrite. Cic. 

So with ita and sic: SoUicitat, i(a vivam. As Hive, it troubles me. Cic. 

Here ita vivam means literally, maij I so live, i. e., may I live only in case tLia 
is true. 

5. In Relative Clauses.— Tlie Subjunctive of desire is sometimes used 
in relative clauses : 

Quod fausdun si I, rcszotn create, Elect a I'infF, and may it he an auspicious 
event (may which be auspicious). Liv. Sfinectus, ad quam utinam perv6uia- 
tis, old age, to which may you attain. Cic. 



226 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 






III. SUBJUXCTIVE OF PuUPOSE OR ReSULT. 

RULE XL— Purpose or Result. 

489. The Subjunctive of Puqwse or Eesult is iisedj 

I. With ut, ne, quo, quin, quominus ; 

Purpose.— Enitltur ut vincat, J/e strives that he may conquer. Cic. 
Pfmit ne peccetur, He punishes that crime may not be committed. Sen. 

IIesi;lt.— Ita vixit ut AthOniensIbus esset carissimus, He so Used that he 
was very dear to the Athenians. Nep. 

II. With qui = ut is, ut ego, tu, etc. : 

PuRPOSL.— Missi sunt, qui {at ii) consiilerent Apolirneui, T7iey were 
tent to consult ApoUo (who should or that they should). Nep. 

Result.— Non is sum qui {ut ego) his utar, / am not such an one as to 
vse these things. Cic. 

1. Ut with tbe Subjunctive sometimes forms with fdclo, or (}go. rarely with eat 
f, circumlocution for the Indicative : /(/t'/o ut dicam = i\ieo;fdcio ut scrlbam = 
Bcrlbo: Invltus facio ut recorder, / umou ingly recall. Cic. 

Conjunctions of Purpose or Hesult. 

493. Ut and N*:.— Ut and 7ie are the reguLar conjuncr 
tions in clauses denotinor Pui-pose or Result. Ut and ne 
denote Purpose ; ut and ut non, Result. 

1. With connective ne becomes neve, neu, rarely n^qne. Neve, neu, = ant ne or 
et ne: Let'em tulit nOquis accusarOtur nGve multaretiir. He proposed a law that no 
one should be accused or puni-ihed, Nep. 

491. Pure Purpose.— Tit and no— that, in order that, 
that not, m order that not, test, etc.— are used after ^■erbs 
of a great variety of significations to express simply the 
Purpose of the action. A correlative— it/eo, idcirco, etc. 
— may or may not precede : 

LOgura idcirco scr"i sunius, ut llhori esse posslmus. We arc servants 
of the law for this reason, that we may he free. Cic. See also the examples 
under the Rule. ' 

_ 492. Mixed Purpose.— Tn their less obvious applio.i- 
tions, ut and ne are used to denote a Purpose which par- 
takes more o: loss of the character of a Direct Object, 
sometimes ^of a Subject, Predicate or Appositive—yi\xQ<\ 
Purpose, Thus with verbs and expressions dcnotiu'i* 

1. Effort.— striving for a purpose; attaining a purpose: 

_ nitor, contondo, st&dco,— euro, id ago, op6ram do, etc., facio, cfftcio. 
impetro, cons6quor, etc. : > > > t 



PURPOSE OB KESULT. 



227 



rem /to.^. .<,.. ^. lead a <jood life. Sen. Ellecit ut in>p6rutor mittcrl ur 
Jle caused a co;n.nanUer to le sent (uttuiued hi. ,urpose/A-ep. Bt ^ 1"' 

2. ExiioKTATioN, iMPULSE-urging one to effort ; 
praedi;?o;"S.f'"'' hortor.-cOgo, impello, moveo,_oro, rogo,-ia,poro. 

Te hortor ut legas, I exhort you to read. Cic. Movemur ut bi5ni sim„. 

3. Desire and its Expression : lienco decision, decree, etc • ' 
nolo'Saio^''"^"'"''"''^"' ^''='=™«' «'^tuo, constltuo, etc.-rarely volo, 

Opto ut id audiatis, / desire f pray) that you may hear this. Cic P6n3 

^:?r:i^:^^^""V^^!:f [f' ^^ --^^ ^^ ^--'^ ^^^^^ ^-s 

u<jcnj, the Aedui. Cues, bee Sol. II. and 5J8. II. aud VI. 

4. Fear, Danger : 

mctuo, timeo, vSreor.-pgriculum est, cura est, etc. • 

tI>efwf„;vr„g^n™?;?--^-^-P'--"-fP-PO- present 

1. r^ ?if, rarely vt non, is sometimes userl for ne • 

v/. .«e.,« rr /•/;,.,, TAti? /(u/it iY/f;7,7rf he puh Und with erile N,.n T'* ?*„ a- 

tence, like the English so to sjmJk. 



228 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



4. Nalum and ITe in the sense of much less, not to say^ are used 
with tlie Subjunctive : 

Vix in tectis frigus vitatur, nGdum in rnari sit facile, TJie cold is avoided 
with difficulty in our houses, much less is it easy (to avoid it) on the sea. Cic. 

494. Pure Result. — Ut and ut non — so l/iat, so that 
not — are often used with the Subjunctive, to express simply 
a Result or a Consequence : 

Ita vixit ut Atheniensibus esset cHrissimus, He so lived that he wax 
very dear to the Athenians. Nep. Ita laudo, ut non pcrthuescam, J so 
praise as not to fear. Cic. 

A correlative — ita in these examples— generally precedes: thvis, Ita, sic, tarn, 
ddeo, tantopere,— talis, tantus, ejusmodi. 

495. Mixed Result. — In their less obvious applica- 
tions, ut and ut non are used with the Subjunctive to de- 
note a Jiesiclt which partakes of the cliaracter of a Direct 
Object, Subject, Tredicate, or Afj^ositive : Thus 

1. Clauses as Objkct and EejSult occur with/«c/o, effmo, of 
the action of irrational forces: 

Sol efTIcit ut omnia floreant, The sun causes all things to bloom, i. e., 
produces that result. Cic. See 402. 1. 

2. Clauses as Subject and Resui.t occur with impersonal verbs 
signifying it happens, remains, folloxcs, is distant, etc. : 

accidit, contingit, gvonit, fit, restat, — sSquitur, — abest, etc. 
Fit ut quisque delectetur, The result is (it happens) ?!/;«< 6r<?;y one ts 
delighted. Cic. SSquitur ut lulsum sit, It follows that it is false. Cic. 

1) The Subjunctive is sometimes, though rarely, used when the predi- 
cate is a Noun or Adjective with the copula sum : 

Mos est ut nolint, It is their custom not to be willing (that they are un- 
willing). Cic. Proximum est, ut doceam. The next point is, that I show, 
Cic. See 556. I. 1 and 2. 

2) Subjunctive Clauses with vt, in the form of questions expressive of 
surprise, sometimes stand alone, by the omission of seme predicate, a&cre- 
dendttm est, t'erisimilc est, is it to be credited, is it probable? 

Tu ut unquam te corrigas, that you should ever reform? i. e., Is it to be 
supposed that you will ever reform ? Cic. 

3) See also 55(J with its subdivisions. 

3. Clauses as Appositive and Result, or Predicate and 
Result, occur with Demonstratives and a few Nouns : 

Habet hoc virtus ut delcctct, Virtue h'lsthisadvanffff^e, thatitdilight!'.. 
Cic. Est hoc vltiuin, ut invidia gloriae comes sit, There is thisfauU, that 
envy is the companion of glory, Nop. 



PUKrOSK Oli IJEbULT. 



229 



> 



.1 1^?' ?^^^"^^iTiES.--Expressions of Result present 
the following peculiarities : 

1. Ut is sometimes omitted, regularly so with oporteL generallv 

Te Sportet virtus trihat, It is necessary that virtue should attract you 
Uc. Causam habeat ngcesse eat, It is necessary that it should have a cause. 

2. The Subjunctive occurs with ^«aw— with or without ut: 
Lib6raliu3 quae, at posset, too freely to be able (more freely than so as to 

be able). Nep. Imponcbat amplius quam fcrre possent, Ileimmsed more 
t/ian they were able to bear. 

3 Tantum dhest.— After tantum ubest uL dcnotin'^ result si 
second ut of result som3tini33 occurs : "^"""^o result, a 

PbllSsSphia, tantum abest, ut laudeturut fitiam vltupSrGtur, So far is it 
ceZred clc """"^ '' wanting), that philosophy is praised that it is evciv 

+on ^T^' Qtro — Quo, hy lohicJi, that, is sometimes used 
lor ut, especially with comparatives ; 

moin^fS'' "^^T *^"'' ''' ^t'idiosior, to givc to the physician, that (hy this 
moans) he may be more attentive. Cic. » " k"J' '-"'» 

For non quo of Cause, sec 520, 3. 

.,o/i?^;v^'''''"T9'"" ^^"/ """^^ "^)' *^ ^^"'^^* '^ot, that 

not, IS often used to introduce a Purpose or Result after 
negatives and mterrogatives implying a negative. Thus 

1. Quin is often used in the ordinary sense of n.? and ut non: 
Retrneri non pot6rant, quin tela conjlcgrent, They could not be re- 
strmnedfrom hurling (that they might not) their weapons. Caes. Nihil est 

iT/tf r ^"'." ^? rS ^'"^^ P°«^it> Nothing i^ so difficult that it 
may not be investigated. Ter. 

After verbs of hindering, opposing, and the like, quin has the foree oine. 
2. Quin is often used after Kemo, Nullus, Mhil, Quis? 
Adestnemo, quin videat, There inio one present who does not tee. Cic 
Quis est qmn cernat, Who is there who does not perceive ? Cic 
Is or id 13 sometimes expressed after quin : 
Nihil est quin id intSreat, There is nothing which does not perish. Cic. 

^r^:^:^^::^'^'^^ -ft- neg^tiVc expreskonsfim- 
r^ -i-, i~„ ..(,;,, n,-x-^-,,.ainiy, wnMion.^ and theliice: 

Non est dubium quin bSnfif Iciun, sit, There is no doubt that it is a bene- 
fit. Sen. JSullum mt6rmisi diem quin alxquid .\^t^m, J allowed no day t^ 



r 



230 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



^ 



iiiJ^ 



i-k™* 



pass, without giving something. Cic. FacSre non possum quin littfcras mit- 
tiim, / cannot hut send a letter. Cic. 

1) Such expressicns are: non diibito, non (lubium est— non multum ubest, pau- 
lum Abcst, nihil ubes , quid ubest?— non, vix, aegie abstineo; mihi non tempcro; 
non, nihil praetermitto— I'ucure non possum, liori non potest. 

2; The Infinitive, for Quin willi the Subjunctive, occurs with verba of doubting: 

Quis diibitat putci-e EurOpam, Who doubts that Europe is exposed f Curt. 

8) Non Quin of Cause. See 520. 8. 

4) Quin is used in questions in the sense of why not f and witb the Imperative 
in the sense of well, but: Quia ugite, but come. Virg. It occasionally mean* «ay, 
even, rather. 

499. QuoMiNUS. — Quominus (quo and minus), that 
thus the less, that not, is sometimes used for ;?eand ut non, 
after verbs of hindering, opposing, and the like : 

Non dC'terret sSpientera mors quominus reipublTcae consulat, Death does 
not deter a wise man from deliberating for the republic. Cic. Non rocusavit, 
quominus poenara sublret, He did not refuse to submit to punishment. Nep. 
Per eum stetit quominus dimicaretur, It was owing to him (stood through 
him), that the engagement was not made. Caes. 

1. Expressions of hindering, etc., are: doterreo, impedio, prShibeo,— obsto, 
ohsisto, officio,— reciiso, i)er me stat, etc. 

2. Verbs of hindering admit a variety of constructions : the Infinitive, the Sub- 
junctive with ut, ne, quo, quin, or quominus. 



lidative of J*urpose or Result. 

600. A Relative Clause denoting a Purpose or a Re- 
sult is equivalent to a clause with ut, denoting purpose or 
result, and takes the Subjunctive for the same reason. The 
relative is then equivalent to ut with a pronoun : qui = ut 
ego, ut tu, ut is, etc. : 

Purpose. — Missi sunt qui (ut ii) consulerent Apollinem, 77ieg toere sent 
to considt Apollo ( who should, or that tlicy should). Nep. Missi sunt delecti 
qui Thermopylas occuparent, Picked men ivere sent to take possemon of 
Thermopylae. Nep. 

Result. — Non is sum qui (= ut ego) his utar, /am not such a one as to 
■use these things. Cic. Innocentia est aftectio talis sinimi, quae (= ut ea) no- 
ceat nemini, Innocence is such a stale of mind as injures no one, or as to in- 
jure no one. Cic. 

1. Relative Paeticles. — The subjunctive is used in the same way in clauses 
introduced by relative particles ; iibi, «rerfe,etc. : 

Domum ubi babitaret, legit, He selected a house that he might dwell in it 
(where he might dwell), Cic. 



littiras mit- 

n ubest, pau- 
on tempcro; 

of doubting : 
/ f Curt. 

e Imperative 
meau» nai/, 

us), that 
i ut non, 

, Death does 
ft rocusavit, 
.merit. Nep. 
od through 

libeo,— obsto, 
live, the Sub- 



or a Re- 
u-pose or 
50U. The 
qui = ut 

ley loere sent 
sunt dC'lecti 
ossension of 

i a one as to 
= ut ea) no- 
, or as to in- 

ray in clauses 
t dwell in it 



I 



PURPOSE OR RESULT. jSl 

nized'; t^hoseTnotlLg ^^Zl^llT"^^ ^IT' '"""""^ ^^'P^^" »'« readily rocog- 

appU^atiotfSdf "'■ ''""''' '" ^i^^'' '-» obvious 

Nemo est qui nl cuit^J"" '^^ P''^*' ''"'•^ ''' ^^^^^^^ ^'^-^. Ci . 
to desire. Cic. ^ ' '' ' '' ""' '"' '"''' ^'^' «^^ <i^ire, i. e., such as no; 

the -^tyL'^JLTu^Id Xt'^Tb^rL' r " ''"■"'"• ''''' ^'"^^' ^'"'' ^«''' ^te- -<th 
4^« • ^ .«^, what r;ason ^^Tr^,Cn^^^^^^ ^^^'''^-^ »« "» '-son. 

Est quod gaudeas There L IZZi ^^ '"^^"'' ^ '^"^^ »>" '«'^8«n •• 
Plaut. Non e't qu d' TSs S"r?/" *'"''^^^^''''"' «^-^^"^^--«y. 
Nihil hdbeo, qaod^ncusem sLm em /ir*"" "^'^ ^''^ ^'^^"'^ *^^'-^- 8^"- 
«(7«. Cic. stucctutem, / have no reason why J should accuse old 

i"aofl'„iti^rt:;;it"aL?tatrt';""L,fr"r^--^ ^'^"^"^ •^^-^ ^^^^ - 

prominent: '^' Indicative, when the fact itself is to be made 

Sunt qui non andent dic^re TV;/.*./. «».. „ 
'peak. Cic. M„lt. .u„t, ^u.^ , S I^ZtkT' "*° •"'"'"'^' "" »<" "»« '■> 

Possont, 7%e;-6 «„^, only nZ 17, . ""*"'" Srantqui creuri 

they co^ld be). liv. ^ "'^'"''^ ^^^ ^''^^'^ *^ «-?'^''^''^^^'^ («uch that 

^..t"L?hetbjtm^^^^^^ ^^^^^«-^' ^^-^--, and .4,. 

(thatl';'rhotrH:;eL";' jr sr ^r '''^•^'^'^ ^^^ ^^^-^^^ ^^ ^^ -^ 

mittSret, Cae^a/. /Ja,/ hjZ'J^i% ?''^''''' Woueum judicavdrat quoni 

Bend). CaeT '^"^^''^ ^"•^''^' " •^^'iM person to send (whom he might 



232 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



rV. Relative clauses after Comparatives with Quam take the 
subjunctive : 

Darana majora sunt quam quae ( = tct ea) aestlmuri possint, The losses 
are too great to be estimated (greater than so that they can be). Liv. 

IV. Subjunctive op Condition. 

502. Every conditional sentence consists of two dis- 
tinct parts, expressed or understood, — the Co7idition and 
the Conclusion: 

Si negem, mentiar, If I should deny it, I should speak falsely. Cic. 
Here si negem is the condition, and mentiar, the conclusion. 



RULE XLI.— Subjunctive of Condition. 

603. The Subjunctive of Condition is used, 

I. With dum, mbdo, dummSdo: 

Miinent inggnia, mode permSncat industria, Menial powers remain, if 
only industry remains. Cic. 

II. With ac si, ut si, quasi, quam si, tanquam, tanquam si, 
velut, velut «: 

Crudclitfitem, velut si iidesset, horrebant, They shuddered at his cruelty^ 
as if he were present. Caes. 

III. Sometimes with si, nisi, ni, sin, qui = si is, si quis : 

Dies def Iciat, si v61im numerare, The day wotdd fail me, if I shoM 
wish to recount. Cic. Improbe feceris, nisi monucris, You would do wrong, 
if you should not give warning. Cic. Si voluisset, dimicasset, If he had 
wished, he would have fougM. Nep. 

1. Si Omitted.— Two clatises without any conjunction some- 
times have the force of a conditional sentence : 

N6gat quis, nfigo, Does any one deny, I deny. Ter. E6gos me, nihil re- 
spondeam, Should you ask me, IslMuld make no reply. Cic. See also Imper- 
ative, 535. 2. 

2. Condition Supplied.— The condition may he supplied, 

1) By Participles: Non pStestis, vSluptate omnia dlngentcs {si dirigi- 
th^, r6tin6re virtutem, You cannot retain your manhood, if you arrange all 
things loith reference to pleasure. Cic. 

2) By Oblique Cases : Nfimo sine spe (wfei spem hablret) se offerret ad 
mortem, No one without a hope (if he hud not a hope) would expose himself 
to death. Cic. 



CONDITIOJSfAL SENTENCES. 



233 



8. Irony.— The condition is sometimes ironical, espcciallj with nisi 
. vjro, nisi forte with the Indicative, and with gudsi, quasi vero with the 
Present or Perfect Subjunctive : ^ '^ 

m^}jovum^o.mi, unless perhaps he is insane. Cic. QuSsi voro n6ccsse 
«it, as tf indeed it were necessary. Caes. 

4 Ita-si, ETC.-Ita-8i, so-if, means onty-if SiquiJem, if indeed, 
sometimes has nearly the force of since. 
5. Et omitted. — See 58?. I. C. 

504. Force OF Tenses.— In conditional sentences the 
1 resent and Perfect tenses represent the supposition as not 
at all improbable, the Imperfect and Pluperfect represent 

l^^Tiu"^' ^« ^^'^ f^«t. See examples above. See also 
4/0 to 4/8. 

1. PuESENT FOR IMPERFECT.-The Present Subjunctive is sometimes used 
tor the Imperfect, when a condition, in itself contrary to reality, is still con- 
ceivcd of as possible : 

ml^^Z Tor" ""'"' '^''' ""^ ''' ''"^ ^^^' ''"'''' ''^' ''^ '''^'^' 

2. Imperfect for PLUPERFECT.-The Imperfect Subjunctive is some- 
times used for the Pluperfect, with the nice distinction that it contemplates 
the supposed action as goingf on, not as completed : 

think r.-?*-'"""'"' '! *""" ''''^'' temCrarium civem putares ? Would you 

-^olmfnT Z T"''' '^^''"'' *^^"" '""-' ^"'"'i^a^ that time (Pluperf. 
would you have thought-if you had lived) ? Cic. ^ i ' • 

505. DuM MoDo, DuMMoDO.— Dum, mcido, and dum- 
that, or ^^ ith ne, if only not, provided that not: 

LTmm^do ri^no?? Z-""";^"'"* •"^"^'''"'' ^ '"^^^ ^^^""'^^J remains: CI.. 

iZZt^ rfipel at pfincQlum, provided he may avert danger, do. M6do ne 

i<^^d&rent, If only they did not praise. Cic .J*ioaoue 

When not used in conditions, these conjunctions often adn.it the indicative • 

Dum leges vigebant, while the laws were in force. Cic. '''iicative . 

n„nfl^?* ^^ ^'' ^^'^ ^'' ^^^^i' ETC-Ac si, ut si, quam si 

'^:7rii^:^^:^:^'^^^ ^^^> i-Ve a;^ 

nl'./? '^ '""' ^''^"* convertant, as if they should appropri- 

ZylZr.Zr'^ '' ''''' ''"^'"'- '''■ ^-^"- -^^-*' -T^^ 
Ceu and SlcMi are sometimes used in the same way • 



11' 



284 



SUUJUNCTIVE. 



607. Si, Nisi, Ni, Sin, Qui. — The Latin clistin<:?uishes 
three distinct forms of the conditional sentence with «/, 
ntai, ni, sin : 

I. Indicative in hotli Clauses. 

II. Subjuncti^ e. Present or Perfect, in hoth Clauses. 
III. Subjunctive, Imperfect or Pluperfect, in both 
Clauses. 

508. First Form. — Indicative in both Clauses. — This 
form assumes the supposed case as real, basing upon it 
any statement which would be admissibje, if it were a 
known fact : 

Si liacc civltas est, civis sum Hgo, If this is a state, lama citizen. Cic. 
Si non llcebat, noii necesse crat, If it ivas vol lawfuf, it loas not necessary. 
Cic. DolOrem si non potero frangore, occultabo, If I shall not be able to 
overcome sorrow, I will coiiceal it. Cic. Parvi sunt foiis anna, nisi est 
consilium domi, Arms are of little value abroad, unless there in wisdom at 
home. Cic. 

1. Condition.— The condition is introduced, when affirmative, by si, 
with or without otlier particles, as quidem, mbdo, etc., and when negative, 
by &i non, nisi, ni. The time may be either present, past, ov future. See 
examples above. 

2. Conclusion.— The conclusion may take the form of a command : 
Si peccavi, ignosce, If I have erred, pardon me. Cic. 

3. Si non. Nisi. — Si non and nisi are often used without any percepti- 
ble diUbrence of meaning ; but strictly si non introduces the negative con- 
dition on which the conclusion depends, while nisi introduces a qualifica- 
tion or an exception. Thus in the second example above the meaning is, 
If it was not lawful, it follows that it was not necessary, while in the fourth 
the meaning is. Arms are of little value abroad, except when there is wisdom 
at home. 

509. Second Form. — Subjunctive Present or Perfect in 
both Clauses. — This form assumes the condition as possible: 

Hacc si tecum patria loquatur,nonne impetrare debeat, If your country 
should speak thus with yon, ought she not to obtain her request ? Cic. Im- 
probe feccris, nisi monueris, You woidd do wrong, if you should not give 
warning. Cic. See aJso examples under the Rule, 503 ; also 486. 7. 

When dependent upon a Historical tense, the Present and Perfect are 
of course generally changed to the Imperfect and Pluperfect, by the law for 
Sequence of tenses (480). 

M6tuit ne, si iret, retrahSr^tur, He feared lest if he should go, he might 
le brought back. Li v. 



i ! 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 285 

avt uetn tnc lesuit, if the concliuon had been liilfillcd- 

/.W// „ „„,. ci„, Seo also «. , " ' ''' '" ''"^ "•" P-V-r^'l/or 
in tl.e conclusion. "^ /'«i^^C^^c< //ic/eca^ue sometimes occur 

«m „„, d,„c,,d..„^ ,„e 1W.CI i„„ic«„v= ;„„;o i: ;°.L ;.;,;: ' • " " 

^n,Ji^^' ^I'?"^" .FoKMS.— The Latin sometimes unites a 
con<lu on belons.ng to one of ll,e tinee i-e-ndar f,,, ms ,Wth 

SCd'Fr,''''°"='"= '" '""■""•'^' "'- l-o'lucingriah: 

r. TIio Indicative sometimes oocnre in the Condition witli tlie 

a1 T T '". "" '"'""''"'""• '"" ""^ '■'« S«l<junctive is gene - 

^l^Z^Z "°' "'"" "" ""'"'°"' ""' """" '"" -^ -'- 

,!,„ T',"'," ®°."-i""'^''™ sometimes occnra in tl,o Condition witli 

fl.e eftect of real.ty to tl,e conelnsion, even thongh in fcct do, end 
ent upon contingencies ; but see also 512 • ' 




236 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



1. Tho Future TiuHcatlre Is often thus usod In consequcnco of Its near relation, 
ship In foi'co to tho Subjunctive, us wbatevor Is Future is more or less contliigcut. 
Bee first CAuniple. 

'2. Tho I/intorieal tmaeii, cspeclully tho Pluperfect, are sometimes used, for efect, 
to represent as an actual fact somothlng which is shown by the context never to have 
become fully so, as in tho last example. 

8. Conditional Eentvucea made up partly of tho eecofid form (509) and partly of 
the third aro rare. 

612. SuiJJUNCTiVE AND INDICATIVE. — Tlio Combination 
of the Subjunctive in the Condition with the Indicative in 
the Conclusion is often only apparent. Thus 

1. When the truth of the conclusion Is not in reality affected by tho 
condition, as when »i lias tl»o Ibrco oleven ij\ allhoiii/h : 

Si hoc phU'cat, tjlmeu volunt, JSVcn //(although) (hia pkascs them, they 
still wish. Cic. 

2. When that which stiinds as the conclusion Is such only in appear- 
ance, the real conclusion being understood. Tliis occurs 

1 ) With the Indicative of Dibco, Possum, and the like : 

Qucm, si ulia in to piCtas essct, cfilfiro dCbCbas, Whomyou ought to have 
honored (and would have honored), If there tvere any filial affection in you. 
Cic. DelGri exercTtus p(5tuit, si persdcuti victOres essent, The armymijht 
ham been destroyed (and would have been), if the victors had pursued. Liv. 

2) With the Imperfect and Perfect Indicative of other verbs, especial- 
ly if in a pcriplirastie conjugation or accompanied by Facne or Prope : 

R61icturiagro9 6rant, nJsi littfiras misisset, T7iey were about to leave their 
lands (and would have done so), had he not sent a letter. Cic. Pons Iter 
paene hostlbus dSdit, ni Onus vir fuisset, The bridge almost furnished apas- 
sage to the enemy (and would have done so), ?iad there not been oneman. Liv. 

513. Relative involving Condition. — ^The relative 
takes the subjunctive when it is equivalent to si or durn 
with the subjunctive : 

Errat longe, qui credat, etc., Tic greatly errs ivho supposes, etc., i. e., 
if or provided any one supposes, he greatly errs. Ter. Ilaec qui vtdeat, 
cogatur, If any one should sec thcw things, he loould he compelled. CAc. 



V. Subjunctive in Concessions. 



614. A concessive clause is one which concedes or 
admits something, generally introduced in English by 
though or although : 

Quamquam'intelllgunt, //io?/<)rA //tey MJtcferstonrf. Cic. 



CONCESSIOXS. 



237 



RUIE XLII- Subjunctive of Concession. 



616. Tlio Subjunctive of Concession is used, 

I. With licet, quamvls, quantumvis,-ut, ne, quum, although : 
Lu..ot urldoat, ,,l„s tan.cn nltio vfllebit, Though he may deride, reason 

I hough the drcngthfads, still the will should be approved. Ovid. 

II. With qui = quum (Ucet) is, quum «go, etc., though he: 

V^rrcs, though he coufe^ses (who may coure«.) /A«^ A, has aeeepted Jneg. 

III. Generally with etsl, tametai, ^Uamsl: 

Quod scntiunt, etsi optlnuun sit, tSmen non audcnt dicorc, Theg do 
not dare to stale what theg think, even if (though) it be most exeellerd. Clc. 

clasfesf' ^^"""''^^^ ^^^"««« «^^y 1^0 divided into three 

iMo,//''" •5''«f;«»c'/r6 may of course folIo^y ^w^z/^^w^m,. whenever the thonHit 
Itself ..espectve of the eo„ces«ive character of the cl,u.e. requires tLLooJ'siS 

2. The Suhjjmchve, even in the best prose. 8ometimes occurs with ouanumom 

wit, //iwigfA not even that gave rim to any auspieion. Cic. 

3. In poetry and some of the later prose the subiimpn Jn n,in, -, 
uncommon. In Tacitus it is the prev.i„;;on;t;;l;;i;.n '" " '"""''"" '' "°* 

4. Quamquam and et.si sometimes have the force of vet but vet and ,«/• 
Quamquam quid l,5quor, Ajid yet what do laayf Cic. ^ ' *^ ' 

- J^^^'Z?^' '^in '""'f ' ^^^^^'^ ^'''^^ quamvis, quantumvls, 

^^^o»,A^a.« ;„.^ „,, i, ,,, ,,,^,,, ,,. .^^ ., ,^ ^^^.^^ .^^^^ ^^;^^, .^_ ^.^certo est. 

1. Ut and NE.-Thi3 concessive use of vt and ne may readily be ex' 

Hamed by supplying some verb like fac or sine : thus, ut 1^/1, 5 5.' 

'^ -/"' "^ ^'^'r" '^^'''^ "'"'•''' '^'^•'^ '"' g'-a«t that strength fails. See 489 
1 he Concesszoe Particle is sometimes omitted : 

Sed liSbeat, t&men, But grant that it has: it yet. Cic. 

Ux-sic or iTA, as-so, though-yet, does not require the subjunctive 



'O^f 



238 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



!l ^i 



^ ! 



2. QuAMVis AND QuANTUMVis.— These are strictly adverbs, in the sense 
of however much, but they generally give to the clause the force of a conces- 
sion. When used with their simple adverbial force to qualify adjectives, 
they do not aflect the mood of the clause : quarnvis multl, however many. 

3. Mood with Quamvis.— In Cicero and the best prose, quarnvis takes 
the Subjunctive almost without exception, generally also in Livy and Nepos; 
but in the poets and later prose writers it often admits the Indicative : 

Erat dignltate r6gia, quamvis carebat nomine, Jle was of royal dignity, 
though he was without the name. Nep. 

4. Relative in Concessic xs.— The relative denoting concession is equiv- 
alent to licet, or qzium, in the sense of though, with a Demonstrative or Vcv- 
sonal pronoun, and takes the Subjunctive for the same reason : qui = Ikd 
(quum) is, licet ego, tu, etc. See examples under the Rule, 515. 

III. Concessive Clauses Avith the componnds of si: eisi, 
ttiamsi, tdmetsl in the use of Moods and Tenses conform 
to the rule for conditional clauses Avith si: 

Etsi nihil habcat in se gloria, tamcn virtutcm sSqiutur, Though glory 
may not possess anything in itself, yet it follows virtue. Cic. Etiamsi mora 
oppetenda esset, even if death ought to he met. Cic. 

VI. SUBJUXCTIVE OF CaUSB AND TlME. 

ETJLE XLIII.— Subjunctive of Cause. 

517. The Subjunctive of Cause or Eeason is used, 

I. With quum (cum), since ; qui = quum is, etc. : 

Quum Tita metus plena Bit, since life is full of fear. Cic. Quae quuna 
ita sint, perge, Since these things are so, proceed. Cic. vis vorltfitis, 
quae {quum ea) se dofendat, the force of truth, since it defends itself. Cic. 

II. With quod, quia, quSniam, quando, to introduce a reason on 
another's authority : 

Socrates accQsatus est, quod corrumperet juventutem, Socrates was ac- 
cused, because (on the alleged ground that) he corrupted the youth. Quint. 

Causal Clauses with Quum and Qui. 

518. Quum. — Quum takes the Subjunctive when it de- 
notes, 

I. Cause or Concession : 

Quum sint in nobis Jatio, pradenlia, since there is in ns reason and pru- 
dence. Cic. Phocion fuit pauper, quum divitissimus esse posset, Phocion 
was poor, though he might have been very rich. Nep. See also 515. 



I I 



CAFSJE AND TIME. 



239 



CEssL?'''' ''''^' *^' ^'''^'"^'^ ^"^^^" «^ Cause or Con- 

S;::7:;rir:r cL"""^' ^-^'^^^^ ^■'^^^"^"-' ^ ^/^- ^-^ ^-; 

ju„ctivorvcr;L3t~tr^^'"' ^'^ '"^''^^'^^* or Pluperfect Sub- 
ples under II. .Vo'e "''''" '''" "^ '""^'"'•^' <^'-«-- See e.am- 

in the fii-.st exauiDlo not onl.r ^f,.,,, ., , j . '"^- ■'^^"^ ^»"»» dhnlcdret, 

mvw, as ni-c'sence in Atlions xv.i« „n in r "^""""'» oi JJi3 fleatli. feo with qmim 

Quum, and takes the Subjunctive for the sal «. 

2. LvDiCATivE.-Whon the statement is to be viewed as i farf roti,n. ♦., 
as a reason, the Indicative is used : "^ '^"'"'^ *'''*'' 

.../l^^/'! '^"^*"" ^1'^"''™' 'l"^^ "'^'^ «^™«»is avrdit.-tera auxit /c7.m-.A 
graUtude to oU age which has increased my love of conversation. Cic 

H..\ ""^J™ ^''"'•'"^^™^'»-Wlien a conjunction accompanies the rela- 
tive, the mood varies with the conjunction. Thus 

1) The Subjunctive is generally used with quum, quvppe, U, ntpUe • 
Quae quum Ita sint, .ince these things are so. Cic Qui, ne nuCZiv- 

inr, since heflatters. Cic. ^ qui caio'ni Lent. ..I^JZfX^^^^^^^^^ 
But the Indicative is sometimes used to give prominence to the/act 

2) The Indicative is geueraily used with quia, quoniam: 

Quae quia certa esse non possunt, since these things cannot he sure Ci- 
Qu. qufimam inteiirgi nSluit, since he did not v>ish to le understood qL 



•m 



240 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 




Causal Clauses with Quod, Quia, Quoniam, Quaiido, 

520. Quod, quia, quoniam, and quando generally take, 

1. The Indicative to assign a lea&on positively on one's 
otcn authority : 

Quiiniam supplleatlo dccreta est, since a thanksgiving has been decreed. 
Cic. Gaude quod spectaut tc, Rejoice that (because) (hey behold you. Ilor. 

II. The Subjunctive to assign a reason doid)tfully, or 
on another's authority: 

Aristldes nonne expulsus est patria, quod Justus cssot, Was not Aris- 
tides banis/ied because (on the alleged ground that) he was just ? Cic. 

1. QnoD WITH Dico, ETC.— i?ico and puto are often in the Subjunctive 
instead of the verb depending upon tbem : 

Quod se bellum gesturos dicerent = quod bcllum gestOri esscut, ut dice- 
bant, because they were about, as they said, to wage war. Caes. 

2. Clauses witu Quod Unconnected. See 554. IV. 

3. NoN Quo, ETC. — Non quo, non quod, non quin, rarely nan quia, also 
quam quod, etc., are used with the Subjunctive to denote that something was 
not the true reason : 

Non quo habereni quod scilb6rem, not because (that) I had amjtldnq to 
write. Cic. Non quod doleunt, not because they are pained. Cic. Quia ii6- 
qui\ eiat quani quod igiioiilret, because he had been unable, rather than because 
he did not knoiu. Liv. 

4. I'oTENTiAL Subjunctive. See 485 and 486. 



RULE XLIV.— Time with Cause. 

521. The Siibjimc'tive of Time with the accessory 
notion of Cause or Purpose is used, 

I. With dum, donoc, quoad, until: 

Exspectas dum dicat, You are icaiting till he speaks, i. e., that he may 
speak. Cic. Ea coutlnebis quoad te videam, You wdl keep them till I sec 
you. Cic. 

II. With antequam, priusquam, before, be^^ro Ihat : 

AutSquam de re publica dicam, exponam consilium, / will set forth my 
plan before I (can) spicak of the republic, i. e., preparatory to speaking 
of the republic. Cic, Triusquani incipias, before you begin. Sail. 

1. Explanation. — Here the temporal clause involves purpose as well as 
time : dum dlcat is nearly equivalent to ut dicat, which is also often used 
after exspecto. Antiquum dlcu/it is nearly equivaknit to ut jwstra dicam: 
I will set forth my views, that I may afterwards speak of the r.<jpublic. 



■M i\ 



it ill 



I 



CAUSE AND TIME. 



241 



in Jl ^"^ °7r ^"^^•'"^•^"ONs.-The Subjunctive may of course be used 
Ubi res posceret, whenever the case might require. Liv. 

522. DuM, DoxEc, and Quoad take 
a'n'r^ti^iV'' """ '' "^^^^' ^^^^^^ ^^^-» - viewed a^ 

r^„ V' '^^^'^/^'^^^c^^'^^', when the action is viewed not so 
much as a fact as something desired oxpropo7d: 

1. DoNEC, m Tacitus, generally takes the Subjunctive : 
*J "urS.?.^"^ — :,r„ -rr-'" even ,n .e ..e „r 

523. AxTEQUAM and Peiusquam generally take, 
time*: ^^^ ^'''^^''«^^*^^' ^^^^e" ^^ey denote mere priority of 

II. The Suhjimctive, ^hen they denote a depen.Jeiice 
ofone event upon another. Thus, "tpeniencc 

volved :^" """^ ^'"''' '''''" *^' ''''''°'^ °°'^''' of j.«,:po.. or ca,«. is in- 

fl;e^i6« aJ,o«, 1. e, as preparatory to your beginning. Sail. Tempestas nilniT 
ur,antSquamsurgat, 77....^..,,;,,«,,„,f,,^,,f,,,^^^^^^^ 
ing of the tempest naturally precedes its rising. Sen. t^^^-eaten- 

..J" k" *''"^T-^''^' ^"d Pluperfect, as the regular construction inn^r- 
^aUon because the one event is generally treated as the occasion or natu- 
ral antecedent of the other. See also 471. 4. 

^^^^mxxnmh^mc^^^r^nt,btfore they took the city. LU. Priusauam 
de meo adventu audire p5t„issent, in Mac6d6niam perrLi. lfor7ZyZ. 
*'^^<^ ^"^caroj my approach, J went into mcedoma.Cic. ' ' '^'^^^^ 

3. rndie quam takes the same moods as Priusqmm. 



242 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Ij 



'-ft 



ilr 



1) Indicative or SrBJiTNCTivE.-Wltb ««%Kam and i9/-/««?MCfw, the Indic*. 
tivc and Subjiipclive arc sometimes used without any apparent difference of meanmg, 
but the Subiunclivc probably denotes a closer connection between the two events : 

Ante de incommOdis dico, pauea dicenda, Before I (actually) speak of disad. 
vantages, a few thum should he mentioned. Cic. Antequam de re publica dicam, 
eNponam consilium, Before J speak of the republic, I will set forth my jMn. Cic. 

2) Ante-quam, l'Kius-QUAM.-The two parts of which antiquum, prmsquam 
and postquam are compounded are often separated, so that ante, priua, or 2)0st 
stands in the principal clause and quam in the subordinate clause : 

I'aucis ante diCbus, quam Syraeusae caperentur, a few days hefore Syracuse 
teas taken. Liv. See 'Tmesis, 704. lY. 8. 

VII. SuBJUxcTivE IN Indiuect Ql-estions. 

624. A clause which involves a question Avithont_ cli- 
rectly asking it, is called an indirect or dependent question. 

KTJLE XLV.— Indirect Guestions. 
525. The SuLjimctive is used in Indirect Questions: 

Quid dies ffirat inccrtura est. What a daj may bring forth is wicer- 
ta-ii Cic Quaovitur, cur doctissTmi hommca dissontiant, It is a question, 
vjJuifhc most learned me7i disagree. Cic. Quaosieras, nonne puturem, tjou 
had aslccd whether I did not tldnk. Cic. Qualis s= . ammus. animus nescit, 
The soul knows not what the soul is. Cic. 

1 With \sTmnoc,\Tixv.s.-Indirect or Depended.', questions, like those 
not dependent, are introduce.1 by interrogative words: quid, cur, nonne, 
gndlis, etc. ; rarely by si, slve, .e., whether : vt, how. See examp es above 

2 Substantive FoncE.— Indirect questions are used suhtantive/i/, and 
Kencrallv, though not always, supply the place of subjects or objects ot verbs 
But an Accusative, referring to the same person or thing as the subject of 
the question, is sometimes inserted after the leading verb. 

Ego ilium nescio qui fu6rit, Ida not know (him), who hewas. Ter. 

3. Direct and Indirect.— An indirect question may be readily changed 
to a direct or independent question. 

Thus the direct question Involved in the Qrst example is : Quid dies fM, 
What will a day brluR forth? So in the second: Cur doctisslmi homines dissenti- 
unt. Why do the most learned men disagree ? 

4. Subjunctive Omitted.— After nescio quis, I know not who = quldam, 
some one ; nescio quomodo, 1 know not how, etc., as also after 7nirum quan- 
tum, it is wonderful how much = wonderfully much, very much, there is an 
ellipsis of the Subjunctive : 

Nescio quid Snimus pracsagit. The mind forebodes, I ktiow not what (it 
forohndes. 'nraesdaiat. understood), Ter. Id mirum quantum profuit, This 
profited, it is wonderful how much, 1. e., it wonderfully profited. Liv. 



he Indie*' 
f uieiiniug, 
» events: 
of disad- 
lica (llcaii), 
mi. Cic. 
riusquavi, 
iS, or ^;obi 

J /Syracuse 



lont cli- 
[uestion. 



Dstions : 

i is unccr- 
% question, 
;arem, you 
1U3 nescit, 



like those 
',ur, nonne, 
lies above. 
.lively, and 
td of verbs. 

subject of 

Ter. 
ily changed 

i dle« fint, 
nes dissenti- 

= quldam, 

irum quan- 

there is an 

not wliat (it 
lofuit, Thi* 
Liv. 



INDIKECT QUESTION'S. 243 

fullv^.n^r''"''! ^,T"°^'« »isTixoirisnEn._I„direct Questions must be care- 
fully distinguished from certain similar forms. Thus 

Rehu ve Zc:Sif f' '^^7'^*-C'--^'« "'Produced b^ Relative Pronouns or 
do, t n \ "'''^'' ^"'' '^^ ^"^^'^^d'^"* or correlative expressed or un 

Ind cct't^ ,"■" ""'"■' '' ^ "•"'^' '''' «"^J-* «r object of u ; b wMe 
Indirect Questions are generally so used ; "' 'i ^ eio, wmie 

Dicam quod sentio (..^. c^a.,,). / ^-ui tell that which (id quod) / thinh 
S Cic^" uU u^aieflcium est, Zc. ....,,,,,, ^,,i) „,,,,, i,™; 

-at^:;;:,:::^-?,:^--3:;r:rr^:f:t;?^^ 

'lent or correiaii vo «.f ubi • hut in ti,„ <:„ V , ^ ' '^ ^^* "^ ""* n"*-ece- 

2) From Direct Questions and Exclamations • 

Quid agendum est? Nesclo, What is to be done? J knoio not Cic 
\ide! quamconversaresest,^../ how changed is the ease. Cic 

G. LxmcATivE IX IxmuECT QfEsrioNs.-Tlie Indicative in Indirect Ques- 
tions is sometimes used in the poets ; especially in Hautus and W. 

«o«f mu^.tpuidy Ishoivid, lam able. Ter, 

7. QuESTio.NS IN THE OuATio Obliqua. Scc 5S0. II. 2. 

526. SixGLE AND Double Questions.— Indirect qucs- 

cles r.., ,.o««., num. Here ,..,.. doc4 not imply negatioi T ^ '" 

Rogltat qui vir esset (481. IV.), //. asled who he was. Liv. EpSmlnou- 
das quaesivit sdvusne esset clipeus, Fpaminondas inquired wLJZ 
shu'ld .vas safe. Cic. Diibito num debeam, / ^..J, J.thcr I o.,?J.rl 
See also the examples under the Kule, 525. 

strucLt? '"''''^'* ""'"'^^ ^"^^^'^^ («'A.//...-o.) admitB of two con- 
second !' ^'"""'"' '''''' "'™'" "" ""' '^ "^^ fi'«' "^^^l^cr, and an in the 
e.n^'i^Z"'i"''''''/"^'"rr ^''P^'' '^'^"^^Stem, an propter Iructus Sllquos 

Quaerrtur, njltiira an doctrlna possit effici virtus, It is asM whether vir- 
tue can be secured by nature or by education. Cic. See also MG. 1. 1) 



244 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



1) In the second member, necne, sometimes a» non, la usnrt In the sense ofornot: 
Silpientia beatos cff iciat necne, quacstio est. Whether or not wisdom makes men 

hapinj, is a question. Clc. 

2) An, In the sense of whether not. Implying an affirmative. Is used after verba 
and cxpressiona of doubt and uncertainty: dtiblto un,nescio an, hand scio an, 1 
doubt whether not, I know not whether not = 1 am Inclined to think; di'ihitim eat 
an, Incertum eat an, it Is uncertain whether not = it is probable: 

Dubitoan Thriisybulum primum omnium itonam, I doubt whether I should no* 
place Thrasubulus first of all, 1. e., I am Inclined to think 1 should. Nep. 

3) An sometimes has the force oi aut, perhaps by the omission of incertum est, 
as used above ; 

SimOuides an quis alius, Simonides or some other one. Clc 



VIII. Subjunctive by Attraction. 



|l Mil 



RULE XLVI.- Attraction. 

527. The Subjunctive bv Attraction is often used 
in clauses dependent upon the Subjunctive: 

VtTeor, ne, dum minuere vfelira laboicm, augoam, I fear I shall in- 
crease the labovy lohile I wish to diminish it. Cic. Tempus est hujustuuJi, 
ut, ubi quisque sit, ibi esse mliiime velit, The time is of such a character 
that every one wishes to be least of all ichere he is. Cic. Mos est, ut dicat 
senteutiam, qui velit, The custom is that he who wishes expresses his opin- 
ion. Cic. 

1. Applicatiox.— This rule is applicable to clauses introduced by con- 
junctions, adverbs, or relatives. Thus, in the examples, the clauses intro- 
duced by dum, ubi, and qui,ti\ke the subjunctive, because they are dependent 
upon clauses which have the subjunctive. 

2. Indicative or Subjunctive.— Such clauses generally take, 

1) The Indicative, when they are in a measure parenthetical or give spe- 
cial prominence to the fact stated : 

Milites misit, ut eos qui fnggrant pers6qu6rentur, lis sent soldiers to pur- 
sue those who had fled, i. e., the fugitives. Caes. Tanta vis probitStis est, 
ut earn, vel in iis quos nunquara vidimus, diliganius, Such is the force of in- 
tegrity that we love it even in those whom, we have never seen. Cic. 

The Indicative with <?Mm is very common, especially in the poets and historian-: 

FuCre qui, dum dubitat Seaevinus, hortar^ntur Plsonem, There were tloose tv cO 
exhorted Piso, while Scaevinns hesitated. Tac. See also 407. 4. 

2) The Subjunctive, when the clauses are essential to the general thought 
of the sentence, as in the examples under the rule. 

8. Aftkr Infinitive Clauses.— The principle just stated (2) applies 
also to the use of IJoods in clauses dependent upon the Infinitive. This 






«■ 



seotornot: 
makes men 

1 after verbs 
I Bcio an, I 
d Allium eat 

r should no* 

icertum est. 



cn used 

/ shall in- 
hujusmodi, 
a character 
ist, ut dicat 
?,s his opbi- 



3ed by con- 
luses intt'o- 
; dependent 



or give spe- 

liers to pur- 
jbitiitis est, 
force of in- 

id historian-: 
ire Uiose uu<> 

2ral thought 

(2) applies 
itive. This 



ATTRACTIOI^. mDlRkCT DISCOURSE. 245 

IX. SuBju-xcTivE IN Indirect Discourse,— 
Oratio Ohliqua. 

^^Z^ :. t]*x. j,t^, :r-E t» 

Dircci 2r„rr * '"*" """■"'" ■='""■'5° "<>"« «' ™- ^ .h„ 

Kcx " duumviros " inqnit " secundum ICirom Hmn " T'/ 7 • 
appoint duunmrs according to lawJ^U^. ^ ' ^^'' ^''"^ *'^^'^' " ^ 

RULE XLVIL-Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse. 

529.^ The Subjunctive is gencrallj used in the In- 
terrogah.e, Imperative, and Subordinate clauses of the 
Uratio Obllqua : 

Ad postulata CaosSris rospondit, cur vCnlret {direct: cur venis ?), To 

ulit; ■ "n "-^ ?;;/" "^'''^' "'^ '^'^ ''^ ^'''"^' ^-«- Scrlbit Lab Ono 

0,. (that he should come) ,..7A « /.^/c, Caes. Hippias glGrlatus est, 

S7/rr/?'1 ^'w1'" '''^^^ - -a manuconfodsso, ///,;.' 
fioa./.«? Ma^ /,, kad made unth his own hand the ring which he wore. Cic. 

nf A^ ^r";;''"" '^^'7«"'«"«« «f reference the following outline of the use 
of Moods. Tenses. Pronouns, etc. in the Oratio Obliqut is here inserted 



246 



ORATIO OBLIQUA. 



530. Moods m PEmciPAL Clauses.— Tlie Principal 
clauses of the Direct discourse, on becoming Indirect, 
undergo the following changes of Mood : 

I. When Declarative, they take the Infinitive (551) : 
Dicebat aminos esse divlnos (direct: Mmxi sunt dlvini), He was wont 

to my that souls were divine. Cic. PliitOnera Tarentum venisse ropcno 
(Flato Tarentum vcnit), I find that Plato came to Tarentum. Cic. Cato 
mirari se (mlror) aiebat, Cato was wont to say that he wondered. Cic. 

II. When Interrogative or Imperative, they generally 
take the Subjunctive according to Rule XL VII. 

1 Verb OMiTTEO.-The verb on which the Infinitive depends is often 
omitted, or only implied in some preceding verb or expression ; especially 
after the Subjunctive of Purpose : 

Pvthia praecripit ut Miltiadem imp6ratorem sOmfirent ; meepta pros- 
p6ra Lnvu^Fi/thia eommanded that they should take MUtiades as their earn- 
mander, (telling them) that their efforts would be successful ^ep. _ 

2 RHETOurcAL Qt'ESTiONS-Questions which are such only in form, 

requiring no answer, are generally construed, according to sense m the 
Infinitive They are sometimes called Rhetorical questions, as they are 
often used for Rhetorical efiFect instead of assertions : thus numpossit can 
he ? for nan potest, he can not ; <juid sit turpius, what is more base ? for 
nihil est turpius, nothing is more base. , _,. ^ ^ , ^^ .. ^ . • 
Here belong many questions which in the direct form have the verb m 

the first or third person : „ ,. j r ? j,. i„„ 

Rcspondit num memoriam dCponcre posse, He replied could he lay 

aside the recollection. Caes. Here the direct question would be: Num 

memoriam deponfirc possim ? 

3. Imperative Clauses with the Infinitive. See ool. 11. l. 

631. Moods m Subordinate Clauses.— The Subor- 
dinate clauses of the Direct discourse, on becoming Indi- 
rect, put their finite verbs in the Subjunctive : 

Orabant,ut stbi auxilium ferret quod preraercntur {direct: nobis 
auxilium fer, quod prcmimur), lliey prayed that he would h'lng the,.. Help, 
because they loere oppressed. Caes. 

1 Infinitive in Relative Clauses.-U must be remembered (453), 
that Relative clauses, though subordinate in form, sometimes have the force 
of Principal clauses. When thus used in the Oratio Obliqua, they may be 
construed with the Infinitive : 

Ad eum defertur, esse clvem Romanum qui qu6reretur: quern (- et 
earn) asservatum esse, It was reported to him that there was a Lomaneitnea 
uJmade a complaint, and that he had heen placed under ^2*1,^^/^" 
also comparisons : Te suspicor iisdem, quibus me ipsum, common tri, Isus 
pect that you are moved by the same things as I am. Cic. 



MOODS AND TENSES. 



247 



ncipal 
direct, 

51): 

oas wont 
repciio 

B. CutO 

nerally 

) 13 often 
specially 

pta pros- 
heir com- 

in form, 
se, in the 

they are 
wssit, can 
base? for 

lie verb in 

uld he lay 
be: Num 



Subor- 
i<r Indi- 

id : nobis 
thc:: help, 

3red (453), 
TC the force 
ley may be 

lacm (= et 
man citkcn, 
I. Cic. So 
5veri, Istis- 



2 IxpiNiTivB AFTER CERTAIN CONJUNCTIONS. -Thc Infinitive occurs as 
thnfT'^' ««moenrbusinclusost5nGreeos; quia per agros vSguri He savs 

and may accordingly take the Indicative : ^ ^ ^' 

RSferunt silvam esse, quae appellutur BacCnis TJiev remrt tlnf n... 
« a forest which is called Baccnis. Caes. ^ ^^ ^^'' ' 

4. Indicative in Clauses not PARENTiiETiCAL—Somctimcs clauses nof 
parenthefcal take the Indicative to give prominence to ^/a / atcd 
This occurs most frequently in Relative clauses : ^ 

Certior factus est ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis concessCrat omno, 
discess.sse //. wa. informed that all had withdrawn from tTatZ'rtZtZ 
milage whtch he had assigned to the Gauls. Caes. ^ *^ 

onu^!^^' 7T''^-T^^"'^' ^" ^^^ ^''^tio Obliqna j?enerallv 
CO nlorm to the ordinary rules for Infinitive indl^uSc- 
tive lenses (480, 540 , but the law of Sequence of Te. 
admits of certain qualifications ; ^^^^^^^^e ot Itn.>cK 

1. The Present and Perfect may be used even after a Histoncal tense 
to impart a more lively effect to the narrative : ' 

Caesar respondit, si obsides sibi dentur, sese pacem esse facturum Co. 
ear repUed, that if hostages should be giun him, hL^uldZllTXT^^^Z' 

2. In Conditional sentences of the third form (510) 

1) The condition retains the Imperfect or Pluperfectwithout reference 
to the tense of the Principal verb ; '-luence 

5ntn H '^p' .^'"'^"f'«'» ^'^^«"SOS the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive 
Into the Periphrastic Infinitives in rus esse and rusfuisse : 

,/,../?r°' ^°!"P;\"'" laotaturum fuisse, si scirct, J)o you ihinik Fompen 
v^onld have rejoiced, if he had known ? Cic. Cla-mxtabat, si ille adesset veu 
turos esse, Be cried out that they ^ould come, if he were presenTcZ' 

fa thi^ll^J ^T^"" '°'^°'""'' '°'*'"'* "^ '^' Peripiu-astic forms, sometimes occurs 
fa this construction, especially in expressions of Duty, etc. (475. i). 

3. Conditional Sentences of the second form (509), after Historical 
enscs, sometimes retain in their conditional clauses the Present or Per- 

lie Rnl TT"" ''""/^ ■' '" '''' ^'"P'^'^"'^^* '' Plmrrect, according to 
the Rule for Sequence of Tenses (480) : 

Respondit, si expgriri velint, paratum esse, I/e replied if the?/ wished 
to make the trial he was ready. Caes. Legates m'ittit. si Itl Iv^f ef SS 

le7!Z7:;:fj^^^^^^^ 



i n i pB i an ipiii 



248 



OKATIO OBLIQUA. IMPERATIVE. 



I U 



! I 



11 



'I 
,1 



i V- 



Hero mittit Ifl tho nistoHcnl Present See 467. III. 

4 TI.C Future Perfect in a Subordinate clause of the Direct cUscourse 
is cha'nged in the Indirect into the Perfect Subjunctive nft.r a Pnncpal 
tense, and into tl»e Pluperfect Subjunctive after a J.h.luncal t.:'..e . 

A.nnt ut dimtccnt : Ibi imp6rium fOro, und. viciorr r.^iit, Thei/ ar- 

Ml ,»;« <;.. tielon (wlicnco Hio victory m«y have been). Lir. AppJribJl 
reg„«lt qui v/cLet, /« »» eM.nt «/,a< /« .ouU i, M„,v.lu, >kaM 
conquer. Liv. . - 

^533 Pronouns, Adverbs, etc.— Pronouns anri n(i 
vcrbt t r.:: the pe..p„s o,; tile verbs nre often clK^nged 
ill passing from the Viml discourse to liio InUK ut . 

hand. Cic. , ., 

1 Pronouns of first and second persons are often changed to the 
third.' Thusabove ^e,o in the direct discourse becon.es ., and raea becomes 
Mua In the same way Mc and ide arc often changed to lUe. 

2. Idverbs meaning kere or now arc often changed to those mean.ng 
there or then ; nunc to turn ; Uo to ilUo. 

8 In the use of pronouns observe 

li That references to the Speaker whose words are reported are made, 
if of the 1st Pers. by ego, meus, noster, etc., if of the 2d Pers. by t„, tuns, 
Lc!, Ind \f of the L P^rs. by eui, suus, ipse, etc.. though sometimes by 

**'' 2^)' That references to the Repouteu, or Author, are made by ego, 

""'" 3)'Th;t references to the Person Addressed by the reporter are made 

"' Iriovlkus'respondit nos esse Iniquos qui se interpellaremus (direct: 
vos tsTs iniqui qui me, etc.). Ariov.^^ replied that .e were unjust .ho 
interrupted him. Caes. 

Here nos ref-^rs to the lieporter, Caesar, we Romans. Se refers to the Speaker, 
ArlovLtus la the second example under 523, te refers to the Person AMressed. 

SECTION VII. 
IMPERATIVE. 

I. Tenses of toe Imperative. 
534. The Imperative has but two Tenses : 
I The Present has only the Second person, and cor- 
responds to the English Imperati ve : 

Justttiam cole. Fracfm justice. Cic. Perge. Cattllna, Oo, CatUine. C.c. 



iiscourse 
Priiifipul 
c: 

They ar- 
ide whUh, 
ppSrObat 
lio should 

ihunged 
ct: 

filum ego 
h his own 

cd to the 
a becomes 

e meaning 



are made, 
ly til, tuus, 
letimes by 

dc by (go, 

I are made 

lus {dltrd : 
unjust who 

the Speaker^ 
iddressed. 



, and cor- 
7atiline. Cic. 



IMPERATIVE. 



24a 



II. Tho ruturo has the Socond and Third persons, and 
corresponds to tlie imperative use of tho English Future 
with sAall, or to the Ini])erative let : 

.„//// ^'o^^.^lca appcllantor, The,/ shall be called conattls, or let th^m he 

1. Future FOB PnESENT.-The Future Imperative is sometimes used 
where we should expect tlie Present : 

QuSniam supplIcStio dccrCta est. cfilebrStOte iUoa iHiCH, Since a thanks- 
giving has been decreed, celtbrate those days. Cic. 

th« J'f ''. P'"'"°"''""'y «=""'""° ^^ <=ertain verbs: thus scio has only tho forms of 
the Future In common use. 

-'• PRESENT FOR FuTUBE.~The Impcrat. vc Present is often used in poetry, 
and sometimes m prose, of an action which belongs entirely to the future : 

h.w \) *"'"";^^f '>*' ^"f" «'''^"es disslpa, When you shall see the line of 
battle, then scatter the ranks, Liv. 

II. Use of the Imperative. 
RULE XLVIII.-Impera^ive. 

535. The Imperative is used in commands, exhor- 
tations, and entreaties : 

Justitiam cole, Practise justice. Cic. Tu ne cede nullia, Do not yield 
to mwfortunes. Virg. Si quid in to reccSvi, ignosce, If I have sinned 
against you, pardon mc. Cic, 

1. CiRciJMLocrTioNs.-Iustcad of tho simple Imperative, several circum. 
locutions are aininon : 

1) C%m ?/^, /at- „^,/^^, each with the Subjunctive : 
Cura ut vfinias, See that you come. Cic. See 489. 

2) Fac ne, cave ne, cave, with the Subjunctive : 

cave fScias, Beware of doing it, or see that you do not do it. Cic. 

8) Noli, nbllte, with the Infinitive: 

Noli Imlfari, do not imitate. Cic. See ;8. 2. 

2. Imperative Clause for CoNmTioN.— An Imperative clause may be 
used instead of a Conditional clause : 

LScesse; jam vldebis fiirentem, Provoke Mm (i. e., if you provoke him) 
you will at once nee himfrnntic. Cic. 

3. Imperative SuPPUED.-The place of the Imperative may be various) v 
supplied : ^ 

1) By the Subjunctive of Desin (487): 
_ Sint beSti, Lei them be happy. Cic. Impii ue audeant, Let not the im- 
pious dare. Cia 



250 



IMPERATIVE. INFINITIVE. 












:'i -' m 






-'iiP 



ii 



l,pll 



I I 



2) By the Indicative Future : , . , _^ . ,1 

Quod optimum vIdObltur, fScies, You will do (for Impcr. do) what ihall 

$eem best. Cic. 

636. The Imperative Present, like the English Impera- 
live, is used in coniinunds, exhortations, and entreaties. 
See examples under the Rule. 

637. The Imperative Future is used, 

I. In commands involving future rather than present 

action : 

Rem pondit5tc, You shall consider the subject. Cic. Craa putito ; dilbt. 
tur, Ask to-morrow ; it shall be granted. Plaut. 

II. In laws, orders, precepts, etc. : 

Consrdea nSmlni parento, The conmls shall be subject to no one. Cic. 
Sitlusp^pali suprcma lex esto, The safety of thepeoj^le shall be the mpreme 
law. Cic. 

538. Imperative in Prohibitions.— In prohibitions 
or negative commands, 

1 The neo-ative ne, rarely non, accompanies the Imper- 
ative, and if a connective is required, ntve, or neii, is gen- 
erally used, rarely ntqiie : 

Tu ne cede malis. Do not yield to misfortunes. Virg. IIomTncm mor- 
tuum h. u.^e ne" p6lito, nCve^rito, Thou shalt not bury or burn a dead 
body in the city. Cic. 

2. Instead of 9ie with the Present Imperative, the best 
prose wiiters generally use noli and nollte with the Inhni- 
tive: 

Nolite putaie {for ne putate), do not think (be uuwiUins to tbmk). Cic. 



SECTION VIII. 
JNFINITIYE. 

639. The treatment of the Latin Infinitive embraces 
four topics : 

I. The Tenses of the Infinitive. 
II. The Subject of the Infinitive.^ _ 

III. The I'redicate after the IiifinitiVG. 

IV. The Construction of the Infinitive. 



INFINITIVE. 



251 



vhat shall 

[mpera- 
reutit'S. 



present 
[to; daw- 



t one. Cic. 
te supreme 

libitiona 

; Imper- 
, is gen- 



Tncm mor- 
irn a dead 



the best 
le Infini- 

hink). Cic. 



I. Tenses op the Infinitive. 



embraces 



nn if-; I:;^""t»vo has three tenses, Present Perfect 

and luaure Thoy exp.vss however not ubsolutJ, but re -' 
ative tune, denoting, respectively Present, Tu^t, o • Future 
time, relatively to the rrineij)ai verb. 

ti.esAerr;;;r;s;;^:r tn,s:r"' '"' "'^''"^ ^^"""""'"' «^-'"^^ -"- 

n. f^i5^' '^1''' ^'^^«,^NT Infinitive represents the action 
as taking place at the time denoted by the principal verb" 
Crtpio me esse clCmcntem, Idedre to be mild. Cic. Maluit so dlir.ri 
quam mCtui. Jle preferred to be loved rather than feared Nep ^ 

Cm arKc-ntum daro dixit, He said he would give the silver tcmorrmc Tor 

to expect the Perfect; sometime, also after memUl, a.u, iC2 ' '"' "" 

Dol^uit olllciosior esse, //« ought to have been more attentive Cic Id ..r.h.it 

ti^carc, He might have done this. Cic. «> »««'»U6. t-ic. id pOtuit 

conn)ttp Jl'f P'^^,^^^^' Infinitive represents the action as 
completed at the time denoted by the principal verb : 

Cic ^TnZT ^'"""i;- I" ^^^'•''^'"^^"•««<^' The^sa,, that Plalo came into Italy. 
wyse{/' t/iat no ojence had been committed by me. Cic. 
ofthepl'/^'tlTo'T/'r'' ?' '"'^ time denoted by the Perfect Infinitive is that 

for tb'e Pr:::tre;7nT^^^^^^ ''^' ''"^'^ '^^ ^'^^^'^^ ^"°"'"- '« --«-- "-d 
fpfrvl'"?'"' """""' 7'A.y/.«r ^<, to«c;i (to have touched) the poet Ilor 

as attut .'!!''?i»"7' l'-^'^^^""! represents the aetion 
Ftadpal lerb : ^ '™ '" '""" ^^^sequont to that of the 

n.- ^['""'"/'»°"' '" « "■» Pilto, / liM Bntm will b, ,ten h, me Cic 



252 



INFINITIVE. 



544. Circumlocution fob Futuee Infinitive.— In- 
stead 'f the regular Future Infinitive, the circumlocution 
futarum esse ut, or fore ut, with the Subjunctive,— Present 
after a Principal tense, and Imperfect after a Historical 
tense, — is frequently used : 

SpSro fore ut contingat id nSbis, / hope this will fall to our lot (I hope 
it will come to pass that this may happen to us). Cic. Non sp6iav6iiit Han- 
nibal, fore ut ad se deficSrent, Hannibal had not hoped that they would revolt 
to him. Lir. See i>56. II. 1. 

1. Circumlocution jiF.CT.ssA.nr.--Filtiirum eHneut, or/>/v?(^ with the Sulijnnc- 
tive, for the Future Infinitive, is common in the Passive, ami is moreover nectssiiry 
in both voices in all verbs which want the Supine and the Participle in rvs. 

2. FouE UT WITH Perfect Sudjunotive.— Somotimes/'>»'« id with the Siibjimc- 
tlve, Perfect or Pluperiect, Is used with the force of a Future Perfect; and in I'ussivo 
and'oeponent verbs,/(5;'e with the Perfect Participle may bo used with the same 

force : 

DIco me satis adcptnm fore, I say that IsJiull have oUained enough. Cic. 

3. FuTURU.M FUI8SB UT wiTU SUBJUNCTIVE.— /'j}*fo-w»n/«iSse lit with the Sub- 
junctive may be used in Iho conclusion of a conditional sentence of the third form 
when i.iade dependent: 

Nisi nuntil essent allati, existlmabant fiiturnm fuisse, ut nppidum amitterC'tur, 
They thought that the town would have been lost, if tidings had not been brougli*. 
Caes. See 533. 2. 



II. Subject of Infinitive. 



E^IE XLIX.-STil)ject. 

545. The Subject of an Infinitive is put in the Ac- 
cusative : 

Scntimus calerc ignem, We perceive that fire is hot. Cic. riatOncm 
TSrcntum vguisse repfiiio, I find that Plato came to Tarentum. Cic. 

1. HiSTOUicAL INPINITIVE.-In Hvelj description the lufinitive is some- 
times used for the Indicative Imperfect. It is then called the Historical lu- 
liuitive, and, like a finite verb, has its subject in the Nominative: 

llostes gaesa conjicfire, The enemy hurled their javelins. Caes. 
The Historical Infinitive may often be explained by supplying coepit or coepi- 
runt ; but in most instances it is better to treat it simply as an idiom of the larguagc. 

2. Subject Omitted.— The Subject of an Infinitive may be omitted : 
1) When it denotes the same person or thing as the subject of the prin- 
cipal clause, or may be readily supplied from the context : 

Magna D6gotia volunt agSre, Theywuh to accomplish great undcrtaUngs. 
Cic. Peccare licet nemiui, It is not lawful for any one to sin. CiC. 






INFINITIVE. 



;^E. — In- 
locutiou 
•Present 
istorical 

'ot (I hope 
ifiiiit llan- 
ould I'CVOU 



he Sulijunc- 
:r necfcssiiry 
vs. 

lieSiib;imc- 
(1 in I'usbivo 
,h the same 

>7t. Cic. 

ith the Sub- 

[) third form 

amittorC'tiir, 
•en hrouglii. 



253 



the Ac- 

riatoncm 
Cic. 

ve is some- 
istorical lu- 
es. 

pit or coepE- 

the larguagc. 

I omitted : 
of the prin- 

ndertaHngs. 
ic. 



2) When it is indefinite or general : 

Dlirgi jucundum est, li is pleasant to be loved. Cic. 

3. IxFiNiTivE Omittkd.-^,,. and futsse are often omitted in th. 

III. Predicate after Infinitivs. 

546. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after an Infinitive 
r Wy agrees with the Subject/expressed or undemood 

i..^ ^*'T >"« Pl^Miam esse mallem, I should prefer to he P/ddias. Cic. TrSdl- 
IZ Z "^'"'^""^ ,<='^^^"'» f"i««°. ^^ '''«* beer, handed down oy tradition^ 
ttoe), Jugurtha was dear to all. Sail. -^ 

whf f ^nv ^/^^'^^^P ^?".n «!' Adjective, after an Infinitive 
inatTe ote:r""''' " ^'^'^^ ^"^'^^^^^^ "^^^ ^^^ ^-- 
\^oh}\\^ attracted into the Nominative to agree with the Snb- 

1. This occurs most frequently (1) after verbs of di>ty, ability couraae 
custom, denre, beginning, continuing, ending, and the likildebeotpolm 
audeo, soleo, cup.o, volo, mulo, nolo, inclpio, pergo, desino, etc ."Id S 

like di^r: -r7 '"■'' '' '"'''''' ''--'^i-9, finding, seaming Zl the 
hke-dicor, trador,leror-credor, existlmor, putor-repSrior-vfdeor etc 

Quisscientior esse debuit, Who ough'Ao liave been mcyrelearned^^ Cic 
Parens dici potest, //. can he catted a parent. Cic. Stoicus esse vfiluit //^ 

C.C. Inventor esse dicitur, Ih is said to be the inventor. Cic Prudent 

•sse putabatur, //. was thought to be prudent. Cic. 

2. Participles in the compound tenses of the Infinitive are also attraoted • 
Polhcltus esse dicitur, He is said to have promised. Cic. 

fo tl!I'T7l'-® Predicate Noun or Adjective is sometimes attracted in- 

the att«r i^n ^? ^f '" '^'^"^ ^ ^^^''^ ^^ *^« P^-'^^'P^J clause wh?„ 
the latter denotes the same pvi .son or thing as the omitted Subject : 

^> Jf^il^Jl^i'"^ plebis fiSri non lIcsDbat, It was not lawful for a mtri, 

rft^fS'% tj "-^ f'^" J^^*'^^''- ^'''- Mihi negligeuti esse aon iicuit 
It was not permuted me to be negligent. Cic. ' 

1(^ 



' ( 




254 



INFINITIVE. 



s 
i 

' ! 



1 This Is rarfi, but is the regular construction after licet, ond sometimes occiiTS 
after n<>ceH>te est, when used after licet, and occasionally in other connections : 

nils tiniidis licet esse, nobis necesse est fortibua viris esse, It ia permitted them 
to be timid, it ia necessary /or ua to he brave men. Li v. But, 

2. Even with Licet the attraction does not always take place : 

Ei consulem lieri licet, It ia lawful /or him to be made consul. Caes. 

IV. CONSTKUCTION OF THE INFINITIVE. 

548. The Infinitive, with or without a Subject, has in 
general the construction of a Noun in the Nominative or 
Accusative, and is used, 

I. As a Nominative—Subject of a Verb. 
II. As an Accusative — Object of a Verb. 
ITT. In Special Constructions. 

J. Infinitive as /Subject. 

649. The Infinitive, with or without a Subject, is often 
used as a Nominative, and is thus made the Subject of a 
sentence, according to Rule III. : 

With Subject.— FScinus est vinciri civem Romaiuiin, That a Jiomaii 
citizen should be bound is a crime. Cio. Certum est lib6ros amari, It is cer- 
tain that children are loved. Quint, Legem brSvem esse oportet, It is neces- 
sary that a law be brief. Sen. 

Without Subject.— Ars est difficilis rem pnblicam r6g6re, To rule a 
stateis a diffimlt art. Cic. Carum ecsejOcundum est, It is pleasant to be held 
dear. Cic. Ilaec scire jiivat, To hioio these things affords pleasure. Sen. 
Peccare licet nCinIni, To sin is not laufulfor any one. Cic. 

1. Infinitive as Subject.— When the subject is an Infinitive, the Predi- 
cate is either (1) a Noun or Adjective with Sum, or (2) an Impersonal verb 
or a verb used Impersonally. See the examples above. 

1) Tempiis = tempestivnm is thus used with the Infinitive: 
Tempus est dicere, It is time io speak: Cic. _ _ 

2. Infinitive as Subject of an iNFiNiTivE.-The Infinitive may be the 
subject of another Infinitive : 

Intclllgi necesse est esse deos, It must be understood that there are gods. 
Cic' Esse deos is the subject oUntelligi, and intelligi esse dcos of necesse est. 

8. Infinitive with DEMONSTUATiVE.-The Infinitive sometimes takes a 
Demonstrative as an attributive in agreement with it -. 

Qutbusdam hoc displicct philSsophari, This philosophizing (this to phi- 
losophi/.e) displeases some' persom. Cic. Yiv6re ipsum turpe est nObis, Io 
live is itself ignoble for 'US. C\c. . 

4 Pkrsonm. constuuction for iMPEnsoNAt.-With Passive verbs, in- 
Btead of the Infinitive with a subject accusative, a Personal conaiructiou .i 



i V. 






times occurs 
lions : 
nniUed them 



!S. 



ct, has in 
mative or 



t, is often 
)ject of a 

at a Eomaii 
jiri, It is cer- 
t, It is neces- 

e, To rule a 
ant to he held 
leaaure. Sen. 



re, the Predi- 
>ersonal verb 



B may be the 

here are gods. 
of nccesfie est. 

,imc3 takes a 

J (this to plii- 
est nobis, 7b 

ve verbs, in- 
jDsirucliuu >s 



INFINITIVE. 



255 



vo 



iiise 



common, by which the Subject Anp„=„r i 

of the leading verb : ^ ^ccusatzvo becomes the Subject Nomiuuti 

Aristidesjustissimusfuisse tr-TflTf „../'<• ^ ■. , 



iZ Infinitive as Object. 



«sefa^a?lccta'b I'^"' "^Y'"'""'/ ^"''J^Ms often 
verb, accordtg to R„?e V """ """^"^ ^l^^ "''J^"' "^ >^ 

III. W.th Verbs of Emotion and Feciin|' 

»f 11.0 n,i,.d : ainkin. beiiolf t!f • '""'»•.'"=•■ »"1 (2) <l.e exorcise 

.*.;;;2i""„: .t;c'°;i::,^*f „^it- -=" - ^'-e „ oo,„„„. 



— T 



■^- ■ ov, *^^^j|!lS*f^f!^!S5*l'«^'»i5^ 



256 



INFINITIVE. 



I ';i 






with ma f,H, report ..r», WK. «»», I »m . wltaM = I te.tliy; ««»«(« 

"•'"S^ :r— i«7».».. t« - te.t,3, r<» «™ <. »'^- (=" tcUW 
«la^ no ^m<e>i r&Um, luia been made to me. Cic. 

4 Participle for INPINITIVE.-Verbs of Perceiving take the Accusative 
with ihe" eseat Participle, .-hen the object is to be represented as actually 

^"'* 5 Subjects CoMPAUED.-When two subjects with the same predicate 
are compared by means o^ quam, ider.v-qui, etc. •. if the Accusative with the 
TfinitTve is used in the first clause, the Accusative with its Infinitive omitted 

'^^^Z:'^^::^ .-sisse. quod P5-th.goram. TKey say iUt Plato 
held the same opinion as Pythagoras. Cic. _ 

6 PREmcATES CoMPARED.-When two predicates with the same subject 
are compared and the Infinitive with a Subject is used in the first clause, the 
Infinitive with its subject omitted often follows in the second : 

Num ^iltatis, dixLe Antuninm minacius quam factarum fui.se i). you 
think Antony spoke more threateningly than he would have acted ? Cic 

But the second clause may take the Bubjuncti ve, with or without ut : 

S o d Sre ip OS potius cultores aRrorum fore quam ut coli prohibeant, I dare 
say tTattCZ^^elL^es become UUers of tke JieMs rather than prevent tk.n 
from being tilled. Liv. 

11 With Verbs op Wishing and DESimNG.-Thc Infinitive witb 
9ubiect Acci sative is also used with verbs of Wishinc, and Dcs^rv^g 

•"Te tua S virtute cupimus, We desire that you should enjoy f^rmr' 
le tua nui vuuH v > ^ j ^j^^ j^-^ ^^ be broken down 

X;t';he bn^'iThaVrb^oken down). C.cs Lex can. necari v.tuit. 
The law forbade that he should be put to death. Liv. 

1 Verbs op WisniNG.-The Infinitive is thus used not only with verbs 
which directly express a wish, cupio, rolo, nolo, malo, etc., but also with 
Lny which nvolve a wish or command : ya^/o., «z«o, Ic permit; vnpero, 
jUheo, to command ; prohiieo, veto, to forbid. See also 558. .1. 

2. Scbjunctive for iNFiNiTivE-Several verbs involving a wish or 
command admit the Subjunctive : 

2] ?S mmo'Sl!; impero, and jdbeo admit the Subjunctive, generally with 

**' "'y61o ut rcspondoas, / wish you uouM reply. Cic. Muio to hostls mStuat, / 
mrefer that the enemy should fear you. Cic. ? v- „M^^.^ -ivfth Mi • 

^ 8) Con^Mo, pennitto, rarely pdtior and ,v5«r>, admit the Subjunctive ^^ ith ut. 
Conccdo ut hacc apta bint, J admit that time things arc suitable. Oc. 

TTT Wtth Vfubs op Emotion or FEELiNG.-The Infinitive with Sub- 
jecfAccusatiVe is also used with verbs of £moilon or Feehnff: 



INFINITIVE. 



257 



■; consottu 

can testify) 

\ccusativo 
as actually 

'.he librnry. 

3 predicate 
\'Q with the 
ive omitted 



tlat Plato 



ame subject 
t clause, the 

jse, Do you 
f Cic. 

It: 

beant, I dare 

orevent them 



initive witb 
siring ' 
oy your viv 
broken down 
lecari vfituit, 



y with verbs 
I't also with 
mit; impero, 

ig a wish or 



generally with 
astis mStuat, / 
stlvo with tit : 

6. CJC. 

tivc with Sub- 



Gnudco, te mihi suadSre, I rejoice that you advise me. Cic. Miramur, 
te laetaii, [Ve wonder that you rejoice. Cic. 

Verbs of emotion are gaudeo, doteo, mlror, quiror, and tho like ; also aegre 
fSro, ffidvUei'/iSro, etc 

552. Infinitivj^ 'vithout Subject Accusative.— This 
is used as Object with many verbs: 

VinciSre scis, You know how to conquer (vou know to conquer). Liv. 
CriH^'iU esse coeperunt, They began to be credulous. Cic. Haec vi^'ire cu- 
punud, We desire to avoid these things. Cic. Solent cogitare, Thei/ art 
accustomed to think. Cic. Nemo mortem eflugSre pctest, No one is able to 
escape death. Cic. 

1. Verbs with the Infinitive.— The Infinitive may depend upon verba 
signifying to dare, desire, determine— begin, continue, end— know, learn, neg- 
lect— owe, x>ronuse, etc., also to he able, be accustomed, be wont, etc. 

2. Infinitive as a Second Object.— With a few vevha—doceo, c5go, as- 
swfdcio, arguo, etc.— the Infinitive is used in connection with a direct object; 
see 374. 4 : 

Te sapgre docet, He teaches you to be tvise. Cic. Nationes parSre assue- 
fecit, lie accustotned the nations to obey. Cic. 

In the Passive these verbs of course retain the Infinitive: 

Num sum Graece loqui docendus, Must I be taught to sjjeak Greek t Cic. 

S. Infinitive after Adjectives.— By a construction according to sense, 
the Infinitive is used after adjectives in the sense of participles or verbs with 
the Infinitive : 

Est pSratus {vtdt) audire, Tie is prepared to hear (is willing to hear). Cic. 

relidcs cedfire nescius (= nesciens), Pelidesnot. knowing how to yield. 
Hor. Avidi committfire pugnam, eager to engage battle. Ovid. 

This construction is rare in good prose, but common in poetry. 

4. Infinitive with PitEPOsirioNS.— The Infinitive regarded as a noun in 
the accusative, sometimes depends upon a preposition : 

Multum int6 -"St inter dare et accipfirc, There is a great difference between 
giving and receiving. Sen. 

III. Injinitive in Special Constructions. 

553. The Infinitive, vrith or without a Subject^ is i;'en- 
crnlly used as the Subject or Object of a verb, but some- 
times occurs in other relations. It is thus used, 

I. As Predicate ; see 3G2 : 

E.xttus fuit orationis: s!bi nullam cum "-.is il dcltiam. The close of Ms 
oration was that he had no friendship with thef... Caes. Vivgre est cogitare. 
To live is to think. Cic. 

^li'TQ Mi— dmicltinm is used fiibsiar, lively, and is tho I redicitc Noiiiinatlve 
aftur/««, according to Kulo I. Cot/iture is iu the same ooustruction after est. 



■Ni 



258 



INFINITIVE. 



. "'II 



I' 



II. As Appositive ; see 363 : 

OrSciilum datum firat victrlces AthiSnas ftJre, Tie orach that Athens 
would be viciorioua had been gice/i. Cic. Ulud soleo mliari non tne acclpfeio 
tuaa littfiras, / am accustomed to wonder at this, that I do not receive your 
Utter. Cic. 

1. With Subject.— In this construction tho lufinitive tukes a subject accugative, 
<i8 in the examples. 

2. Explanation.— In tlio examples, tlie clause victrlcea AtMnas fire is in np- 
poKition witli ordculum, and the clause non me accipSre tuaa lUtiraa, in apposition 
with Utud. 

III. In Exclamations ; see 381 : 

Te sic vexari, that you should be ihns troubled! Cic. Mcne incepto d6- 
sist6re victam, that I vanquished should abandon my undertaking! Virg. 

1. With Subject.— In this construction tho Infinitive tiikcs a Subject, as in the 
examples. 

2. Explanation.— This use of the Infinitive conforms, it will be observed, to tho 
use of Accusative and Nominative in exclairiiiuona (381, 881. 8). It may often be ex- 
plained as an Accus. by supplying some verb, as df>leo, etc., or as a Nora, by supplying 
credendum est or credlblle eat. Thus the liist < xatiiplo becomes : / grieve (doleo) 
tliat you, etc., and the second becomes: Is it to be au^^posed (credendum est) that 1 
vanquished, etc. 

8. Impassioned Questions.— This construction is most frequent in impassioned 
questions, as in the second example. 

IV. As Ablative Absolute. See 431. 4. 

V. To express Purpose : 

rScus 6git altos vIsSre montes, He drove his herd to visit the lofty moun- 
tains. Ilor. Non populare pfeuates veulmus. We have not come to lay waste 
your homes. Virg. 

This construction is confined to poetry. 

VI. Poetic Infinitive for Gerund. See 563. 6. 



V 






SECTION IX. 

SUBJECT AND OBJECT CLAUSES. 

654. Subject and Object Clauses, in which, as we have 
just seen (549 and 550), the Infinitive is so freely used, 
assume four distinct forms : 

I. Indirect Questions.— These represent tlie Subject 
or Object as Interroyatice in character : 

Quaeiitur, cur dissentiant, It is asked wliy they disagree. Cic. Quid 
io'cadum sit. nescio, I do not knoio what ought to be done. Cic. See 525. 



1j 
I 

F 





b 



SUBJECT AND OBJECT CLAUSES 



259 



at Athena 
B acclpfero 
xive your 

accusative, 

ve is in np- 
apposition 



iicepto d6- 
Virg. 

zi, as in the 

rved, to tho 
)ften be ex- 
y supplying 
iete (doled) 
I est) that 1 

mpassioned 



ofty moun- 
lay waste 



II. LxriNiTivE Clauses.— These have simply the force 
ot Nouns, merely supplying tlie place of the Nominative, 
or the Accusative : * 

AntScellfire contlgit, ft was his good fortune to excd (to excel happened). 
Ci'c SeS "sS""' ^^'^'''' ^^' """'^'"^ ^ ""'''''' ^'"^ undertakings. 

III. PuRruNCTivE Clauses.— These clauses introduced 
by tit, ni etc., are only occasionally used as subject or ob- 
ject, and even then involve Purpose or Result : 

.., ?""^' v",* P""*""!" ^'"'^^^Sret, It wau his good fortune to save his coun- 
4yii, 4'Jo. 

Ilere ut-vindUdret is at once subject and result : it was his good fortune to save 
his country or h,s good fortune was such that he saved his country. In the second 
of Sesi'rt''''*^""'^''^ expresses not only the object desired, but also the purpose 

• ^X' ^^'^^^^^^ y?™ Quod.— These ai^ain are only occa- 
sionally used as subject or object, and even then either mve 

KeTson^"''^ ^'^ ^''''^ ^^''^''^' ""'' ^'"'''^''^ '^ ""^ ^ ^^"^"^^^ o^' 
to dJ!^t?"'T 'f "^'"'^f''''' ««t '"^". -^i ^ « i^essing that it is necessary 

':';.f;;;«.''ct7e: t!^ '''^^^^"^^'' ''^'''' '-' ^^---^ ^ ^-^ ■^•- 



we have 
ily used, 

Subj'ect 

Cic. Quid 

3ee 525. 



I. FoEMs OF Subject Clauses. 

555 Interrogative.— Subject clauses which are in- 
terrogative in character, of course take the form of indlect 
questions. See 525. 2 and 554, I. maiieci 

55Q. Not Interrogative,— Subject clauses which are 
not interrogative, with some predicates take the form of 
Inhnitive clauses, or clauses with qmd : while with oTer 

by the Jr..limtivo with or without u Subject Accusativel'onVu- 



m 



'IV 

ill ■' 



I 



'!l 



i 'V 



1, 11 '|i 
i I I 



•■ 'i 

> 1 ii 



* If- 



t , ., 



i:^ 




2G0 



SUBJECT AND OBJECT CLAUSES. 



tlio fact i^ to 1)0 made prominent or adduced as a reason, Ly a 
clause with quod: 

Me poeiiJtet vixisse, 7 reffret that I have lived. Cic. Quod te offendi m« 
pocnitet, 1 regret that (or because) I have offended you. Cic. 

1 8TTB8TANTIVB PREDICATES WITH SUBJUNCTIVE.— MoS CSt, morls CSt, COnSUiS. 

tudo Jst, cousuctudiuis est, It u a cmtom, etc., admit the Subjuuctivo for the Inlin- 

Mos est homlnum ut nolint, It is a cutitom of men that tUy are not willing. 

Cic. , . . 

2. Adjkotivb Predicates with SuBJUNCTivE.-rvJHquum est, pro-ximum est, 
extreinum est-vOrura est, verisimile est, falsum est-glOriOsum est, mirum est, opti- 
mum est, etc., admit the Subjunctive for the Infinitive : 

Euliquum est ut certemus, it remains that we contend. Cic Vorum est ut 
b6nos diligant, It in true that they love the good. Cic, 

II. With Impersonal verbs signifying to ^ff;?;?cn— accidit, con- 
tmgit, cvenit, fit— w^, ut non, with the Subjunctive, is generaUy 
used (495. 2) : 

ThrasybQlo conilgit, ut patriam vindic5ret, It was the good fortune of 
Thrasyhuius (happened to bim) to deliver his country. Nep. 

1. Here belong accedit ut, est utJMHrnm esse ut, or f>r6 ut. See 544. 

2. Clauses with quod also occur with verbs of happening. 

III. With Impersonal verbs signifying it follows, remains, is 
distant, and tlie like, the Subjunctive clause with ut is generally 
used : 

Rglinquitur, ut quiesc5mu8, It remains that we should submit. Cic. 
Sec 495. 2. 

IV. Subjunctive clause standing alone. See 495. 2. 2). 

II. FoEMS OF Object Clauses. 

557. Interrogative. — Object clauses which are inter- 
rogative in character, of course, take the form of indirect 
questions. See 554. 1. 

558. Not Interrogative.— Object clauses which are 
not interrogative in character, supplying the place of direct 
objects after transitive verbs, sometimes take the form of 
Infinitive clauses, sometimes of Subjunctive clauses, and 
Bometimes of clauses with quod. Thus, 

I. Verbs of declaring take, 

1. Regularly the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. See 

551. I. , .v • 1 

2. But the Subjunctive with ut or ne, when tney involve a 

command : 



3on, l)y a 
tfifendi mt 

sst, consuG« 
r tho lulin- 

ot willing. 

xTmum est, 
m est, opti- 

rum est ut 

Mit, con- 
geuerully 

fortune of 
14. 

^mains, is 
generally 

idmit- Cic. 
2). 



ire inter- 
indirect 



liich are 

of direct 

form of 

laes, and 



ive. Seo 
involve a 



OBJECT O.AUSES. 



261 



DSISbellac dixit, ut ad mc scrlbfiret ut in ItSliam vfinlreni, Ife toUDola- 
lella to write to me to come into Italy. Cic. See 4D2. 2. 

liko^^akl""'^^ °^ DETERMINING, statuo, constUuo, decerno, and the 

♦1 .^•.?,'^"®''^"^.*^® Infinitive, when the suhject is the same as 
that of the principal verb, rarely the Subjunctive: 

M&nCre dCci Cvit, Le determined to remain. Nep. Statu6runt, ut libcrtS- 
tern dOleiuidient, They determined to defend liberty. Cic. See 551. II. 

2. The Subjunctive with ut or ne (expressed or understood), 
when anew subject 18 introduced: 

Constrtufirat, ut tilbunus qu6r6iCtur, lie had arranged that the tribune 
thould enter the complaint. Sail. S6natus deci Cvit, dSrent opgiam consiiles 
I he senate decreed that the consuls should attend to U. Sail. Sec 492. 3. 

Sidtuo, dicerno, etc., when tLey mean to think, deem, mppose, etc., become 
verba sentiendl (r>51. I. 1), and of course trikc tho iiinnitive: 

Laudein suplentiae stutuo esse Uiuximuiu. / deem it to be the highest praise of 

III. Verbs of stkivino, exdeavorino, take the Subjunctive 
with ut or ne. bee 492. 1. IJut contcndo, nttor, studeo, and tento, 
generally take the Inhnitive when tho subject is the same : 

L6enm oppugnaic contendit, He proceeds to storm the city. Caes. Ton- 
tabo de hoc dicfiie, / will attempt to speak of this. Quint. See 552. 

^ IV. Verbs of causino, making, accomplisuino, take the Sub- 
junctive with ut, nc, ut nan. Seo 41)2, 495. 

1. Examples.— Facio, efflcio, pcrflcio— Sdipiscor, impctro— assfiquor, 
consSquor, and sometimes f6ro, are examples of verbs of this class. 

2. Facio and EFFicio.—Fucio in the sense of assume, suppose, takes the 
Infinitive ; tfkio in the sense o( prove, show, either the Inlinitive or the Sub- 
junctive with t/t, etc. : 

Fitc aiiimos iion rgmaiiCre post mortem, Assvme that souls do not suniv« 
after death. Cic. Vult cH'Icore anlmos esse mortiiles, //e mV ' to show thai 
souls are mortal. Cic. 

V. Verbs of emotion or feeling, whether of joy or sorrow, 
take, 

1. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative, to express the Ob- 
ject in view of which the feelinuc is exercised. See 551. III. 

2. Clauses with quod, to make more prominent the Reason for 
the feeling: 

Gaudeo qiiod te intei'pellavi, I rejoice that (or because) l?t,ave interrupt'- 
ed you. Cic. D6;ehain quod socium amisferam, I was grieving hecaxise I had 
I'M a companion. Cic. See 520. I. 

For Verbs of Desiring, see 551. II. 2. 

Vx. Verbs of askinq, demanding, advising, wabning, com- 



202 



OBJECT CLAUSES. GERUNDS. 



' H 

f h 



^^r 



';i 




MANDiNO, and tho like, take the Sul»junctivo, generally with ut 
or ne: 

Oro lit hSiiiIiics mtMiroa conserves, 7 implore that you would preserve the 
unhappy men. Cic. rostuluut ut signuui detur, They dmaand that the si(j- 
nal be yicen. Li v. See 41)2. 2. 

1. Examples.— Verbs of t'-is cinssnro numerous— tho foUowins nro examples: 
firo, r(')(i<», pi'to, prec(>r, obsocro— llajrito, postulo, prauclpio— lioitor, luouto, buailwo, 
persiiudeo— iaipello, iiicito, nioveo, coiumoveo. 

2. Used as Veuba DECLAKANn.— Soino of these verbs in particular significa- 
tions become verba deddranai (651. 2), and accordingly take the Inlliiitivo with 
Subject Accusative: thus mOneo, in the sense of retnUtU ixad pern uddeo in the sonso 
of convince. 

8. Infinitive.— Even in their ordinary sifjniflcations some of these verbs, espe- 
cially hortor, moneo, and poitulo, sometimes take tho luliuilivo with or without a 
Bubject Accusative: 

Poslulat se absolvi, He demands that he should he acquitted. Cic. See 551. 
II. 1 and 2. 

Tho Infinitive is much more common in poetry than in prose. 



SECTION X. 

GERUND. 

559. The Gerund is a verb in force, but a noun in form 
and intiection. As a verb it governs oblique cases and 
takes adverbial modifiers, as a noim it is itself governed. 

560. The Gerund Las four cases : Genitive, Dative, Ac- 
cusative, and Ablative, governed like nouns in the same sit- 
uation : 

Beate vivendi ciipidilate incensi siimus, We are animated ivith the desire 
of living happily. Cic. Clmrta inutilis scribeudo, jiaper unfit for toritimj. 
Plin. Ad agendum uatus, W/i/oJ'ac^iOW. Cic. Yw^'gcwiXo, in acting. Cic. 

1. Accusative.— The Accusative of the Gerund is used only ailer Prepo- 
sitions. 

2. Gerund and Infinitive. — The pernnd and the infinitive are kindred 
forms, expressing the meaning of the verb in the form of a noun (196. II.). 
They are also complements of each other, the one supplying the parts which 
are wanting in the other. Thus the infinitive supplies the nominative and 
the accusative after verbs (54'>); the gerund supplies the genitive, dative, 
and ablative, and the accusative after prepositions. 

561. Gerunds with Direct Objects are regularly used 
only in the Genitive and in the Ablative without a prepo- 
sition : 

Jus v3candi ^'k\\^\\\vn, the rigid of summoning the senate. Liv. Injurias 
f 6rcndo laudeni niereberis, I'uu will merit praise by hcurinc/ wrongs. Cic. 



GKBUJJDS AND GERUNDIVES. 



203 



r Tt Ohi;.^? Tl V'^ P^'^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^'""^1 With a Di- 
r.Pt Object 18su]»|.1ku1 by putting tlmt object in the case 
o the Gerund and cl,an,^ing the laltor into the part pie a 

/.m.^ /.. de.tro:/u^^ the o/y (of the city to be destroyed). Tic. Nu.im 1 

z^X^ri^. """"" '"^'^"' ^''"^ ^"^^ '^ "'^^"^^^'^ '' ''' ^-"^■ 

1. ExPLANAT,o.v._With the Gcrund, the fust example would be : InUa 
iunt eonnha vrbem delendi, in which dUendi is governed by consUia, aud 
nrbern hjMi. I„ changing this to the Gerundive construction, / 

goverLdtr' '^?f ''' " '""''' "'""'"' ''' "" ^'''° ^'""'^'^' "''' •* 

2) Z)?/e«c/, , the gerund, is changed into dskndae, thr Mndive. in agree- 
ment with urots. ° 

«nlv't?'-'''"r'';r^n'' "'" ''''° °^ '"'"'"^' ^'^^ ^^'•'» G^''«r>'uve is used not 
ing both the participle and the noun with which it agrees 

3. Use of GERi:.v„ivE.-The Gerundive may b^e used for the Gerund 
with a Direct Object, and is almost invariably so used when the ( run J 
would bo m the Dative or would depend upon a preposition. But see 503. 2. 

Bnt in a few Instances the Gerund with a Direct Object occurs in the Dative or 
dependent upon a prepositioa See 564. 1 ; 565. 2 ; and 566. 2. 

4. Geuuxdives op ctou, Fui-on, etc-Iu general only the gerundives 
of transitive verbs are used with their nouns as cquiviilents for Gerunds 
with Direct Objects; but the goruudivcs o{ Utor, fruor, frnffor, potior, and 
vcscor, originally transitive verbs, admit this construction: 

Ad munus img^ViAmn,for dischar(iin,j the duty. Cic. Spes p<5tiundo. 
rum castrOrum, tJie Jiope of gctthg possession of tie camp. Oaes. 

5. Passive Sexse.-Iu a few instances, the Gerund has in anpcarance a 
passive sense : ' 

N6que hSbent propriam percrpiendi noi^m, Nor have tl^u any proper 
mark of dtstindion, i. e., to distinguish them. Cic. 



I. Genitive op Geiiunds and Gerundives. 

663. The Genitive of the Gerund or Gerundive is used 
with nouns and adjectives: 

GERrxD.-Ars Vivendi, <;..ar^o/;mny. Cic. Stiidiosus 6rat audiendi 
Ik was desirous of hearing. Nep. Jus vScandi sfinatum, the right of sum. 
momng the senate. Li v. CiipWus te audiendi, desirous of hearing you Cic 

^ OKnuxnivE.-Libido ejus videndi, the desire of seeing him. Cic. PliitOnis 
Btudiwsus audiendi fuit, ]h was fond of hearing I'Mo. Cic. 





IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGi-T (MT-3) 




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264 



GERUNDS AND GERUNDIVES. 



1. The genitive of the Gerund or Gerundive occurs most frequently— 

1) With ars, scientia, consuetudo,— cupidlias, libido, studium, consilium, 
voluntas, spes,— pOtestas, facultus, difl'icultas, occSsio, tempua,— gfinus, mO' 
dus, ratio, — causa, gratia, etc. 

2) With adjectives denoting deeire, J:nowledge, still, recollection, and 
their opponitts: Svidus, ciipldus, studiOsus— conscius, gnSrus, ignSrus— p6ri- 
tus, impfiiitus, insuetus, etc. 

2. Geuund prefeured.— a gerund with a neuter pronoun or adjective as 
olyect should not be changed to the participial construction, because the lat- 
ter could not distinguish the gender: 

Artem vera ac falsa dijudicandi, the art of distinguishing true things 
from the false. Cic. 

8. Gerund with Genitive.— The Gerund in the Genitive sometimes as- 
sumes so completely the force of a noun as to govern the Genitive instead cf 
the Accusative : 

Rcjiciendi judicum potestas, the power of challenging (of) the judges. 
Cic. 

Ilore rejlriendi may bo governed by potestas, and may itself by its substantive 
force fiov cm judlouin, the challcng:ngof the judges, etc. But these and similar forms 
in cli are sometimes explained not as Gerunds but as Gerundives, like Gerundives 
with mei, nostri, etc. See 4 below. 

4. Participial Construction with mei, nostri, etc.— With the Geni- 
tive cf personal pronouns— »^e^•, nodri, tut, vestri, «wi— the participle ends ;u 
di without reference to Number or Gender : 

Copia placaudi tui {of a woman), an opportunity of appeasing you. Ov. 
Sui conservandi causa, /or the purpose of preserving themselves. Cic. Vestri 
adhortandi causa,/tfr the purpose of exhorting you. Liv. 

This apparent irregularity may be accounted for by the fact that these genitives, 
though used as Personal Pronouns, are all strictly in form in the neuter sinculur of 
the Possess! ves meum, tuum, auum, etc., hence the participle in di agrees with them 
perfectly. 

5. Purpose.— The Genitive of the Gerund or Gerundive is sometimes 
used to express Purpose or Tendency: 

Haec tradendae Hannibaii victoriae sunt. These things are for the purpose 
of giving victory to Hannibal. Liv. L6ges pellendi ciaros viros, laws for 
driving away illustrious men. Tac. Pi 6f iciscitur cognoscendae autiquitatis, 
lie sets out for the purpose of studying antiquity. Tac. 

This genitive is somt'times best explained as Predicate Genitive (401), as in the 
first example; sometimes as dependent upon a noun, as /Je/Zewrfi dependent upon liges 
in tlie second example; and sometimes simply as a Genitive of Cause (.393, 409. 4), as 
In tlie third example; though in such cases, especially in the second and third, caw«« 
m.iy be supplied. 

6. Infinitive for Gerund.— The Infinitive for the Genitive of the 
Gerund or Gerundive is often used in the poets with nouns and adjectives, 
sometimes even \a prose : 

Ciipido Stygios iunare lacus, the desire to sail upon the Stygian lakes. 
Virg. Avidus committcre pugnam, eager to engage battle. Ovid. 



GERUNDS AND GERUNDIVES. ogg 

IT. Dative op Gerunds and Gerundives. 
Dative: adjectives which regularly govern tho 

m. Accusative of Gerunds akd Gekundives. 

1. Prepositions. — The Accnsif^im nf ♦»,„ 3 

so.:u:::rrsX;^!t^ «^ ^ ^--^ ^HH a airect object 

Ad placandum deo3 portr„et. li tends to appease the gods. Cic. 

tiie Ue.undive in agreement with a noun • ' ^ 

«'/o™il'>;"l"Z'!'' i^f'tr-, "°",""" """'■ ~ -""^ "» »'» «« 



2G6 



suriNE. 



IV. Ablative of Gerunds or Gerundives. 



566. The Ablative of the Gerund or Gerundive is used, 

1. As Ablative of Means or Instrument : 

Gerund.— Mens discendo Slltur, The mind is nourished ly learning. Cic. 
Salutcm hSmlnibua dando, by gioing safety to men. Cic. 

Gerundivb.— L6gendia oratorlbus, hy reading the orators.- C\c. 

II. With Prepositions : 

GEECND.—Virtutescernuntur in agendo, Virtues are seen, in action. Cic. 
Dcterrore a scribendo, to deter from writing. Cic. 

Gekundive.— Brutus in liberanda patria est interfectus, Brutus was slain 

in liberating ?iis country. Cic. 

1 PREPOSiTioNS.-The ablative of the gerund or gerundive is used most 
frequently after in ; sometimes after a (ab), de, ex (e) ; very rarely after 

cum and pro. j vn 

2. With Object.— After prepositions, the ablative of the gerund with a 

direct object is exceedingly rare : 

In tribuendo suum culque, in giving every one his own. Cic. 

3 Without a Preposition, the ablative of the gerund or gerundive de- 
notes" in a few instances some other relation than that of means, as time, 

separation, etc. : • r-- 

Incipiendo r6fugi, I drew back in tlie very beginning. Cic. 

SECTION XL 

SUPINE. 

567. The Supine, like tlie Gerund, is a verb in force, 
but a noun in form and inflection. As a verb it governs 
oblique cases, as a noun it is itself governed. 

568. The Supine has but two cases : the Accusative in 
um and the Ablative in u. 

RULE L.— Supine in Urn. 

569. The Supine in itm is used after verbs of mo- 
tion to express purpose : 

Legati venerunt res rSpetltum, Deputies came to demand restiliUion. 
Liv. Ad Caesarem congrntulutura convenerunt, T/vey came to Caesar to 
congratulate him. Cacs. 

1. The Supine in urn occurs in a few instances after verbs wMch do not directly 
«sprcs8 motion : 






sis used, 

rning. Cic. 
!ic. 

action. Cic. 

\us was slain 

sused most 
rarely after 

irund with a 

jrundive de- 
ina, aa time, 



) in force, 
: governs 

iusative in 



3S of mo- 

id rcsiilwtion. 
to Caesar to 

do not directly 









PAKTICirLDS. 267 

the simple verb : ^ " "•* ''''^ ^'-'"''^ ^'^ is often used for 

Brutum Visum Tri a me puto, It/Unk Brutus wUl he seen ly me Cic 

of Spldlicllron "(S2") :'" " '' S'''"^™"y "^^'' »« "" Ablative 

^) By a Fmite Mood -with an adierh ■ Nnn f.v.n„ ^••- ,- -. - 
*..«^.c. ^. is not easy to detect (is not eSily detect^. S^ ''" """ ''^'"^' '''''• 



SECTION XII. 

PAETICIPLES. 

I. Texses of Paeticiples. 

Oculu. se non videos aiia ccrnit, The eye, tUovgh it does not see itself (not 



^ Y^'nyiiB 



im«g«!PanHi 



I' 



208 



USE OF PARTICIPLES. 



I 



seeing itself), discerns other things. Cic Plito scrlbcns mortuua est, Bato 
died while writing. Cic. 

573. Future PAr.TiciPLE.— The future active parti-^ 
ciple represents the action as about to take place, in time 
subsequent to that of the principal verb : 

sapiens bSna semper pUcItura laudat. The wise man praises blessings 
which will always please (being about to please). Sen. 

But the Future Passive generally loses in a great de- 
gree its force as a tense, and is often best rendered by a 
verbal noun. See 502 and 580. 

574. Perfect Participle.— The perfect participle rep- 
resents the action as completed at the time of the principal 
verb. 

Uva maturata dulcescit, The grape, when it has ripened (having ripen- 
ed), becomes sweet. Cic. 

1 Tho Perfect Participle, both in Deponent and in Passive verbs, is sometimes 
used of present time, and uometinies in Passive verbs it loses in a great degree its 
force as a tense, and is best rendered by a verbal noun. Bee 5S0. 

2. For the Participle with Jidbeo, see 388. 1. 2). 



! I 



I 



I 



II. Use of Participles. 

575. Participles are verbs in force, but Adjectives in 
form and inflection. As verbs they govern oblique cases, 
as adjectives they agree with nouns ; 

Animus se non videns alia ccrnit, The mind, though it (' not see itself, 
discerns other things. Cic. 

1. Participles in the Present or Perfect, rarely in the Future, may be used as 
adjectives or nouns : scripia fpistola, a written letter ; viortui, the dead. Participles 
with tho force of adjectives may be used as predicate a(\iective3 with sum : occiipali 
irant, they icere occupied; as a verb, had been occupied. 

576. Participles are used to abridge or shorten dis- 
course by supplying the place of finite verbs with relatives 
or conjunctions. They are used with much greater tree- 
dom in Latin than in English. 

577. Participle for Relative Clause. — ^In abridged 
sentences, the Participle often supplies the place of a Ptela^ 
tive Clause : 






s est, Plato 



i'Q parti- 
, in time 



ies blessings 



great de- 
red by a 

ciple rep- 
principal 

iving ripeu- 

is soretimes 
eat degree ita 



»ctives m 
pie cases, 

not see itself, 



lay be used as 
i rarticiples 
um: occitpdti 



orten dis- 
1 relatives 
;ater free- 



abridged 
of a Rela- 



USE OP PAETICIPLES. £09 

,.i,.i?If; ^'"' "T"'"'. i^raoRoiNATE Clauses.— The Parti- 

r^«.iutuo7''ir ''"' ^^^^ "f " ^"bordiuate clause wh 
a conjunciion. It may express 

I. Time : . 

Piato scribenrf mortuug est, Plato died while writina t\\o T*- • • 
proehum canunt, They sin, ^hen alout to go intolmilZ, " '" 

II. Cause, Manner, Means : 

ILL Condition : 

irrltus labor est, If nature opposes, effort is vain. Sen. 

IV". Concession : 

haJhl'^^T *"^^''"" *^'" exspectans, non audco tamen flagltare. TJtouah I 
have been long expecting your wofk, yet Ida not dare to ask/or U. ^7 

V. Purpose : 

to ZulTfo)^^' ^'"* '^/"" *^»t2t"''««. ^''-^eus returned to try (about 
Iw / ^''r^f"^"/ «'«'•• ^^^- Attrlbuit uos trucidandos ChihZ mZ 
signed us to Cethegus to slaughter. Cic. v^einego, ue as- 

nir.i^'^^' ^^^"T^ciPLE FOR Peincipal Clause.— The Parti- 
SeXut"? rP"'^ *^^ J^^^^^ «^ ^ principal or coS- 
fi^ VerHitrlro^r ^^f "^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^'^^^ ^^ ^^ 

conqueTedT nITT ''"'*' f ''t'^^""^'' "'^'^ ''"' ''''^^ ^^^^ the fleet 

p ?.®P-, Participle for Verbal Nori^.— The Passivo 
icquiies a participial noun, or a verbal noun wfth of: 

In amicis eirgendis, in selecting friends. Cic. nSmSrus fuit infp P--> 

581. PiKiicirLE WITH NEGATivi;.-The Participle 




5! 



I 



270 



PABTICLES. 



with a negative, as mow, nihil^ is often best rendered by 
a participial noun and the preposition without: 

MIs6rum est, nihil prof icientern angi, It is sad to be troubled witJiovt 
accamplishing anything. Cic. Non eriibesceaa, without blushing. Cic. 



«»• 



CHAPTER YI. 

SYNTAX OF PARTICLES. 

EXILE LI—TTse of Adverbs. 

582. Adverbs qualify veebs, adjectives, and other 

ADVERBS : 

Sapientea felidter vivunt, The wise live happily. Cic. FScIle doctis- 
etous, unqnesiionably the most learned. Cic. Haud ftllter, not otiierwise. 
Virg. 

683. Adverbs are sometimes used with nouns : 

1. When the nouns are used with the force of adjectives or participles : 
Minlme largitor dux, a leader by no means liberal. Liv. PSpulua late 

rex, a people of extensive sway (ruling extensively). Virg. 

2. When in sense a participle or verb may be supplied : 

Mirius, plane vir, Marius, truly a man. Cic. Omnes circa pSpiili, all 
the surrounding peoples. Liv. See also 353. 2. 

584. The Common Negative Particles art, : non, we, 
haud. 

1. ITmi Is the usual negative, ne is used In prohibitions, wishes and purposes 
(489), and haud, In haud scio an and with adjectives and adverbs ; haud mlrdMle, 
not wonderful ; haud dllter, not otherwise. M for ne is rare. M non after vide is 
often beat rendered whether. 

2. In n<m modo non and in non solum non, the second non is generally omitted 
before sed, or vettim, followed by ne—quidem or vix (rarely itiam), when the verb 
of the second clause belongs also to the first : 

Assentatlo non m6do imico, s«d ne libero quidem dlgna est. Flattery is not 
only not worthy of a friend, but not even of a free man. Cic. 

8. Jfinue often has nearly the force of non; si minus = si non. Sin dllter has 
nearly the same force as si minus. 



PARTICLES. 



lered by 

led witliovt 
g, Cic. 



271 



585. T 



id other 

idle doctis- 
)t otherwise. 

is: 

participles : 
'5pulus iSte 

I pSpiili, all 

: non, we, 

and purposes 
lud mlruMle, 
n after v\d6 is 

erally omitted 
yhen the verb 

battery is not 

Sin dllter has 



WO N-cgatiyes are generally equivalent to 



an 



aflirniative, as in English 

^on.K.I„o, some one; nonnihil, somelM.g,- nonnunquam, sometimes 
Nc^o non, ever^ one ; nihil non, every tking; nan,u2 non aZy7 

nfJ: T ' T""'"^ '''°'""'' ««-*«^""« K'vca emphasis to thL ne -Sn an.l 
niauc-^,,iuenive-nl.e, and the like, repeat tho negation di«tributive1y ' 

Non practereundumcstne idquidem, We must not pass huemnthi. nV v- 

"'"s" /?:nV;f " °'''" '"'f "^"' ^^ ''"'' -«^ --"^'- «Cr oV:;..^^^^^ 

8 .S.C and Ma mean «e,, /Aw«. //„ h^s also a limiting sense in so far which d..<; 
not belong to .Ic as in >^.-„. (508. 4). Acleo^ to such aLreo or result T^t tl 
Up^e, so much, tarn used mostly before adjectives and advo'rbs, and tant^pTe^!^:^, 

586. For the use of Prepositions, see 432 to 437. 

tionf ^ri9?''^Th"^*^ Conjunctions unite similar construe 
lions (309). They comprise live classes : 

I. Copulative Conjunctions denote union : 

ate Zt:^llt^^ ITIZIS^T f • '^"^*"« P^P"^-^-' '^-- 
jc/ei^^e. V.1C. j>iec 6rat diflflclle, hor was it diMcult. Liv 

1. List. See 310. 1. 

relatiLX7™;:„fX;7vf ^""'J' "°°"*^' '^'^'' '"""^ » -«" '"t.mato 
ginning of' ' Bem3 af a'lw ILT ""'' I" ^'""^ '""°"^' ^^^^^"^"^ ^^ '^^ »>- 
....and„.have^i:;cfrr^^^^^^^^^^^ 

«..«eac, equally as; <^nter at.ue] oZZto't^'tl^Z'::; T'' '"'"' ^'°""- 

word' Ti:itTr,s:: i: iiTZ'tr'-^ '' "'^^^^^ -''-''''' *« •-- «^^- 

vowels or consonants. ^ '''^°'"° consonants; atque, either before 

«o,and':"ar:oToireri;i"t'^^^^ 

it connects : is gu^gueZ also EHamSiri *^ '"' '""""' ''° ^'''' ^^"^'^ 
tban ,u.,„. and oL '.MsZ^ZlZtZT'"^ ""' '^ ""° --P-l^ensive 

word or cm^ n'n2lmTnTj.,Y ^"'''"-''"^ ^'^«« prominence tothesecond 
notonty-j,uTaZ nt7(t7xZ' ' 7 T *''"^'™)-««d ^"'^'n (^^rum ^t.am), 



V ^"^ 



272 



FABTICLES. 



omiitcd altogctber, though que may be nsed with tho last even when the conjunction 
is omitted between the others : pax et tranqullMaa et concordia, or pax, tranquil- . 
litan, concordia, or pax, traTtqutintati, concordidque. 

M is often omitted between conditional clauses, except before non. 

II. Disjunctive Conjunctions denote separation: 

Aut vestra aut sua culpa, either your fault, or hit own. Liv. DuSbua 
tribusvo horis, in two or three hours. Cic. 

1. LasT. Bee 810. 2. 

2. Aut, V£L, y^—Aut denotes a stronger antithesis than vet, and must be nsed 
If tho one supposition excludes the other : a ut verum autfalaum, cither true or false. 
r«nmpliesadiffcrence In the expression rather than in the thing. It is generally cor- 
rectlveand is often followed hy jMius. itiam or dlcam: lauddtur vel Mam dmdtur, 
ho is prulBcl, or even (rather) loved. It sometimes means even and sometimes/or 
example. VHut otlen means/or example. Ve for vel is appended as an enclitic. 

In negative clauses aut and te often continue tlie negation : non honor aut vir- 
tiM, neither (not) honor nor virtue. 

8 SivK {8i—vo) does not imply any real difference or opposition; U often con- 
nects different names of the same object: I'allaa alve Minerva, Tailas or Minerva 
(imother name of tho same goddess). 

III. Adversative Conjunctions denote opposition or 
contrast : 

Ciipio me esse cl5mcnlum, sed mo inertiaccondcmno, /icwA to be mild, 
but J condemn myself for inaction. Cic. 

1. List. Sec 310. 8. 

2 DiFFERENCK IN FoBCE.-^etZ and Tcrum mark a direct opposition; antem 
and vera only a transition ; at emphasizes the opposition; aiqui often introduces an 
objection ; cetirum, but still, as to the rest ; tdmen, yet. 

8 Compounds of TAMENare: attdmen, sedtdmen, veruntdmen, hnt yet. 

4 ArTKM and vero follow the words which they connect: hie antem, hie vf.ro 
but this one. They are often omitted, especially before non. They are admissible 
with qui only when it \&folUnced by its antecedent 

IV. Illative Conjunctions denote inference : 

In umbra Igttur pugnabimus, We shall therefore fight in the ehade. Cic. 

1. List. See 310. 4. . ^ , x. a 

2 Other WoRD8.-Certain other words, sometimes classed with adverbs and 
sometimes with conjunctions, are also illatlves: eo, ideo, idclrco, proptSrea, quam- 
obrera, quapropter, quare, quocirca. , . , « *i,j„ 

8 loiTPR —This pencrally follows the word which it connects: hic Igltur, this 
one therefore. After a digression ^tur, sed, aed tdmen, verum, verum tdmen, etc., 
are often used to resume an interrupted thought or construction. They may often b« 
rendered Jaay: Sed si quia; if any one, I say. 

V. Causal Conjunctions denote cause : 

Difficile est consilium: sum 6nim solus, Counselis difficult, for 1 am 
alone. Cic. EtSnim jus amant, For they love the right. Cic. 
1. List. See 810. B. 



HI fiih 



conjunction 
V, tranquil- 



n: 



Du&bua 



lUst be used 
true or false, 
enerally cor- 
am dmdtur, 
metlmeB/or 
n enclitic. 

nor aut vir- 

it often con- 
I or Minerva 



sition or 

h to he mild, 



ition; autem 
introduces an 

)nt yet. 

em, hie v?.ro, 

ro admlRsiblo 



} sJiade. Cic. 

adverbs and 
ptfirea, quam- 

ic Igltur, this 
>i idmen, etc., 
r may often ba 



iU,/or I am 



PAUTICLKS. 

2. Etknim and Namquk denote a closer connection than Mm and nam 
8. Emim follows its word. 



273 



688. Subordinate Conjunctions connect subordinate 
dgt SaS """^'^'"^^^^"^ (^«^- "•). They comprise 

I. Temporal Conjunctions denote time : 

PSruit quum nficesso 6rat, //^ obei/ed when it was necessary. Cic Dura 
6go m Slcllia sum, while lam in Sicily. Cic. See also 311 1 • 62I-503 

I. DuM^added to a negative means yet; nondum, not yet ; vvrdum, scarcely yot. 

II. Comparative Conjunctions denote comparison : 

Ut optasti, rta est, It is as you desired. Cic. V61ut si Sdesset. as if h, 
were present. Cans, See also 311. 2; 603,506. 

nnJ'n^T'^^r'"'' "' "",'" "''''•' T«»°-'l"'>n,, a,, ,,v-o,, «« ^«cA «« ; tam- 
quara quod maximc, as much as possible; non minus-quam, not less than: non 

rawt-^«am and «<_Wa with a superlative are sometimes best rendered by Ma 
witU the comparative : ut ma<tlme-l(a maxime, the more-the more. 

III. Conditional Conjunctions denote condition : 

Si peccSvi, ignosce, If I have erred, pardon me. Cic. Nisi est con. 
cllium d(5mi, unless there is wisdom at home. Cic. See also 311. 3 ; 503. 507. 

1- -^5*^' 'fnot, In negative sentences often means eoccept, und nisi quod, except 
that, may be used even in affirmative sentences, msi may mean than. Nihil dliud 
n\8i = nothing fWther (more, except); nihil dliud quam = nothing else (other 
than). ^ 

IV. Concessive Conjunctions denote concession : 

Quamquam intelllgunt, t/lovffA tliey understand. Cic. Etsi nihil habeat, 
although he has nothing, Cxfi. See also 311. 4; 515. 516. 

V. Final Conjunctions denote purpose : 

Esse 3portet, ut vivas, It is necessary to eat, thai you may live. Cic. 
See also 311. 5; 489-499. 

VI. Consecutive Conjunctions denote consequence or 
result : 

Atticus rta vixit, ut Athgniensibus esset carisslmus, Atticus so lived 
that he was very dear to the Athenians. Nep. See also 311. 6 ; 489-499. 

VII. Causal Conjunctions denote cause : 

Quae quum Ita sint, Since these things are so. Cic. See also 311 7 • 
517. 518. ' ' 

^ VIII. Interrogative Conjunctions or Particles denote 
inquiry or question : 

Quaesifiraa, nonne putarem, You had ashed whether I did not think. 
Cic. See also 811. 8 ; 846. II., 525. 526. 



274 



INTERJECTIONS. RULES. 



IV. Interjections. 



689. Interjections arc sometimes used entirely alone, 
as eheii^ alas I and sometimes with certain cases of nouns. 
See 381 and 381. 3. 

690. Various parts of speech, and even oaths and im- 
precations, sometimes have the force of interjections. Thus : 

Pax {peace), be still! nilsSrum, tnls&rilbllc, sad, lamentable! Gro,prai/} 
ttge, iglte, come, well! mehurciiles, by Jlerculea! per dcum fidem, in the 
nameoftlie goda! 8Cilea = si aiidca {for audies), \fyoutcill heart 



CHAPTER VII. 
RULES OF SYNTAX. 

691. For convenience of reference, the principal Kules 
of Syntax are here introduced in a body. The enclosed 
numerals refer to the various articles in the work where the 
several topics are more fully discussed. 



NOUNS. 

Agreement. 

I. A Predicate Noun denoting the same person or 
thing as its Subject, agrees with it in case (3G2) : 

Ego sum nuntius, / am a messenger. Liv. 

II. An ApposmvE agrees with its Subject in case (363) : 
Cluilius rex moiitur, CluUius the king dies. Liv. 

Nominative. 

III. The Subject of a Finite verb is put in the Nomina- 
tive (367) : 

Scrvius regnuvit, Servius reigned. Liv. 

Vocative. 

IV. The Name of the person or thing addressed is put 
in the Vocative (369) : 

Perge, Laell, Proceed, Laclius. Clc. 



y alone, 
f nouns. 

and im- 
I. Thus: 

Bro, pray } 
im, in the 



•al Hules 
enclosed 
here the 



erson or 



3E (363) : 



Nomina* 



sd is put 



KULES OP SYNTAX. 

Accusative. 



275 



8r.ti^' (In) f ''''''' ^'"^"^' "^ "" ^^^i«» i« P«t ia the Accu. 

Deus inundum aetllflcavit, Ood made the world. Cic. 

person or thnig (373) ; ^'*ti>ca ox luo same 

^^^namilcilrem imparatorem ftcOrunt. They made Harr^Ucar corr^mander. 

VII. Some verbs of asking, demanding TFAnnvr^ on.i 

Mc Bontentiam rogavit, He aaked me my opinion. Cic. 

IX. The Name of a Town used n«j flm T;r«:<. ^ 
is put in the Accusative (379) : ^'""'^ °^ "'^^'^^ 

Nuntius Romam rcdit, TA. measenger returns to Rome. Liv. 

R^f ;S" f'^ ^fi '^ ^'' ^'^J^ptive may take an Adverbial Accu- 
sative to define its aj^pUcation (380) : 

tJapita vGlamur, W^e have our heads veiled Vim Kr.ho 1 - x 
imictus, with his shoulders enveloped in acloud'llov.^' "°'^''°' 

XL The Accusative, either with or without an Interien 
tion, may be used in Exclamations (381); ^nterjeo- 

Heu me misurum, Ah i^e unhappy/ Cic. 

Dative. 
XII. The Indirect Object is put in the Dative (384) ; 

Tempori cedit, He yields to the time. Cic. 

Dative of Advantage and Disadvantage ("385) 
Dative with Compounds (386). 
Dative of Possessor (387). 
Dative of Apparent Agent (380. 
Ethical Dative (389). 



•ffm*.:^'- 



276 



KULES OF SYNTAX. 



XIII. Two Datives — the object to which and the ob- 
ject FOB WHICH— occur with a few verbs (390) : 

Maio est hominlbus avaritia, Avarice is (for) an evil to men. Cic. 

XIV. With Adjectives the object to which the quality 
is directed is put in the Dative (391) : 

Omnibus carum est, It is dear to all. Cic. 

XV. A few Derivative Nouns and Adverbs talce the 
Dative after the analogy of their primitives (392) : 

Obtemperatio ICgtbus, obedience to the laws. Cic. Cougrucntcr uatQ- 
rae, cgreeably to nature. Cic. 

Genitive. 

XVI. Any noun, not an Appositive, qualifying the 
meaning of another noun, is put in the Genitive (395): 

Ciitonis orationes, Caio's orations. Cic. 

XVII. Many Adjectives take a Genitive to complete 
their meaning (399) : 

Avidus laudis, desirous of praise Cic. 

XVIII. A Predicate Noun denoting a different person 
cr thing from its Subject, is put in the Genitive (401) : 

Omnia hostium grant, All things belonged to (were of) the enemy. Li v. 

XIX. The Genitive is used (406), 

I. With misgreor and miseresco 5 

Miagrftre Igbori^ra, pity the labors. Virg, 

II. With rSoordor, mSnaim, ieminiscor, and obliviscor: 
Mgminit praetgritorum, He remembers the past. Cic. 

III. W ith refert and intSrPSt : 

Ifltgrest omnium. It is the interest of all. Cic. 

XX. A few verbs take the Accusative of the Person 
and the Genitive of the Thing (410) ; 

I. Verbs of Eemindinff, Adm,onishing : 

Te flmlcitiae coiumoaSfacit, He reminds you of friendship. Cic. 

II. Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, Acquitting : 
Viros scSleris arguis. You accuse men of crime. Cic. 

ni. Miseret, Poenitet, Fudct, Taedet, and Piget : 
E5nmi no£ mxs^ret, We pity them. Cic. 



* f .r 



id the OB- 

n. Cic. 
he quality 

talce the 

ucntcr iiatu- 



ifying the 
(395): 

1 complete 



3nt person 

[401): 

e enemy. Liv. 



Lscor: 



ihe Person 

p. Cic. 

Ing : 

Piaet : 



RULES OP SYNTAX. 277 

For the Genitive of Place, see Rule XXVI. 

Abla'iive. 

Utilitate laudatur, y7 is praked because of its usefulness. Cic. 
{m)f^^' ^^^""^ '' generally denoted by the -Ablative 
Vendidit auro patriam, He sold his country foY gold. Virg. 

Niliil est amaMiua virlQte, JVb;««y « more hvchj tUn viHuc. Cic. 

Uno die longior, /onyer hy one day. Cic. 
XXV. The Ablative is used (419), 
pounds :'"'" "'°'' ^"°'' '^^°'' potior, 'vescor, and their com- 
riunmis robus fruimur, We enjoy very many things. Cic. 

II. Withfido, confido, nitor, innitor: 

Sulus veritate nitltur, Safety rests upon truth. Cic. 

III. With Verbs and Adjectives op Plenty and Want- 
Non ggeo mgdiclna, I do not need a remedy. Ch. 

IV. Withdignus, indignus, contentus, and fretus: 
Digni sunt amicltia, They are worthy of friendship. Cic. 

V. With Spus and iisua: 

Auotoritate tua nobis opus est, Wc need your authority. Cic. 
XXVI. I. The PLACE IN WHICH and the place vnn^t 
Sr ''ir'^'^'^y ^--^-^ by the Ablative wUh a Prep'o^ 

"liaf ofX Fi,3''''T«^''^l' '.^^? P^^Po^ition, and ir. the 
£ tII^'II'I^^"^ Second declcMisions designate the 



Sin 



PLACE IN WHICH by the Genitive (421) ; 

In Italia fuit. He toas in Ilahi Knn Pv Afi.y^o ^ aj- • 

XXVII. Source and Separation are denoted bv tVi« 
Ablative, generally Avith a preposition (425) ; ^ 



278 



EULES OF SYNTAX. 



m 



i 



Orlundi ab Sablnia, descended from (he Sabhus. Liv. Caedcm a vobis 
dCpcilo, I ward of slauglUer from you. Cic. 

XXVIII. The Time of an Action is denoted by tlie Ab- 
lative (420) : 

Oct(-)getiiino anno est morluus, He died in his eigMieih year. Cic. 

XXIX. The Ablative with an adjective may be used 
to characterize a person or thing (428) : 

Sanima virtute adolescens, a youth of the highest virtue. Caes. 

XXX. The Ablative may be used with a word to de- 
fine its application (429) : 

Nomlue, non potestate fuit rex, He was king in name, not in power. 
Xep. 

XXXI. The Ablative is used as the Case Aesolute 

(431): 

Servio rcgnantc, in the reign of Servius (Servius reigning). Cic. 

Cases with Prepositions. 

XXXII. The Accusative and Ablative may be used 
with Prepositions (432) : 

Ad amicum, to a friend. Cic. In Italia, in Italy. Nop. 

ADJECTIVES. 

XXXIII. An Adjective agrees with its Noun in gen- 
der, NUMBER, and CASE (438) : 

Fortuua caeca est. Fortune is hlind. Cic. 

PEONOTJNS. 

XXXIV. A Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in 

GENDEV,, NUMBER, and PERSON (445) : 

Animal, quod sanguinem babet, an animal u'hich has blood. Cic. 

VERBS. 

Agreement. 
-V WTT A i?;nHo Vm-b jio-roes with its Subject in NUM- 
ber and person (460) : 

E>^o i-eges ejcci, I have banished kings. Cic. 



em a vobia 

tlie Al> 

Cic. 

bo used 

es. 

■d to de- 

t in power. 

Ilbsolute 

Cic. 

be used 



n m GEN- 



cedent in 
d. Cic. 



ct in NUM- 



EULES XTAX. 

IXDICATIV . 3l00D. 



279 



(47^?^^^^* ^^^ I"<^i«ativo is used in treating of facta 
Deug mundum aedlficavit, God made tlie world. Cic. 
Subjunctive Tenses. 

f» ^^^7^^- . P/i»cipal tenses depend upon Princinal 
tenses ; Historical, upon Historical (480) : "ncipai 

Nititur lit vincat, lie strives to conquer. Cic. Quaesigraq nnnnp rWifu 
rem, iou had asked whether I did not think. Cic. '^"''^"^'''' "^'^^ P**'*' 

SuBJUNCTivE Mood. 

XXXVIH. The Potential Subjunctive represents the 
action not is real, but as 2)ossible (485) : 

Forsitan quaoratis, perhaps you may inquire. Cic. 

..,^'^^}^' ^^? Subjunctive of Desire represents the 
action not as real, but as desired (487) : 

Valeant elves, Ilaij the citizens be well. Cic. 
(48^^" ^^^"^ S-BjuNCTivE opPukpose or Result is used 

I. With ut, ne, quo, quin, qucminus : 

i:nltitur ut vincat, He strives that he may conquer. Cic. 

II. With qui = ut is, ut ego, tu, etc. : 

Missi sunt, qui {ut ii) consulerent ApoIImem, They were sent to consult 
Apollo. j\ep. 

XLI, The Subjunctive of Condition is used (503), 
I. With dum, modo, dummSdo : 

Mudo perm;ineat industria, if only industry remains. Cic. 

velu"' vliut'sl.'' "' '' *""'"' ^""" "' ^^'^^^^^ *^^"^ ^' 

VtMut si adessct, as if he were present. Caes. 

III. Sometimes with si, nisi, ni, sin, qui = si is, si quis: 

bi v6hm numCrare, if I should toish to recount. Cic. 

XLH. The Subjunctive of Concession is used (515), 
I. With licet quamvis, quantumvis, ut, ne, quum, although' 
ticet irndcat, though he may deride. Cic. 



II 



pt 

18, , 



.Pi 'I 
I' 



^ih 



280 



EULES OF SYNTAX. 



II. With qui = quum (licet) is, quum Sgo, etc., though he: 
Absolvitc Verrom, qui {quum is) fateatur, Acquit Verves, though he 

confesses. Cic. 

III. Generally with etsij tSmetsi, etiamsi: 

Etsi optimum sit, even (/'(though) it be most excellent. Cic. 

XLIII. The Subjunctive of Cause or Reason is used 
(517), 

I. With quum (cum), since ; qui = quum is, etc, 
Quum vita mStus plena sit, since life is full of fear. Cic. 

II. With quod, quia, qubniam, quando, to introduce a reason on 

another's authority : , , x i v 

Quod corrumpSret jiiventutcm, because (on the ground that) he corrupt- 
ed the youth. Quint. 

XLIV. The Subjunctive of Time with the accessory 
notion of Cause or Purpose is used (521), 

I. With dum, donee, quoad, until : 

Exspectas, dum dicat. You are waiting till he speaks, i. e., that he may 

speak. Cic. 

II. With antequam, priusquam, before: 

AntSquam de re publica dicam, before I {can) speak of the republic. Cic. 

XLV. The Subjunctive is used in Indirect Questions 
(525): 

Quid dies ferat, iuccrtum est. What a day may bring forth is uncev 
tain. Cic. 

XLVI. Tlie Subjunctive by Attraction is often used in 
clauses dependent upon the Subjunctive (527) : 

Vercor, ne, dum minuere vSlim litborem, augeam, I fear I shall in 
crease the labor, while I wish to diminish it. Cic. 

XLVII. The Subiunctive is generally used in the Inter- 
rotative, Imperative,' and Subordinate clauses of the Oratio 
Obliqua (529) : 

Respondit, cur vi^nlret, He replied, why did he come. Caes. Scilbit 
Labieno vfiniat, He writes to Labienus to come. Caes. 

Imperative. 

Xl-iViii. itiU illlpCiiitlve xa u^uu. t-u. vU«iiU.MUv.(3, 

tations, and entreaties (535) : 
Justitiam cole, Practise justice. Cic. 



I he: 
\luough he 



is used 



reason on 
he corrupt- 

ccessory 

iiat he may 

public. Cic. 
UESTION& 

ih is uncer' 
n used ii> 

/ shall in 

the Inter- 
he O ratio 

les. Scribit 
ds, exhor- 



RULES OF SYNTAX. 



281 



Infinitive. 

XLIX. The Subject of an Infinitive is put in the Ac- 
cusative (545): 

Sentlmus caiere ignom, We perceive that Jire is hot. Cic. 
Paeticiples, Gerunds, and Supines. 

Participles are construed as adjectives (575), Gerunds 
and Supines as nouns (559, 5Q1). But 

L. The Supine in um is used after verbs of motion to 
express purpose (569) ; 

Venerunt res rgpetltum, They came to demand restitution. Liv. 

PARTICLES. 

VEEBf '(5i2)^'^' '^"''^'^'^ ^^''''^' ADJECTIVES, and Other AD- 

Sapientes fclidter vivunt, The wise live happily. Cic. 

1. For Prepositions, see Rule XXXII. 

2. Conjunctions are mere connectives. See 587 and 588 

3 Interjections are expressions of emotion or mere marks of address. 

fcCC Ob'*. 



-•-♦♦- 



CHAPTER YIII. 
ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS AND CLAITSES. 



SECTION I. 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

592. The Latin admits of jrreat varioty in the arran<ve. 
ment of the ditterent i)arts of the sentence, thus affordino- 
pecuhar facihties both fo? '.^curing proper emphasis and foT- 
impartmg to its periods tl.ai harmonious flow which charac- 
Toiizes t.ic Latin classics. But with all this freedom and 
vanotv, there are certain general laws of arrangoDient which 
It will be useful to notice. 



282 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



I. General Rules. 

693. The Subject followed by its modifiers occupies 
the first place in the sentence, and the Predicate preceded 
by its modiilers the last place : 

Sol Sricns diem conf icit, The sun rising makes the day. Cic. Animus 
acgcr semper errat, A diseased mind ahvaijs errs. Cic. MiltiSdes AlUeims 
llbSrEvit, Mitliadcs liberated Athens. Nop. 

694. Emphasis and euphony often afiect the arrange- 
ment of words : 

I. Beginning.— An V word, except the subject, may be 
made emphatio by being placed at the begimnng ot the 
sentence : 

8llent leges inter arma, Laios are silent in war. Cic. Kwnitori Rgmus 
deditur, liemus is delivered to Numitor. Liv. J(j?il agcr vastabatur, The 
field was ravaged with fire. Sail. 

II. End.— Any word, except the predicate, may be ren- 
dered emphatic by being placed at the end of the sentence : 

Nobis non sStisfacit ipse Demosthenes, Even Demosthenes does not satisfy 
us Cic Consiilatum pStlvit mvquam, He never sought the consulship. Cic. 
Exsistit quacdam quaestio suhdificilis, There arises a question somewhat dif- 
ficult. Cic. 

Ill Separation.— Two words naturally connected, as 
a noun and its adjective, or a noun and its genitive, are 
sometimes made e7yip>hatic by separation : 

Ohjurqdtionez nonnunquam incidunt necessarim, Sometimes necessary re- 
proofs occur. Cic. Justitiae fungatur ofilciis, Let him discharge the duties 
of justice. Cic. 

695. Contrasted Groups.— When two groups of words 
are contrasted, the order of the first is often reversed in the 
second : 

Fragile corpus auimus scmpiternus movet, The imperishalle soul moves 
the 2)erishable body. Cic. 

696 Kindred AVouds.— Different forms of the same 
word, or different words of the same derivation, are gener- 
ally placed near each other : 

Ad s5nem s6nex do sSnectutc scrips!, 7, an old man, wrote to. an r.hl man 
on the subject of old age. Cic. luter so aliis iiii prosunt, Thei/ mutually bene- 
fit each other. Cic. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



283 



697. Words with a common Relation.— A word 
winch has a commorr relation to two other words connected 
by conjunctions, is placed, 

I. Generally before or after both : 

Pacis et artes et gloria, both tlie arts and the glory of peace, Liv Belli 
pScisquc artes, the arts of war and of peace. Liv. 

A Genitive or A.ljoctive following two nouns may qualify both, but it more fr.- 
qucDtly quaiirtos only tiio latter : ^ -i / ", uum more ir. - 

tcar^lZ. ^''''■'""'^"''° """ «i^'^"°"^"o belli. <AJ« inquiry and this declaration of 

^ II. Sometimes directly after the first before the con- 
junction: 

HSnOris ccrtamcn et gloriac, a struggle for luinor and gloru. Cic. Agri 
omucs et m2riu, all lands and seas. Cic. 



II. Special Rules. 

698. Modifiers of Nouxs.—The modifiers of a noun 
generally iollow it. They may be either adjectives or 
nouns ; "^ 

Populus Romunus dCcrCvit, The Roman people decreed. Cic. Iliiroclotn. 
pSter h.stiJnae, Herodotus, the father of history. Cic. LIbcr de oU'iciis the 
book on duties. Cic. ' 

1. NouN.-A noun as modifier of another noun is generally an appositi vc. 
a genitive, or a case with a preposition, as iu the examples 

2. With EMPHASis.-Moditiers when emphatic are placed before their 
nouns : 

. ^"«5«« Sger RomSno adjXcet, TU Tuscan territory hor<Urs on the lioman 
tiVf. Cuw/iiA' orationes, Cato' s orations, Cic. 

_ 3. Adjective akd GEXiTiVE.-When a noun is modified both by an ad- 
.^ective and by a genitive, the usual order is, adjectioe-genitice-noun • 
Magna civium pouuria, a great scarcity of citizens. Cic. 

599. Modifiers of Adjectives.— The modifiers of the 
MlowT- ^"''"'''■''^^^ Pi-ecede it, but, if not adverbs, they may 

Faclfle doctissJmus, nnqnestionabhj the most learned. Cic. Omni aetiiti 
tomm^xMS, common to every age. Cic. ^^IdnslMdis, desirous of praise. Cic. 

600. Modifiers of Verbs.— The modifiers of the verb 
generally precede it : 

Giuriu virtutem sequitur, Glory follotvs virtue. Cic. Mundus deo parct 
The world is subject to God. Cic. Vehementer dixit, He spoke vehemently. 
tic. (^lona ducitur, He is led by glory. Cic. 



284 



ABEANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



f';!^ 






I; ! 



fli 



iii . 



1. Aktkr thk Verb.— When the verb is placed for the sake of einplmsis 
at the begimiiiig of the senteuce, the nioditicrs, of course, follow. See lirst 
example under u"J4. I. 

2. Emi'iiasis.— An emphatic modifier may of course stand at the begin- 
ning or at the end of (he sentence (iVJ4) : 

Facililme ccguoscuntur udolesceutes, Most easily are the young men rec- 

Ofjnized. Cic. _ 

3. Two ou MOiiE MoDiFiKRS.— Of two ot more modifiers belongmg to the 
same verb, that which in thought is most intimately connected with the verb 
stands next to it, while the others are arranged as emphasis and euphony 
may require : 

Rex Scythis bellum intiilit, The king waged war against the Scythians. 
Nep. Jlors propter brevitatem vitae nuuquam longc abcst, Beath is never 
far distant, in consequence of the shortness of life. Cic. 

601. MoDiFiEES OP Adverbs.— The nioclifiers of the 
adverb generally precede it, but a Dative olten follows it : 

Valde vehS-.nenter dixit, He spoke very vehementli/. Cic. Cougruenter 
natQrao vivit, lie lives agreeably to nature. Cic. 

602. Special "Words.— Some words have a favorite 
place in the sentence, which they seldom leave. Thus, 

I. :he Demonstrative generally precedes its noun : 
Gustos hujus urbis, the guardian of this city. Cic. 

1. nie in the sense of well-known (450. 5) generally follows its noun, if not ac 
companied by an adjective : 

MedCa ilia, that well-known Medea. Cic. 

2. Quhqice. tbo indennite pronoun, follows some other word: 

Jusiitia snum cuique trl buit, Justice gives to every man his due (his own). Cic. 

II. Prepositions generally stand directly before their cases, but tSnus 
and versus follow their cases : 

In K^iamY'^-iyivigxi, He fled into Asia. Cic. QoWoi^xms, up to the neck. Ov. 

1. After a Pronoun. —The preposition frequently follows the relative, somo- 
times other pronouns, and sometimes even nouns, especially in poetry : 

Res qua de ilgitur, the subject of tchich we are treating. Cic. Itiiliam contra, 
over against Italy. Virg. 

2. Cum Ai'PENded.— See 1S4. 6 and 187. 2. 

3. Intekvesino Words.— Genitives, adverbs, and a few other words sometimes 
Btpud "between the preposition and its case. In adjurations 2ier is usually separati'd 
from its case by the Ace. of the object atUui'cd, or by some other word; and some- 
times the verb oro is omitted : 

Post Alexandii macni mortem, after the death of Alexander the Great. Cic. 
Ad bene vTvendnm,/or living icell. Cic. Per te deos dro, I pray you in the name 
of the gods. Ter. Per ego vos deos = per deos ego vos oro (>/ro understood). I 
pray ymi in the name of the gods. Curt 

III. Conjunctions and Relatives, when tliey introduce clauses, generally 



einpliusis 
Sue lii'tit 

Lc begin- 

] men reC' 

ing to tlio 

1 the verb 

euphony 

Scythians, 
h is never 

of the 
0W8 it : 

ugrueutor 

favorite 
lius, 



n, If not ac- 

sown). Clc. 
but tSnus 

enecTc. Ov. 
itlvc, somo- 

liain contrn, 

s sometimes 
ly separati'il 
; and somu- 

Great. Cic. 
',11 the name 
Icrstood). i 

3, generally 



ARKANGEMEXT OP WORDS AND CLAUSES. 285 

Btand at the bcsisning of such clauses ; but autcm, Snim, quWem ouuoue 
vero, and genoiully iffitur, follow some other word : ^ ' ^ ^ ' 

Si pcccuyi, ignosce, ///have erred, pardon me. Cic. li qui siinfiricrcs 
sunt, those who arc superior. Cic. Ipse autcm omnia vidcbat, /J^t he him- 
81 (/ saw all things. Cic. 

1. Emphatic Words and Kelativks often precede tbe conjunctloD 

are so Cie." '"' "* '" '""'"'^ ""'• ^'''' ^""' ^^"""^ ^'^ «'"^ *^"^« '''^"^ ^'^">0> 

2 Ne-quidem takes the emphatic word or words between the two parts: 

No In oi)puli3 qiiidem, 7iot even in the towns. Cic. 

a QiMem often follows /)w«om«8, superlativcsUnii ordinals • 

Ex mo quulem nihil audiet, fie will hear nothing/rom me Cic' 
, , ^11: ?' ""' '"^''"'^"«i"g a Cause or phrase, are generally appended to the /Irst 
word, but if t».at word is a monosyllabic preposition, tbey are'^ftTappl lei t„ t 
next word : ad plebemve, for udve, etc., or to tbe people ; inf6ro<Jl iZcef^o 
and in the lorum. Apud Quos.ne, and before whom, ice^rs for euphony. '^' 

H.o/^" f';"'/'^,^" '* qualifies some single word, stands directly before 
that word, but when it ig particularly emphatic, or qualifies the enthe 
clause, It generally stands at the beginning of the clause . 

r!n ^^^ ^'"^'^^/^'■f "0° Possunt, They are not aide to do without this villa. 
Uc. Non fuit Jupiter mfituendus, Jupiter was not to be/eared. Cic. 

.,n,.7" /''?"«"'' sometimes Aio, introducing a quotation, follows one or 

Us verb : " ''"'^' ^""''^^- ^''^ ^"^^J*^*^*' '^ ''i"'''''^^' SorxovaUy folLvs 

Nihi^ inquit Brutus, quod dicam, Mlhing which / shall state, said 

. P"*.T^^ Vocative rarely stands at the bcgiuaing of a sentence It 
usually follows an emphatic word : 6 b ^i seiutuct. jt 

Perge, Laeli, Proceed, Laelius. Cic. 



SECTION II. 

ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES. 

I. Ix Complex Sentences. 

603. Subject or Predicate.— A clause used as the 
subject ot a complex sentence (357) generally stands at 
the Winning of the sentence, and a clause used as the 
predicate at the end : 

Quid dies lerat incertum est, WJmt a day ^nay bring forth is uncertain. 
Uc Exitus fuit orationis : slbi nullam cum his amicitiam esse. The close 
oj the oration was, that he had no friendship with these men. C.acs. 

1. This arrangement is tbe same as that of the simple sentence. See 593 

2. Emphasis and euphony often have the same elfect upon the arrangement of 
clauses as of words. See 504. tcun^ui, u, 



280 



ARKAyGEMENT OF CLAUSES. 



>'■ 



604. Subordinate Elements. — Clauses usc<l as tlio 
subordinate elements of complex sentences, admit three 
diiferent arrangements : 

I. They are generally inserted within the principal 
clause, like the subordinate elements of a simple sentence : 

Ilostos, ubi primum nostros fiqultcs conspexCrunt, c516rltcr nostroa 
pcrturbavorunt, Tlie enemy, as soon as thet/ saio our cavalry, quickly put our 
men to route. Caes. Scntciitia, quae tutissima vidobatur, vicit, The opinion 
which seemed the safest prevailed. Liv. 

IT. They are often placed before the principal clause : 

Quum quicscunt, prSbant, While they are quiet, they approve. Cic. QuK- 
lis sit animus, animus ncscit, The soul knows not tvhat the soul is. Cic. Si 
baec civitas est, civis sura ego, If this is a state lam a citizen. Cic. 

Tbia tirrangement is cspocitilly common whon the subord'nftto clanso cither re- 
fers bficlc to the preceding sentence, or is preparatory to tlio thouKht of the princii)al 
clause. Hence tempontl, conditional, and eonceasire clauses often precede the prin- 
cipal clause, lleuco also, in sentences composed of correlative clauses with is— qui, 
taiin— quails, tantufi—quantus, turn— quum, ita—ut, etc., the relative member, 1. e., 
the clause with qui, qudlis, quantus, quum, ut, etc., generally precedes. 

III. They sometimes follow the principal clause : 

Eiutitur ut vincat, He slrivcs that he may conquer. Cic. Sol cfTicit ut 
omnia tloicaut, The sun causes all things to bloom. Cic. 

This nrran?;emcnt is common when the subordinato clause is either Intimately 
connected in thought with the following sentence or is explanatory of the principal 
clause. Hence clauses of Purpose and liesult generally follow the principal clause, 
as in the exauiples. Sec also examples under articles 4B9-4'J9. 

605. Latin Period. — ^A complex sentence in which 
the subordinate clause is inserted within the principal clause, 
as under I., is called a Period in the strict sense of the word. 

In a freer sense the same term is also applied to any 
sentence in which the clauses are so arranged as not to 
make complete sense before the end of the sentence. lu 
this sense the examples under II. are periods. 



F 
c 



u 

k 



or 
be 
lal 



II. In Compound Sentences. 

606. Clauses connected by coordinate conjunctions 
(587) generally follow each other iu the natural order of 
the thought, as in English : 

q„i j-jijf. ft morstc" ^irsibrantur Thf. p.un tlefssuds and the tnovnictins arit 
shaded. Virg. Gyges a nullo vWebatur, ipse autera omnia videbat, Gygea 
was seen hy no one, but 7te himself saw all things. Cic. 



ar( 

do. 

pra 
do E 



PART FOURTir. 

P II O S O D Y. 

607. Prosody treats of Quantity and Versification, 



— — •♦•- 



CIIAPTEE I. 

aiTANTITY. 

608. The time occupied in pronouncino' a svIKLIa in 
cuaicicteiizod as long, short, or common.' ^ 

iisa.^e^%Tl''tlT'"^''^ ^^ 'y"'^^^^ ^' determined by poetic 
usage, but this usage eontorms in many cases to general 
lans, while m other cases it seems someAat arbitn^y 

or shorf Ct'Z "■'°'° '""'''^ '°"''^™^ '' '^"''"•^ "-"'^^ ^- «-d to be long 

2. Syllables wl.ose quantity does not conform to known rules are said to 
be long or short by authontij. "^ ^"^ 

lablet o?ZS f:'l"="'';/>',7f*'-'-^--«^i-o..applicble to most svl- 
laoies, or sj)e(.ial, i. c., applicable to particular syllables. 



SECTION- I. 

GENERAL RULES OF QUANTITY. 

610. Rule I.— Diphthongs and Contracted syllables 
are long : 



do, ml for nS: '"'' ' '•'"' ^'^ "^^ ''^' >»• ''^^SO, occldo fc 



or occao- 



praeiistu. 



l,h!r '" "'"''°''''™ " °'"'^'J' ^''"■■' ''*■■« a vowel: yr«di<„.. 



Oo J; oTSSiiti:" ■"■■' ""' "*"^ '"^""'°"^"' ""^ "=°"^-«" 



» Sometimes long and sometimes short. 



288 



RULES 01*" tiUANTITY. 



611. Hl'le II. — A vowel is long by position Lcforo 
jf, 07, 5!, or any two coiisoiuints ; * 

Miijor, rC'xi, giza, niCiisn, servus. 

1. But one of the coiisononta ut least must belong to the same word us 
the vowel : db rt'ipe, per mxa, 

1) A fniiil vowel is not usually ufl'ectcd by consonants at the beginning of 
the following word, except before *•<;, vj), «<h '^"J *^ where a short vowel is 
rare. 

2) //and UinuiX never be treated as consonants under this rule," except 
in rare instances where u is so used by Syuaeresis. See G0'.». II. 

2, Before a mute followed by Z or 7?, a vowel naturally short bccomert 
conuuon : duplex, agri, putrcs. 

1) In Greek words a vowel is also common before a mute with Mov N: 
Tecmeum, c^cnus. 

2) A mute ut the end of the first part of a compound before a liquid ut 
the beginning of the second part makes the preceding vowel long by posi- 
tion : db-ruitipo, Ob roijo. 

8) A vowel naturally long, of course, remains long before a Mute and 
Li(iuid : deer, dcrls. 

S. Compounds of jiiffum retain the yhort vowel before j : h^juyui^, 
quadrlji/ffus. 

612. EuLE III.— A vowel before anotlier vowel, or 
a diplithong, is short by tosition : 

Pius, piae, doc6o, traho. 

No account is taken of the breathing A ; henco a in traho is treated as a vowel 
before another vowel. 

Exceptions.— The following are long before a vowel : 

1. A — (1) in the genitive ending dt of Dec. I. : auldi,—{2) in proper 
names -mdius: Cdius {Cajus),-(3) before ia, ie, io, iu, in the verb aio. ^^ 

2, E _(l) in the ending ii of Dec. V. when preceded by ' \o.-l'1: <UU ; 
and sometimes iu fWn, rti, 8pH,—{2) in proper names in e'u^: Pom- 

peius,—(Z) in eheu. 

3. I —(1) in the verb flo, when not followed by er : fmm.,fllham, but 
f^ri,—{;2) in the genitive alius. In other genitives i in iiis is common in 
poetry, though long in prose, but the i in alterius is short,— (3) iu dius, a, 
urn, i'oT dlvus, a, um,—ii) sometimes iu Diana. 

4, Of i; common in ohe. 

1 ot:. io. , pi ■ .iu;;, the sylluble, nrA not \hr- vnw.-l, is lengthened, but the !anguuu-B 
•f coiiviiiienuc r-lers Vlio quantity of tlic syllable to the vowel. 

a Qk, gu, aud su, when u has tho sound of w, are treated as single consonants. 



nur^EH OF QUANTITY. 



289 






SECTION II. 

SPECIAL liULES OF QUANTITY. 

I. Quantity of Final Syllables. 
I. Monosyllahhs. 
613. KuLE IV.— Monosyllables are long: 

ft, Ja. te, «c^ da, si. qui, do, pro, to, dos. pes, «is. bos, sQs, pflr, sol. 

Exceptions.— The following are short : 

1. Enclitics: qm, ve, ne, ce, te,pHe,ptc. 

2 Monosyih.bles iu b, d, I, t : ab, aU^ mU, ut, U ; except sM sol 

Norn, or Ace. foriul ^ '^' ""'^ '^«">«li'"ea ;./c and /.«J. a. 

-TZ Polysyllables. 

1. final vowels. 

614 EuLE y.-I,i words of more than one syllable, 
the endings a, e, and y are short; i and u, Ion-; o 

Via, mariit, m5rc?, misy; marl, audi, fructu, cornQ; amS. scrm5. 

615. Ajinalm short: mc^isa, ^ew^,/a, 5d««. 
Exceptions.—^ final is long, 

1. In the Ablative : mensd, bond, Hid 

2 In the Vocative of Greek nouns in as (rarely es) ■ Aen?d Pall/f 

616. 11 final is sliort : serve, urbe, riige. 
Exceptions.— ^///a^ is long, 

!• In Dec. I. and V. : hntom? »■» '/-- tt 
pndi,,postn.li^, qudrl. ' ' ' ' "'"'^ "' '^' coinpounds-/.<>7.-., 

2. In Greek phuuls olDec. III. : Tempi, meU. 



m 



290 



RULES OF QUANTITY. 



3. In the Sing. Imperative Act, of Conj. II. : 7r'in?, docd. But e is some- 
times short m cavd. , 

4. lQfere,/e)'niS, oU, md in Adrerbs from adjectives of Dec. II.: docti, 
recti. Except bem, male, in/crne, interne, superne. 

617. YJlnMis short: mlsf^, moljj^ cotrj. 
Exceptions.— Contracted endings are, of course, long: mu^ = misyi. 

618. I/^iaHslong: seros honi, audi. 

ExcEPTioxs. — I final is, 

1, Common in mihi, tihi, sibi, ihl, ubl. But 

Observe compou^u.s \hldem, IMqiie, Miqtie, HVinam, iiblms, Hbhunque, nScO- 
Vi, siciill. 

2. SiionT,— (1) in nisi, quasi, cut (when a dissyHabIc),-(2) in the Greek 
ending si of Dat. and Abl. Plur. : Troasi,—iii) iu the Dat. and Voc. Sing., 
which end short in the Greek : Alexi, Piiridi. 

Vtl follows the rule, but uot tlie compounds, Mlnam, ufqiie, s'lcHtl. 

619. JJ fiial is long: fntctu, comity dictu. 
Exceptions.— /«<i& for in, and tJnu for non. 

620. O Jinal is common : d?nd, sermo^ virgo. 

Exceptions.— O/ziaZis, 

1. Long,— (1) iu Datives and Ablatives : servo, Hid, quo,— {2) in Greek 
words, when it represents a long Greek vowel : echo, Avgd,—{Z) in Adverbs : 
falao, innltO, ergo, quando, omnlno; except those mentioned under --J bolow. 

2. Short in duo, ego, octo, and the adverbs cUo, illico, immd, nwdo, and 
its compounds, dummbdo, quomodo, etc. 

2. FINAL SYLLABLES IN MUTES OR LIQUIDS, 






Cj D, L, M, N, E, T, 

621. Rule VI.— In words of more tlian one syl- 
lable, 

Final syllables in c are long ; 

Final syllables in d, 1, m, n, r, t, are sliort: 

filec, illuc ; illiid, consul, amem, carmfin, amor, caput. 

EscEPTiONS.- The fol'.nwirsg occur, 

1. i)on^cand li£n. 

2. M final with the preceding vowel is generally elided before a vowel. 

See 600. 1. 



e 18 some- 
lI. : docti, 



KULES OF QUAXTITY. 291 

Ml^ ^rln "Zf'T:^'^ ^"^ '' '""S; *^«- «1- «". in, on, yn: Hymn, 
f-a- ' na ; "' f ' "' /^'"""' ^^^-'•^^«'-C^) -r is long iu «... i,/.,,,' 
7 ;•: ; '' ^7 " ''^'" ''^'^^ ^vith long ending in the orioinaF. 

rules!' '"'^^ ""'' '' ^*^""^'^' "W"^ *<^ ^^"''^les long by previous 



muyv. 



the Greek 
roc. Sing., 



) in Greek 
1 Adverbs : 
1- -2 below. 



one syl- 



jre a vowel. 



3. FIT^AL SYLLABLES IN S. 

l.l.lf ^* ^''"r ^^^•~"^'' '""'^^ ^^ "^^^'^ «^'^n one syl- 
lable, the endings as, es, and os are long; is, us, ys, 

chlami?' '^'"'''' ^'^"''^' ^^'^^^' '^"«. «'^"'"^; fivis, urbis, bonus, servus, 

623. Affinal is long ; Aeneas, honcts, iUas. 

^xcEPTioys.-AsJnal is short, 

1. In anas^nd in a few Greek nouns in Ss : Areas, lamj,as. 

~. In Greek Accusatives of Dec. III. : Arcudus, Mroas. 

624. BaJiJialislong: nubes, mones. 
Exceptions.— z;-/ft«? is short, 

1 In Nominatives Sin<niliif of Ttr^o ttt ^u- u • 

Cer-es, and compounds of ..../'as i.^i!:, ig etc ' "'' '''•^^'' ^---• 

2. In;;.«e.and the compounds of ^,,; ^^ades,p6th. 

iJd^r'"') ''""'f'r^^^ '" *'^« Pt"--^'' «f tho e which increase in the Gen • 
A> cades, Troadcs,-{2) m a few neuters iu es : Jlippomenh -(l^Z'i' ' 
Vocatives singular: Demosthenes. ^^'21>omeuus,-{o) m a lew 

625. Os final is long : ciisios, viros. 

ExcEPTioys.~OsJlnal is short, 

1. In compos, impos, exos. 

2. In Greek words wUh the ending short in the Greek : Delos, melds. 

626. Is final is short : dvls, cdnls. 
^xcKPTioys.— Is fnal is long, 

1. In riiirul Cases : 7nensls, servis, vdlis. 
IIencey?)/7.'i, gratis, ingratls. 

««^.! (liS:'"^""" "' ""• "'•• "™^'"« '™« ■" "■= «-- c"'- (»-). 

3. In the Sing. Pros. Indie. Act. of Conj. IV. : audls. 
Mavis, qulfls, utervU follow the quantitv of ;'«. 

4. In the Sing. Pres. Subjunct. Act. ■ p„ssU, vUls, noils, mdlls. 

5. Sometimes m the Sing, of the Fut. Perf. aud of the Pcrf Suhi • Hr^n 



292 



RULES OP QUANTITY. 



i 



627. X5s final is short : se^'vus, harms. 

Exceptions.— K(/»ans long, . 

1. In Noiuiuutives of Dec. 111. increasing long in the Gen. : virtus (Qt:s), 

tdl'&d (Oris). 

But pdUU (ii short) occurs ia Horace. Ars P. 05. 

2. In Dec. IV., in the Gen. Sing., and in tlie Norn. Ace. and Voc. Piur.' 

fruclus. . - - 

3. In Greek words c-ding long in tin original : Fanthus, bapphus, tripu.^^ 

But wo have Oedlpita and polypus. 

628. Ys/>i«ns short: chldmrjs, cMljjs. 
ExcEPTioxs.-Contraclcd endings arc of course long : Enjnnjjs for Eryn- 

nyes. 

II. QuATs^TiTY IN Increments. 

629. A word is said to increase in declension, when it 
has in any case more syllables than in the nominative smgu- 
]ar, and to have as many increments of declension as it has 
additional syllables: sermOy sermonis, sermonibus. 

Sermonis, having one syllable more than sermo, has one increment, while sev- 
mouibua has two increments. 

630. A verb is said to increase in conjugation, when it 
has in any part more syllables than in the second person 
singular of the present indicative active, and to have as 
many increments of conjugation as it has additional sylla- 
bles : drnds., dmdtls, dmdbdtis, 

Amdtis has one increment, dmuldtis two. 

631. If there is but one increment, it is uniformly the 
penult, if there are more than one, they are the penult with 
the requisite number of syllables before it. The increment 
nearest the beginning of the Avord is called the first incre- 
ment, and those following this are called successively the 
second, third, and fourth increments. Thus 

In scr-vion-l-hus, the first increment is mon, the second i;.and in men- 
ii-e-ra-inus, the first is «, the second e, the third ra. 

I. Increments of Declension. 

632. EuLE VITT.— In the Increments of Decleii- 
riion, a and o are long ; e, i, u, and y, short : 

actas, aetatis, aetutibus; sermo, sermouis ; puer, puSri puurOruin; 



nent, while ser- 



J; and in iTwn- 



RULES OF QUANTITY. 293 

Vou-els lung or short by position aro of course excepted. 

a?ac?w>r;^i"/>^''^- ^"^^'^^icuts of declension is lonjr • ^ax 
pacts, bonus, bonarum; duo, dudbus. ^ * ^ ' 

ExcEPnoxs.-^ is short in the first increment, 
E.ceptl Tdt:: " "" ""' ^= ^^^nml.al,IIannmu; Caesar, Caesaru. 

words in ax. ^ aais;,— („; sal, fax, and a few rare Greek 

ho^^ofh- ?.t'" ^^'? increments of declension is Ion-: honor 
iionons, bonus, bonorum ; duo, duobus, ° ' 

EXCEPTIOX-S.-0 is short in the first increment, 
^^.(aSrStd^o^^Sir^"^^'^'^^^' ^^"^^'■^- ^-I>* - (^r^^). 

4. OfmostPatrials: MacUo, Maced5nis. 
pounds ■„ pu3 : (,.^„„, (jji,,^ o«A>.,. ' ' ' " ""* °'""- 

EwTOvs^^i, long in ,ho nrst incromenl, 

^»*t 'r "°"" '" '"■ """^ ''"=* ■■ '^'•' ''^''*/ «•'■». «**.. So A.:o, 

ExcFPTioxs.-/is long in the first increment. 
1. Of most words in «: radix, radlcis ; fmx,fdlck. 
But .short in : (tnpendix, culir Olnr fiii^ /•«. • 
A.V others, chiefly pn/por namel ^'^'"^'•^^^""' •^''""*' «*«•• i^^. ^'i^'^. «</•»«:. and a 



li 



294 RULES OF QUANTITY. 

2, Of dis, glls, lis, vis, Quiris, Samnis. 

3, Ot'delpkin and a few rare Greek worda. 

4, For quantity of the ending ius, see C12. 3. 

637. U in the increments of declension is short : dux, 
duels ; arcus, arcubus ; sdtur, saturi. 

ExcKPTioxs.— J/'is long in the first increment, 

1. Of nouns in us with the genitive in viris, utis, udis : jus, juris; sulus, 
salutis ; palus, paludis. Except intercus, Ligus, jiecus. 

2. Oifur,f>'ux,luXfpl\:^ Pollux. 

638. Y in the increments of declension is short : chld- 
mys, chlamf/dis. 

Exceptions.— This increment occui-s only in Greek words, and is long in 
those in yn., ynis, and in a few others. 

IT. Increments of Conjugation. 

639. EuLE IX.— In the Increments of Conjugation 
(6S0), a, e, and o are long ; i and u short : 

timamus, amemus, amatote, regimus, sumus. 

1. In ascertaining the increments of the irregular verbs, firo, tMo, and their 
compounds, tlie full form of the second person, /crw, volts, etc., must be used. Tlius 
iafeiibum and volebani; the increments are re and le. 

2. In ascertaining the increments of reduplicated forms (254), the redu^licati'in 
is not counted. Thus dMlmus has but one increment di. 

640. A in the increments of conjugation is long: 
dmdre. 

Exceptions.— J is short in the first increment of do : dare, dabam, cir- 
cu77idabam. 

641. E in the increments of conjugation is long: mC 

ncre. 

Exceptions.— i? is short before r, 

1. In the tenses in ram, rim, ro: amaveram, amaverim, amavero; rex- 

erat, rexxrit. 

2. In first increment of the Present and Imperfect of Conj. III. : regere, 

regeris, regerem, regerer. 

8. In the Fut. ending beris, here: amdhiris, or -ere, motieberis. 

4. Rarely in the Perf. ending erunt : stUcruut for steierunt. See 235, 
also Si/stole, GG9. IV. 

642. O in the increments of conjugation is long with- 
out exception : monetote^ re(fitdte. 



rt: diix^ 

uris; mltis, 

rt: chld- 
d is long ia 



jugatioii 



KULES OP QUANTTTY. £95 

tie, f«Ll!" "'° ""=''™™'^ "f conjugation is short: rcffU 

&™pr.ox,.-/« long, o„opt before n vowel, 

i. In the lirst increment of (\ini i\r \ 



itmn 



S. Ill (lie endings imus and itin nf i>. c- .. 

"dm, (0.30. 8). "» aua ma „f p,.cs. gnbj. , rf,„„,_ J,-,;, . ^ii-,„^^^ 

3.y'; £S-:ti^S|r '^"^ °"^'»«' »»■■= ^■"- '«- re,t 

mut^- ^'"''°'»'^'™'™'« of conjugation is short: „„7«. 

.ffl««r'"S™faL«™!° ""' ®"'''™ ""'' *= parts formed from it: 



iZo, and their 
used. Thus 

redu;)licati')n 

is long: 

dabam, cir- 



ong: 7110- 



lavero ; rex- 
III. : regere, 

iberis. 

t. See 235, 



ong with- 



III. QWNTITY or DebIVATITE EsdingS. 

l^arttpritt";::"^ '""»"■"'« <'--«- endings 
I. abrum, acrum, atrum : 

flilbrum, simulacrum, aratriim. 

II.q^o,ido,udojago,igo,ugo: 

dulceao,ciipido,s5litQdo;vorago.6rIgo, aerugo. 

IV. ela, ile; alis, ills, ulis : 

querela, ovile; niortulis, fldelis, curalis. 
V 5nus enus, onus, xlnus; ana, ena, 6na, una- 
cana. ' '=^""^' P-^^-'^^^' t^buaus; membrana. babOna, annoua, IS- 

Except aalhdnua. 

"""""■ '"'™^ *'*-. ^< oetavus, «„». 



Acrisione. 



!! 



■ 11 



Lis 



Hi 



296 



EULES OF QUANTITY. 



VII. atus, itus, utus ; atim, itim, utim ; etum, eta : 

alatus, turritus, cornutus; singiilStim, viiitim, tributim; qucrcCtum, 
m5nCta. ,^ . _, 

Except (1) dnheimis,forturius, qratiMuo, MlUus, hoxpltuH, servltus, spirVm, 
(2) affiUim, stdiim, and adverbs in Uus, as dlvlnltm,' and (3) participles provided for 
by 639. 

YIII. eni, ini, oni, — in distrihulives : 

septeni, quini, octoni. 

646. EuLE XI.~Tlio following derivative endings 



have tlie penult short : 



I. ades, iSdes, Ides,— in patronymics : 

AeiiGaderi, Ltitjrtiades, TanUilitlcs. 

Except (1) those in idee from nouns in ena and es ; as, rmdes (Pcleus), Neo- 
aides (Neoclfs), and (2) AmphidmldeH, Amf/clldes,£ellded,Cdrd7ildcs, Lycurgldcs. 

II. iacus, iou8, xdus: 

Coriuthiacus, modicus, cupidus. 

Except dmlcus, antlcus, aprlc^is, mendlcus, posilciis, pMlcus. 

III. blus, eia, blum ; ulus, ula, iilum ; cuius, cula, culum,— m 

diminutives : 

filiolus, filiola, atriolum ; liortulus, virgiila, cppidulum; flosculus, 
particula, munusciilum. 

IV. gtas, itas,—m norms ; iter, itnB,— in adverbs : 
pietas, Veritas ; fortitcr, divlnitus. 

V. atilis, ilis, bais,— m verbals ; inus,— m adjectives denoting ma- 
terial or time : 

versatilis, docilis, amabilis; adilmantinus, cedrinus, crastinH^diutinus. 

Except matutlnus, rfpentinua, vesperttmis. 

1. nis in adjectives from nouns usually has the penult long : mlUs, has, 
tills, iivcrllis, mrllis. 

2. Inus denoting cJiaracterisiio (325) usually has the penult long: can*. 
nus, cqulnus, marlnus. 

647. KuLE XIT.— The following derivative endings 
have the aiitepcmilt long : 

I. aceus, uceus, aneus, arius, arium, orius : 

rosaccus, pannuceus, subitancus, cibarius, columbarium, censorius. 

II. abilis, atilis, aticus : 

jlraabilis, versatilis, aquuticus. 



BULES OF QUANTITY. 



297 



acrcCtum, 
jrovidcd lor 



endings 



III. aginta, iginti, esimus,— m numerals: 
nOnfigiuta, viginti, centGsiiuus. 

648. Rule XIII.-The following derivative endings 
liave the antepenult short : 

I. ibilis, itudo, eientus, ulentua. 

credibilis, solitudo, viuoleutus, opulentua. 

II. urio, — in dcsideratives : 
teiiiio, cmptiirio, parturio. 



'eleus), Neo- 
Lycurgldes. 



lulum, — in 

; flosculus, 



cnotirig ma- 
i%diutmu3. 

clvllis, TioSi 
long: catih 



3 endings 



ensonus. 



IV. QuAjfTiTY OP Stem Syllables. 
-T. Li Primitives, 

649 The quantity of stem-syllables in primitive words 
when not determined by the General Rulls (Sec. L), is in 
most cases best referred to authority. Thus, 

In mater, cGdo, scribo, dono. Qtor, the first syllable is long ly authoriiv 
while in pater, tggo, mico, s3uo, iiter, it is short by authority. ^' 

650. Rule XIY.— The quantity of stem-syllables 
remanis unchanged in inflection : 

In DKCLExsiox,— avis, avcm ; nubes, nubium. 
In COMPARISON,— 16vis, Ifivlor, ISvissimus. 
In CONJUGATION,— moneo, monebam, monul. 

1. Position may however affect the quantity: ager, dgri (611 612V 
possum, potui ; solvo,s6lutum; volvo,v6lutum. 

„n=v""t '^ ^'"""T' f J*"^""' ^''- "^^^ " '" ^"''*""^' «°^^'°. «°d ^oUo, long only by 
position, becomes short before a single consonant. ^ ^ 

2. Gigno gives genui, geaiium, and pom, vosui, podtum. 

3. See also 651, 052. 

651. Dissyllabic Perfects and Supines have the first syl- 
laole long, unless short by position : ^ 

jiivo, juvi, jutum ; foveo, fovi, fotum. 



syllable 



1. These Perfects and 

»rt, arc exceptions to 050, 
Seven Perfects 



Supines, if formed from Presents with the first 



the first syllable short ; 



bibi, dcdi,fidi, scldi, stcti, sttti, tuli 



ii- 



SIm 




298 



BULES OF QUANTITY. 



3. Ten Supines have tlic first syllable short : 

cltum^ (latum, \lum, lltum, quUum, rCctum, riitum, situm, sltum, ttor 

652. In ti-isyll:ibic lletluplieatcd Perfects the first two 
syllables are short: 

cildo, cScIdi ; cauo, cocini ; disco, dldici. 

1. Caedo has cicldi in distinction from cMcU from cddo. 

2, The second syllublo may bo mado long by position : c&curri, mdmordi. 






JI. In Derivatives. 

653. Rule XY. — Derivatives retain the quantity 
of their priiiiitives : 

bonus, bouitas ; .timco, timor ; animus, animosus ; civis, civicus ; cQra, 



euro. 



1. Frequeiitatives in ito, have i 

2. In a few Derivatives the short 



lidmo, 
latco, 
16''o, 
niaccr, 


humanus, 
lateniu, 
lex, legis, 
Hiac6ro, 


moveo, 


niobilis. 


persono, 


persona, 


In a few Derivatives the long \ 


acer, 
dIco, 
duco, 
fido, 


acerbus, 
dIcax, 
dux, duels, 
fitles. 


luceo, 
moles. 


lucerna, 
niSlestus, 



short: damlto. See 332. I. 

vowel of the primitive is lengthened; 

r6go, r6x, rCgis, rfigiila, 

s6cu3, secius, 

s6deo, sedcs, sGdiilus, 

scro, semen, 

suspicor, suspicio, 

t6go, tegula. 

vowel of the primitive is shortened : 






notum, 
odi, 
sopio, 
vado, 
vox, vocis, 



nSta, 

odium, 

sopor, 

viidiim, 

v6co. 



This chanife of quantity in some instances is the result of contraction : mMllli/t, 
molhllis, 7uvbni.% and in otliers it serves to distinguish words of tiie same ortlio<:ra. 
phy: as the verbs %w, %es, r^gis, ruffes, n^des, from the nouns %/.s, lege.% regis, 
reges, sedes, or the verbs dUcis, duces, fides, from the nouns diicis, dUces, fides. 



TIT. In Co77i2Joic?ids. 

654. Rule XYI, — Compounds generally retain the 
quantity of their elements : 

antS-fero, de-fero, de-dueo, in-aequalis, pro-duco. 

1, The change of a vowel or diphthong docs not affect the quantity : 
d5 ligo (leao), oc-cido {cado), oc-cTdo (caedo). 

' From sinto, but stdtum from sto. 



, situm, itSi' 
I first two 

'knordi, 

quantity 

vicus; cura, 

I. 

lengthened : 
is, rfigiila, 

Sdiilus, 
t 

shortened : 



n: movllllin, 
Tiie orthofrra. 
', legefi, regis, 
xes, fides. 



RULES OF QUANTITY. 



299 



ne «ometuue. long and somethur^hoT?!' ' ^^ "'' '°"S, rS short i 



dicluco, Kcduco, vccors, reduco, nCdum, nfifus; 



1) iJl is short In Ulrlmo, dUertus 

d.,.™rooSLfp;'o';ir' ■■^'•'"- "^^ ■»««"• -^^ «'»«■■ -^'wrcus, 

4. Pro.— Pro is short in the following word^- 
rarely in prOcuro, 2>roi>Mo. ^ P'ojundo, propayo, prOj^lno, 

i. oiSnix;;?;:;™ '^t^x^ ^^^r^ °'" ""^ <«^^- '«•), i. 

a.p,:f '■"°"' '*"■*'■'"»' ""l-'-fiiS-. -a-'fico, a,M-fa. „n,pl.,.f,co, Be 

Bat r IS short in Mdimm and <?KuMrfttMwj. 
^^ opj^ciAL VVoiiDS.-/7c;c/.,,^j,«,,,a,,d «i-j^,ii„;, Lavo the iirst syllablu 



etaiii tlie 



quantity : 



CHAPTEE II. 
VERSIFICATION. 



ssoTior I. 

OSNEBAL VIEW OF THE SUBJECT 

655. Latin Versification is based upon Quantity and 
Accent. Syllables are combined into certain metrical groups 
called Feet, and feet, singly or in pairs, are combined into 
Verses. 

I. Metkical Feet. 

656. Feet are either simple or compound. For con- 
venience of reference we add the following list : 

I. Simple Feet. 
Dissyllabic Feet. 



Spondee, 
Trochee,* 
Iambus, 
Pyrrhic, 



two long syllables, 
a long and a s?iort, 
a short and a lomj^ 
two short, 






w w 

Teisyllabio Feet. 



LSgfis. 
LSgTs. 
Pfir6us. 
PitSr. 



_ w w 
w w ^ 

www 



Daety?, o long and two short, 

Anapaest, two short and a long, 

Tribrach, three short, 

JIolossus, three long, =- — 

Amphibrach, a short, a Hong, and a short, " - 

Amphimacer,' a long, a short, and along, — « 

Bacchlus, a short and two long, " — 

Antibaccblus, two long and a sliort, — - 

IL Compound Feei, 

These are only compounds of the dissyllalbio feet, and 
all have four syllables. 



cUrmlnS. 

bdnltas. 

ddm!uus. 

lib&rtSs. 

Smiciis. 

militSs. 

d61or63. 

pastoris. 



1 Sometimes called Choree, 



Also ctUed Crciis. 






iitity and 
;:il groups 
iiicd into 



For con- 



s. 
us. 

is. 

s. 
s. 

13. 

•is. 



feet, and 



.VETKICAL FEIiT. 

Dispondco, double fpondee, 

Ditioelieo, double trochee, 

Diiunibiis, double iambuH, 

Procelcii3iriatic, double pl/rrhic, 

Groiiter Tonic, spondee and 2>!/rrhu', 

LessLT Ionic, pyn-/uo and spondee, 

Clionan.bus, trochee (choree), and iambus, - 

Antispast, iambus and trochee, 

First Kpitrite, iambus and spondee. 

Second Epitrite, trocJiee and spondee, 

Tiiird Epitrite, spondee and iambus. 

Fourth Epitrite, spondee and trochee. 

First Paeon, trocJiee andpyrrhic. 

Second Paeon, iambus andpyrrhic, 

T.'iiid Paeon, pyrrhic and trochee, 

I ourtli Paeon, pyrrhic and iambus. 



001 



— w ^ w 

W _ w _ 



W W w u 

—••—WW 



w w — 



w _ _ « 






^ w w w 
w — w w 



WW.. 



w w w ^ 



praGcCptnris. 

civrtaiis. 

fiinoOnltSs. 

tiiuiii(5i IS. 

sOntOntia. 

SdolOscOns. 

ImpitlOna. 

vcrC'cundfis, 

fiiiiflvGrQnt. 

condltorfis. 

nuctorltSs. 

SrnamontS. 

histoila. 

imabllls. 

puiSrllls. 

cSlfirIf23. 



1) Tlio Pa,t!,l a„<| Sj,o„a„_ ,„ej i„ „,„ „„„;„ ricxainclor 

aji '^ '"'""" '"' '•"*"■ '^-""- '•"w,, .;„;::, „„, „„,, 
foot ,i, a''„.,r, r.L«^Tr::r.Sf!';;;;';r """; '•°'' ■• "■• » 

aiul a half, etc. ' ^Ap'^^/^cVrt^w^y/s, of three 

Tribrach arc mctrl J.„jv2, J '"' '"" ■""""'• '"» ^ '"«'»• ™<1 '!■. 

658. Metkioal Si-dstitltes.— In cerMin l-n,/I= „P 
foe are sometimes s,,bstit,ned for tie wSh^^^^?„° /.r?' 
iiiotncal equivalents. Tims, ""' '"^"^ 

o,«,vi;L:,S,trl' s?:"or™ «""'""''"' "■" """"' " "■»T,oo>.ee,,„..,b „„t 

ciatfof o/:To,ro?e"™r A'S-^^ '"^ *"« P™"'" 
stress of voice ca led iZnl I 9'"j -'"s receive a specia; 

metri.nl foot ™g or m„ 'ii '^ ,'" *''° Pronunciation „f a 

of voicoc;,red rWS YiS'^r Sr " ^''"''" ^"'^^^^ 
14 



S02 



FKET. VERSES. 



■ *i 



l« ;f\ 



1. Simple Fket.— Feet consisting of both long and short syllables hav* 
tho iclua unii'ornilv ou the long Byllubloa, unlesa used ibr other Ikiet. Thus, 

The Ductyl nnd tho TrocLoo Imvo the Ictus on tho flrat sylluble ; the Anapaest 
and thu lumbua on the lu^nt. 

2. EQUIVALENTS AND SmsTiTCTEs.— Thcso tttko tho ictus of tho feet for 
which they uie used. Tluis, 

Tho Spondee, when used for tho Dactyl, takes tho Ictus of tho Dactyl, !. c, on 
tho first Byllablo; but when uttid for tho Anapaest, It takes tho lotus of tho Anapaest, 
i. u., on thu last syllablo. 

1) Feet conslslinc entirely of long or entirely of short syllables are goiierally 
•qulvalents or substitutes, and are aceeiiteil accoiillngly. 

2) When two short syllables of an equivalent take the placo of rn accented long 
Byllablo of the orlixUial foot, tho ictus rests ehielly on tlic first of these two. Thus tho 
IJactyl used for the Anapaest takes tho ictus on tlie flrst slmrt syllable. 

3. CoiirouND Feet.— These take the ictus of the feet of which they are 
composed. Thus, 

The ChoHnmhus (trochee and Iambus) takes tho ictus of the trochee on tho flrst 
B) liable and that of tho iambus on tho last. 

But Junic feet arc generally read with tho ictus on tho flrst long syllable. 

660. Arsis axd Thesis. — Tho accented part of each 
foot is called the Arsis {raising) \ and the unaccented part, 
Thesis {lowering), 

II. Verses. 

661. A verso is a lino of poetry, and is cither simple or 
compound. 

I. A Simple verse lias one characteristic or fundamental 
foot, whicli determines the ictus for the whole verse. Thus, 

Every Dactylic Verse has the ictus on the first syllable, because the Dac- 
tyl, its characteristic foot, has it on that syllable. 

II. A Compound verse has a characteristic foot for each 
member. See G92. 

662. Caesural Pause. — Most verses are divided into 
two nearly equal parts by a pause or rest called the caesu- 
ra* or caesural pause. See 673, G74. 

663. Metrical Na:mes of Verses.— The metrical 
name of a verse designates, 

I. The Characteristic foot. Thus, 



Sai 



» Caesura (from caedo^^o cut) means a cutting; it cuts or dlvAdes Uie verse into 



parts. 



Ilables have 
ct. Tltua, 

the Anapaest 



tlio feet for 

icfyl, I. c, on 
^lio Auapuust, 

ore goiiorully 

jccontod long 
ro. Tliiis tlio 

ich they are 

?e on tho first 
|r liable. 

b of each 
itcd part, 



simplo or 

ulamGntal 
sc. Thus, 

uae the Duc- 

t for each 

ided into 
the caesu- 

metrical 



Vxo verse into 



NAMES OP VERSES. 



ao8 



ui 



n. The Number of Feet or Measures.* Thus 

1. Ductylic Ilexatnctcr is Dactylic verse of mx n.easure, ' 

... , '''""'" ^^^^'*' ""''«''. ^'^ an excess of syll.blos. 

under' I il.'a uT"! ^Lr// "" ?" "'"^ P"^'^"'- «-ted 
Cu^a/a.^.V. etc. ' "''^^'^ ^^''"""''"' ^<^<^i<'l<^ctic, Dactylic Tnnuter 

bo cloil wil,[::tX:ity'"'"' ^'^ '"'" ^^"'"^^^"^' '^ ''"- -^•"«<^ -^^n U can 
/ecWu. • ««««^*«» (six feet), the lambio Tnmeter Acata. 

664. Special Names of VERsrs — ivron^r , 
often Oesignatea by names dori^d'X„ e&^5";ooT^ 

morf,x;scs"Tiii4„lTt,l\ • T™"""''"- «? t-o or 
See COO, 700. '' ""° »"'' «"='"'-•''' whole. 

?rf™«:'"°"'™ """ '' "'"^ " ^"'«' °f "--. ' ^«,. of four, . 



«.-,:f. ;;'rD,p4"'s,:;i:r* '° ^°^'°"'«- ^'«'«i^':^^^;;^^.^ 



f 



il 



i 



304 



METEE. FIGURES OF TROSODY. 



!i 



667. Metre. — Metre signifies measure^ and is used to 
designate, 

1. A Foot or Dipody, as the measure, or metrical ele- 
ment of a ver'^e. 

2. A Verse or Stanza, as the measure of a poem. 

668. Scanning. — Scanning consists in separating a poem, 
or verse, into the feet of which it is composed. 

III. Figures of Prosody. 

669. The ancient poets sometimes allowed themselves, 
in the use of letters and syllables, certain liberties generally 
termed Figures of Prosody. These are, 

I. Synaloepha. — Tliis is the elision of a final vowel or 
diphthong, or of a final m with the preceding vowel, before 
a word beginning with a vowel : 

Jlonstr' horrend' inform' iiigciis, for Monstrum horrcndum infarmo 
ingens. Virg. 

1. No account is taken of h, as it is only a breathing (2. 2). Ilcnce lior- 
rendum is treated as a word beginning wit li a vowel. 

2. Interjections, o, heu, ah, proh, etc., are not elided, but in other words 
the elision generally takes place in the best poets. 

3. Final e in the interrogative ne is sometimes elided before a consonant: 
Pyrrhin' connubia servas V for Pyrrhino connubia servas ? Virg. 

4. The elision of « occurs in the earl/ poets : 

Ex omnibu' rebus.yor Ex omnibus i5bus. Lncr. 

5. Synaloepha may occur at the end of a line when the next line be- 
gins with a vowel. It is then called Synapheia. 

II. Synaeresis. — This is the contraction of two sylla- 
bles into one : 

aucca, deinde, delnceps, fidem, fisdem. 

1. Synaeresis is of frequent appHcation. It may unite 

1) Two successive vowels, as in the examples above. 

2) A vowol and a diphthong: euedeni. 

3) Two vowels separated by k, as only a breathing : prohibeat, pronounced proi- 
beat. 

2. In the different parts of disum, ee is generally pronounced as one syl- 
lable : deesse, dSest, deerat, deSrit, etc. : so ei in the verb anteeo : anteire, antei- 
rem, auieiSf anlFU. 

3. / and u before vowels are sometimes used as consonants with the 
sound of 1/ and w : Thus, abiete and ariete, become dbyete and dryUe ; gentta 
and ienues become glnwa and tinwSi. 



II 



used to 

•ical ele- 

1. 

J a poem, 



imselves, 
generally 

T^owcl or 
il, before 

m infarmo 

Hence Mr- 

thcr words 

consonant: 
'irg. 

xt line be- 

tvo sylla- 



)unced proi- 

as one syl- 
teire, aniel- 

ts with the 
/ete / genita 



FIGUEES OF PEOSODY. VARIETIES OF VEKSE. 305 

inJto'^'^'''''^'''-™' '' ^^^^ -«^^"^i°" «f one syllable 
/o.S^"'""' «^P'^^"«/- Orpheus, soluendus, /o. solvendus, silua 

occasionally used by them J cire^t ortlr^ilce. ''"' "' ""^^ ""^'^°* '"""^ 

IV. SYSTOLE—Tliis is the shortening of a long syllable : 
tul6runt/o. tulorunt, stCtSrunt/o. steterunt (235), vldS'n/or videsno 

lableT* ^^^^^™^^— Tins is the lengthening of a short .yl- 
PnanMcs/or Prlfiimlfdes. 

the .Llont^ZltZ "'^j;"^;'"-f;^'^«>''° proper namesand in final syllables fn 
the ictus. ^ ^' ^" '^' ^'"''' '''' '^' ^^""'^''^ i» s^ld to be lengihened by 



SECTION II. 

VARIETIES OF VERSE. 

I. Dactylic Verse. 

rfifif '^?\ ^",^^^*>'^'c ycrses are measured by single feet 
Snt; 9^' "f '"'"''Z^ ^f ^^"^y^« ^"^ their metrical equiv. 
foot' ^^^"^^''- T^^^ ^^'^"^ i« o» the first syllable of every 

I' Dactylic Hexameter. 
fl,.cf^7^' '^''^Pi^^t'^:^|^I^6'^'''in3cter consists of six feet. The 

The scale is > ^ ^' 



f " 



QuadrttpS- 1 dantfi pii- | trem sSn!- | tu q„5trt | Ongiilii | ca, npum. Virg, 
Arms vl- | rQmqufi cS- | n5 Tro- | jae qui | pM^fis ab | oris. Virg. 
Infan- | dum r6- | gl„a jfi- | bfis rfiud- | var6 dd- | lorem. ^rg 
nil* m- I ler s6- I sc mag- j na vl j brSchJg j tollQui. Virg. 



n '$-. 



m 



» In this scale the sign ' marks the ictus (659). 
The final i of illi is elided by Synaloepha (609). 



306 



DACTYLIC HEXAMETER. 






672. Varieties. — The scale of dactylic hexameters ad- 
mits sixteen varieties, produced by varying the relative 
number and arrangement of dactyls and spondees. 

1. Illustration.— Thus a verse may contain, 

1) Five dactyls and one spondee, as in the first example above. 

2) Four dactyls and two spondees. These again admit four different ar- 
rangements. 

3) Three dactyls and three spondees, as in the second and third examples 
above. But these again admit six dill'erent arrangements. 

4) Two dactyls and four spondees. These admit four different arrange- 
ments. 

5) One dactyl and five spondees, as in the fourth example. 

2. Effect op Dactyls.— Dactyls produce a rapid movement and are 
adapted to lively subjects. Spondees produce a slow movement and are 
adapted to grave subjects. But generally the best effect is produced in suc- 
cessive lines by variety in the number and arrangement of dactyls and spon- 
dees. 

3. Spondaic Line.— The Hexameter sometim'^ ; takes a spondee in the 
fifth place. It is then called Spondaic, and generally has a dactyl as its 
fourth foot : 

Caia d6- j Qm s8b6- | ICs mag- | num Jovis | Incrg- ] mfintum. Virff. 

673. Caesural Pause.— The favorite caesural pause 
of the Hexameter is after the arsis, or in the thesis, of the 
third foot : 

Arma- [ tl ten- | dQnt; || It [ clSmSr 6t | 3gmin6 | fScto. Virg. 
lufSn- I dOm, r6- | giua, || ju- | bCs rfino- 1 varS d3- | lorem. Virg. 

In the first lino the caesural pause, marked || , is after tendunt, after the arsis of 
the third foot ; and in the second line after reglna, in the thesis {nd ju) of the third 
foot. 

1. Rake Caesuhal Papse. — The caesural pause is sometimes in the 
fourth foot, and then an additional pause is often introduced iu the second 
foot. Sometimes indeed this last becomes the principal pause : 

Cr5did§- | rim; || v6r | illiid 6- | lut, || ver | magniis a- | gfibat. Virg. 

2. Bucolic Caesura.— A pause between the fourth and fifth feet is gen- 
erally called the bucolic caesura, because often used in pastoral poetry : 

IngCu- I tern coe- | 10 s6ni- | turn d6dit; || ludg s6- | cQtus. Virg. 

3. Faultt Caesura.— a caesural pause at the end of the third foot is 
regarded as a blemish in the verse : 

PulvSru- i lentiis 6- | quis fiirlt; || SmnCs | SrmS r6- | quirunt. Virg. 

674. Caesura and Caesural Pause. — ^The ending of 
a word witliin a foot always produces a caesura. A line 
may therefore have several caesuras, but generally only 
one of these (sometimes tvvo) is marked by the cacsurui 
pause : 



i 



oeters nd- 
3 relative 



vc. 
different ar- 

rd examples 

ent arrange- 



jnt and are 
ent and are 
uced in suc- 
Is and spou- 

ndee in the 
lactyi as its 

Q. Virff. 

I'al pause 
is, of the 

Virg. 

r the arsis of 
of the third 

mcs in the 
the second 

lat. Virg. 

feet is gen- 
et ry : 
Irg. 

lird foot is 

t. Virg. 

nd'mg of 

A line 

lily only 

cacsui'ul 



DACTYLIC VEESE. qqh 

AmS VI. I rumque cS- | n5, „ Tro- | jas qui I pM„.,s Sb | oTis. Virg. 

must he ;'ilTj; tlfe^enle tr/ ? '" ^^ "^^'^' '^^ *^° ^^^^ *^« -^- 
ofsense.orwlLeatlea'?^^^^^^^^ pause where there is a pause 

, wuere at least it vvdl not interfere with the sense. 

Romae I moenia | tfirruit | Lnplgfir | Uannibal | armis. i««. 

^f f?^?f ^'^^"^ "^^^^^^ ^^ ™E Hexameter.— The last ^vnv^ 

eJv^o::::T4';T^^^^^^ "°^ ^^^"-^-^^ ^^i-^-onablo, and so.eti.es 
Praeclpr. | tant cu- | rae, || tur- | bat3q„6 | fungrfi | m5ns est. Virg 
Est is indeed often used even when not preceded by another monosyllable 

line^tSlr ---:^ -^^^ used at theendof the 

Parturl- | tint mon- 1 t6s, || nas- j cetur | ridicii- J Jus mus. Ilor. 

II. Dactylic Pentameter. 

Dictyls and the arss of f hW a?,/s:' «»>■»;«'« of t,vo 
the, p^e of the ^^<^.y^^■ ^l^X^r^Vt. 



Admont- I IQ coo- | pi || ftrtlor | esse «- | 6. OM. 

the «,.ra, a ,p.„.ee , U. f„,; *h?„rr:",'! r^":'"^ '"'^'^ °' '^°°^-' 
the Pentameter : consists of the Hexameter followed by 

Ossa, ru- 1 luo- 1 sas || occulit | hOrbi d(5- | mQs. Oo. 



Ill 



Other Bactylio Verses. 



i 

^1 



v<>^:^:l^::^::s^2^^^^ - •- - 




808 DATYLIC, ANArAESTIC, AND TEOCIIAIC VERSES, 

I. Dactylic Tetrameter. — This consists of the last 
four feet of the Hexameter : 

Ibhuus I suci- I i, comi- | tCsqiic. Ilor. 

In compound verses, as the Greater Arcliilochian. the tetrameter In composition 
vith other metres, has a dactyl in the fourth place. Sue G91. I. 

II. Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic. — Tliis is the Lesser 
Archilochian, and is identical with the second half of the 
Dactylic Pentameter : 

Arborl- | busqufi co- | mao. Hor. 

III. Dactylic Dimeter. — ^This is the Adonic, and con- 
sists of a Dactyl and tjpondee : 

Montis i- I mago. Ilor. 

II. Anapaestic Verse. 

678. Anapaestic verses consist of Anapaestic dipodies. 

An Anapaestic dipody consists of two Anapaests, but 
admits Spondees or Dactyls as equivalents. 

I. Anapaestic Dimeter consists of two dipodies : 
VeniOnt • auuis || saecula • sGrls.' Sen. 

Tl)is is sometimes catalectic (()63. Tll. 1), and has only a long syllable in place of 
the last foot. It is then called Paroemiac. 

II. Axapaestio Moxometer consists of ona dipody; 
Data res | patriae. Alison. 

1. In Anapaestic verse Dactyls are nsod sparingly, and are generally followed bf 
Spondees. Each dipody generally ends with a word. 

2. The last syllable is not common, as in most kinds of verso (0C5), but subject 
to the ordinary rules of quantity. 

3. Anapaestic verse does not occur in the besi Latin Poets. 

III. Trochaic Verse. 

679. Trocliaic verses consist of Trochaic dipodies. 

A Trochaic dipody consists of two Trochees, or of a 
Trochee and a Spondee ; but it admits the Tribrach as the 
cquivahMit of the Trochee, and the Anapaest, of the S[)on- 
dee. The first foot has a heavier ictus than the second ; 

' In verses measured by dip^/dios, a dotted line is placed between the feet, a Hln> 
rIo line between the dipodies, and a double line in the place of the cacsural pause. 



TKOCHAIC VERSE. 



309 






I. Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic. 

U.,^f^: ^^''^ '''',"'''^^ ^^ ^^"^ Trochaic Dipodies with the 

ast foot incomplete. The caesural pause is Tthe end of 

the^fourth foot, and the incomplete di^ody admits no equi'v' 



V w w - V w w 



Jsulia J vo.-: hQ- I nianS | constat || Sbsqug j sCptCm | littS- • ris 
n^ voca- I les vS- i cavit „ ,uu. mS- : glstri | Graek : a. •^^' Mau 

and eove"ntr''"'''^"""' '^ '"^^^ ""^ '^^ '"'^"^-^'^ ^° -^ ^-^ except the fourth 

s" ll'^nrTirf'' '"' *^' ^'"'"'^^° sometimes occurs. 
in ^^^.SZ^^i;:^' ^^"^--^» -- •« ^^« oaa fee, as we„ . 

Ipse : summis | suxis = f ixus || aspS- : ris e- 1 visco- : ratus. Enn. 

II. Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic, 
\..^f\ ^'^"^ consists of two Trochaic Dipodies M-ith tho 



:.iwUw :1 



Aula : divi- 1 tem mS- : net. Ilor. 

^.^»J^^mcAyc«<«/ec«.c, or an Itlvjphalicu^ occurs in tho Greater Arcbilochian. See 

8. For SappMo, Verse, spr 601. lY. 
4. For Phalaecian, see C91, V. 

rV. Iambic Verse. 
682. Iambic verses consist of Iambic dipodies. 
An Iambic dipody consists of two Iambi or of a Snnn 

^ui^en^ftJoV"'!'"' ^^ ^'""^^ ^^^ l^ibra^Ji \^^X 
equivalent of the Iambus, and sometimes the Dactyl or the 



;i ^' '! 



•'ii E 



s 
tj 






I 



310 



IAMBIC VERSE. 



Anapaest, of the Spondee. The first foot has a heavier 
ictus than the second. 

In its full form it has the following scale : 



w — • w — 



w w — 



I. lamhlt . . >/mder. 

683. This verse, also called Senarius^ consists of three 
Iambic Dipodies. 

I. Tlie first dipody lias the full form, 
n. The second admits no Anapaest. 
Ilf. Tlic third admits no Anapaest or Dactyl, and in its second 
foot, no equivalent whatever. 

IV^ Tlie Caesural Pause is usually in the third foot, hut may 
be in the fourth. 
The scale is, 



\J sj \j 



Quid ob- : s5ra- | tis || au- j ribus | fundis ; prgccs? ITor. 
Neptu- I nils al- | to || tun- j dit bl- | benius | salo. Hor. 
ll&i ill- i t6r 6pu- I las 1| ut : juvat | pastas j oves. Jlor. 

1. Proper Names.— In proper names an Anapaest is admissible in any 
foot, except tbe last, but must be in a sii ,lo word. 

2. Horace.— In Horace tbe only feet freely admitted are the Iambus and 
the Spondee ; their equivalents, the Tribrach, the Dactyl and Anapaest, are 
used very sparingly. The Tribrach never occurs in the fifth foot and only 
once in the first. The Anapaest occurs only twice in all, 

3. CoMEDY.-In Comedy great liberty is taken, and the Spondee and its 
equivalents are freely admitted in any foot except the last. 

4. Choliambus.— This is a variety o{ Iambic Trimeter with a Spondee in 
the sixth foot and an Iambus in the fifth : 

Miser j Catul- | 16 de- j sKniJs | inep- j tire. Catul. 

ChoUamlma means lame or limping Iambus, and is so called from its limpin" 
movement. It is sometimes called Season for tlio same reason, and sometimes Hip- 
2)onaatMii, from llipponax, its reputed inventor. 

. ^84. Iambic Trimeter Catalectic— This is the Iam- 
bic rnmotGr with the last foot incomplete. But iu Iloracc 
the only feet admissible besides the Iambus are the Tri- 



IAMBIC VEIiSE. 



311 



bracl. in the secoud foot and the Spondoo i„ the first and 



- - : V J. I , z 



w w I __ _ 



V6ca. i tds at- I qu6 uou j voca- | [us au- j dit. i/<^ 

JI. Iambic Dim-ter. 

^^^^Ji^S^tf,^ I™Wc Dipodio, ,vith 

place, tho Shoudee in X v«?^ '.-e rnbrach in the second 
the list : '" "'"^ "'"■'1' ="»'! tlie Dactyl in 



« ± 






Qu6run- i tiir in 1 sllvis j avcs. ITor 

Imbresinrvos-lquecom-iparat. TTbn 
Ast 6g6 : vicis- I Sim ri- : s6ro. IIov. 



follo';-i^gTcLlef """'" H"-™™. occurs ia Horace with the 



" -■ — J- * 



raor I qnrs Cx I aula I oSpil. I Us. //or. 



M3nu i pti5r | ISquS- j ci. I>et. Arh. 

without the first syllable Thus '' ''''' "^ '"■'"'" "•■"-'- 

Au- : la di- I vltCm j iDauet. ITor. 



treated as Iambic Dimeter 



jii 1 



i 



S' 



III. Icmibic Tetrameter. 
686. The Iambic Tetrameter is litflp n<!Pfi ;„ t „*• 

cacsural pause -s usually after the fourth foot • 

Quantum ia- : tellox- | i modo : senis I) sr-nt.-n • .- i , 



I 



1- -n 



^1 O 



IONIC AND CnORIAMniC VEESES. 



The Iambic Tetmrneter Catalectio bolougs mostly to comedy, but occurs also ^o 
Catullus: 

QuOt corn- : modus | rOs at- • tuli ? |1 quot au- • tcm iWo- 1 mi cu- • rus. Ter. 



V. Ionic Veiise. 

687. The Ionic a Minore consists entirely of Lesser 
Ionics. It may be either Tetrameter or Dimeter : 



w>->__lww — — 



w<^ — — |ww__ 



w w ^ — 



SImul Qnctos | T!b6rlnls | l.umfiios la- | vlt in Qndis. Jlor. 
K6ciu6 sCgni | i)cd6 victus. Ilor. 

1. Horace has this metre only in one short ode (III. 12). In some edi- 
tions this ode consists entirely of Tetrameters ; but in others it is arranged 
in stanzas of three lines; the first two, Tetrameters, and the third, a Dimeter. 

2. In this verse the lust syllable is not common, but subject to the ordi- 
nary rules of quantity, as in the Anapaestic verse. See 678. 2. 

3. The Ionic a Majorc, Sotad'ean Verse, scarcely occurs in Latin, except 
in Comedy. In its pure state it consists of three Greater Ionic feet and a 
Spondee, but in Martial the third foot is a Ditrochee: 



Has cum ggmi- | u2 compeil5 | dedlciit ca- | tfiuas. Mart. 
VI. ClIORIAMBIC YeRSE. 

688. Choriambic verses begin M-ith a Spondee followed 
by one, two, or three Choriarabi, and end with an Iambus. 

In Horace the Choriftmbio verse uniformly begins with the Spondee, but in some 
of the other poets the Trochee, the Anapaest, or the Iambus occasionally takes tlio 
place of tlie Spondee. 

689. A Choriambic verse with one Choriambiis is 
called the Ghj conic ; or, if catalectic, the Pherecratean ; 
with two, the Asclepiadean ; with three, the Greater As- 
clepiadean. 

I. The Glyconic has the following scale : 

vi 



— — .1. W W J. 



Donee I grStus gram | tibi. Ilor. 

II. The Pherecratean is catalectic, but otherAvise iden- 
tical with the Glyconic. Its scale is, 



± I 



Vix da- I rarfi cari- | nae. Ilor, 



sser 



CIIORIAMBIC VERSE. 323 

III. The AscLEPiADE.iN lias tho following scale: 

--|-««-ll-i-wwi.|„i 

Maece- | uas ativls || cdltfi rOg- | Ibus. Ilor. ^ 

IV. The Greatek AsclepiadUax has the folio wi 



- I --^■LWJ.^^LwL 



►'ing scale : 



Sou plQ. I res hifimes, || seu trlbiilt || Juprtfir ul- | timam. Ilor, 

This is somotimea called Choi-iambic Pentumpf^,. «« i 
Tetrameter. entameter and sometimes ChoHamUc 

EpichoriamhiG Verse. 
690. When a verse begins with a Second EDitritP fnl 

frJf J* o^nf ^t^™^^ Verse.— This consists of a Second Eni 
tute, a Choriambus and a Bacchius : ^^tcona i.pi. 



— WW — 



N3mqu6 m5 sll- | vS || lupfls In | Siiblua. 7/or. 

^- ^"* *•>« Sapphic verse may also be measured as a Trochaio HmnH. 

.vn ^'J'u f""'"™' I'ause usually occurs after the fifth syllable as in fKo 
example, but sometimes after the sixth. sjuawe, as m the 

3. Catullus admits two Trochees in place of the Epitrite. 

II. The Greater SAPriiic Vttpct? tkjo a'cq ^ 



— w w .1. 



- " w — w i _ 



Inter aequa- | ICs gquitSt. || GallJcS „ec | Iflpatis. /7^' 
This is sometimes improperly called CkorlamMc Tetrameter. 

VII. Logaoedic Verse. 



; 



314 



LOGAOEDIC VERSE. 






hi 



VituO I sflmniS br6- | vlsspCm | noa v6tat, || Iiichii- j ur6 | longara. JJon 
Tue cuesuiul pause is between the two members. 

II. Alcaic Verse. — This consists of two Dactvls fol- 
lowed by two Trochees : 



Purpiirfi- | D \S,il- \ Qs co- j lore. Jlor. 

III. Aristopiianic Verse. — This consists of a Dactyl 
followed by two Trochees: 



^ w w 



Cur ii6qu6 | mili- j turis. Jlor. 

This verso is variously named, At'istophanic, Chorlutnhlo Dimeter, anil Cho. 
riamliic Dimeter Catalectic. 

IV. Sapphic Verse. — ^This prefixes to the Aristophanic 
a Trochaic Dipody consisting of a Trochee and a Spoudeo 
(690. I.). The scale is, 

Namqu6 • mC sll- | vii lupus | in Si- .; bina. Jlor. 

Siipphio verse may bo classed at pleasure cither with tho Logaoedic versos, as 
here, or with the Epichonambie verses, as in article 690. 1. 

V. Pualaeci AN Verse. — This consists of a Spondee, a 
Dactyl, and three Trochees : 

^_|lw«|lw:iw|i.7 

Non gst [ vivfir6, i| sCd v5- j lerfi | vita. Mart. 

This verse is sometimes called, from the number of its syllables, nendecasyUahic, 
of eleven syllables. It does not occur in Horace. In Catullus it somctimos has a 
Trochee, or an Iambus, in tho first place. 

VIII. Miscellaneous Verses. 

692. Greater Alcaic Verse. — ^This consists of an 
Iambic Petithemimeris and a pure Dactylic Dimeter, i. e., 
an Iambic Diftody, a long syllable and two Dactyls : 



Vides I ut al- I ta II stCt niv6 | candWum 
Sorac- j ih nCc | jam || susliufi- | ant dniis. JJor. 

1. The Caesural Pause is usually between the two members. 

2. In Horace the first foot is generally a Spondee. 

3. This verse forms the first and second lines of the Alcaic Stanza. See 
VOO. I. 



MISCELLANEOUS VJiliSES. 



310 



d?---r;^-r^^^-x;sns 



(08u): 



Uinidcr 



J. yj 



V I — u 






1. This ver.o I, ,omoii,„„j oauc ei,„t,ml„. 

T««^fi- r;^:;S';^"? JT^TT''.- consist, of n„ 
»amo pans as t].c p,oceJi„g/b„t i„ auZ^S'ord^i " 



— WW 



— >» w J _ 



NIves. I qu6 do- I clacont : Jc5vC,n : „ nOnc ,„a. S, | „auc sriii- , „e. Jlo, 
L Tl.i3 verso is sometimes callcl lamlelcgu,. ' 

2. For the flnul syllable of tl.o first member, seo 693. 2. 



- I JL -. i w w ^ 



QuC-cus I urrda ras- | tlca II conror. | r.^ s6cu- | ri. ^a^.?. 

1. In this verso, as it appears in Catullus, tl.o Glvcon!-nn^ ♦>.« t^i 

nppear with such variations as aro allowed in th^ poet 6 T ITenn ^l^'T'''^'^ 
quercm for tl.o Spondee, in the oxamplo. ^ ^' '' """ ^'■''^''^•" 

2. For tbo final syllable of the first member, sec 693. 2. 



I s ii 

'^' if 



SECTION" III. 

THE VEnSIFICATIOK OF VIRGIL, HORACE, OVID, A^D JUVE.^^I. 

696. Virgil and Jittt^nal.— Virgil in his Ecloo-nps 
Ocorg.cs, and Aeneid, and Juvenal in his Sati es u e^^^v 
the Dactylic Hexameter. See 671. ^^•'"^^ "i>e only 

697. OviD.—Ovid uses the Hexameter in his Motnm^v 

ivS '^eVe^o.''^'" ^^^" "^ ^^^ Epi"i!;s\':nr; 

.,..^_^^^/ KoKACE.-IIorace uses the Hexameter in hi« V.rn^ 
t.o« und Satires, but in his Lyrics, i. e., in his Odesli d 
l^'odes, he uses a great variety of Metre 



■', I 



316 



METRES OP HORACE. 









699. Lyrics of Horace. — Most of the Odes and 
Epodes consist of Stanzas of two, threo, or four verses; but 
a few of tlieni consist entirely of a single kind of verse. 

Lyric Metres of Horace. 

700. For convenience of reference tlio following out- 
line of the Lyric metres of Horace is hero inserted. 

A. Stanzas of Four Verses. 

I. Aloaio Stanza. — First and second versos, Greater Alcaics 
(602) ; tliird, Iambic Diineter Ilypcrmetcr (085. I.) : fourth, Al- 
caic (Oai. II.). 



^:[:-n 



^ w w 



3. 

4. Z„«|lw„|I.„:l"3 

la thirty-seven Odes: I. 9, IC, 17, 20, 2", 20, 81, 84, 35, 37 ; II. 1, 3, 5, 
7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20 ; III. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, IT, 21, 23, 20, 29 ; IV. 4, 
9, 14, 15. 

II. Sapphio and Adonic. — The first three verses, Sapphics 
(691. IV.) ; the fourth, Adouic (677. III.). 

2. li.w:jL_|i.„«|i.w:l^ 



w w I ~ -• 



In Twenty-six Odes: I. 2, 10, 12, 20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 88; II. 2, 4, G, 8, 10, 
10; III. 8, 11, 14, 18, 20, 22, 27; IV. 2, 0, 11, and Sec. Hymn. 

III. AscLEPiADEAN AND Glyconio.— The first three verses, 
AsclepiadGans (689. III.) ; the fourth, Glyconic (689. 1.). 
1.) i. 

o. ) «l 

4. -i-l-i-wv-^lv.- 

In nine Odes: I. 6, 15, 24, 83; II. 12; III. 10, 16; IV. 5, 12. 

IV. AsCLEPlADfiAN, PlIETlECEATfiAN, AND GlTOONIC. — The first 

two verses, Asclepiadeans (689. III.); the third, Pherecrateau 
(689. 11.) ; the fourth, Glyconic (689. 1.). 

2:[--i- — -I- — -I — 

3. L-\L^^L\Z 

4, L -\J. ^ ^ L\^ 1 

In seven Odes : I. 5, 14, 21, 23 ; III. 7, 13 ; IV. 13. 



)(lc3 and 
rses; but 

iCYSQ. 



ving out- 



I. 



;er Alcaics 
burth, Al- 



ii. 1, 8, 5, 

29 ; IV. 4, 

Sapphics 



, 4, C, 8, 10, 

ce verses, 



-The first 
3recrateau 



ni7 



MEl'RES OF HORACE. 

B. Stanzas of Three Verses. 
the La'; Dhnofcr'' ^''^^-'^''" ^''' '-° ^«-^«. Tetrameters: 



In Odo III. 12. 



" - - I w w 1 _ 



C. Stanzas of Tioo Verses. 
Vr. lAMuio TuiMETEu AND Iambio Dimeter (G83, 685) 



— WW 

WW — 



2. w i. 



w w w I _ _ 



In tho first ten Epoiles. 

VII. GlycoxXio and Asolepiadean (G89. 1., HI.). 

1. -^-|i.wwJl|wi 

2. See IV. 1. 
In twelve 0,les: I. . 13, 10, SG; HI. 9, 15, 19. 24, 25, 28; IV. 1, 3. 

VIII. Hexameter and Dactylic Tetrameter (671 ; 677. 1.). 



1. 



In two Odes : I. 7, 28, and Epode 12. 
677. U.')."^''^''''^'''* ^""^ Dactylic Trimeter Catalectio (671 , 

1. See VIII. 1. 

2. ^ w w I JL « „ j i 
In Ode IV. 7. 

X. Hexameter and Iambic Trimeter (G71 683) 
See VIII. I and VI. 1. ' 

In Epode IG. 

XI. Hexameter and Iambic Dimeter (671 685) 
See Vlir. I and VI. 2. ' 

In Epodes 14 and 15. 



318 METEES OP IIOKACE. 

XII. Hexameter and Iambico-Daotylio (671, 694). 
1. See VIII. 1. 



u — . I w » 



^ W V I — 



■ In Epode 13. 

XIII. Iambio Trimeter and Daotylico-Iambio (683, 693). 
1. See VI. 1. 



^ \j \j 



— w w I ^ 



2. 

In Epode 11. 

XIV. Trochaio Dimeter Catalectio and Iambio Trimeter 
Cataleotio (681, 684). 

1. ± yj : J. »\L » : i 



— •www 



± : « i. I w JL 



In Ode II. 18. 



XV. Greater ARoniLooiiiAN and Iambio Trimeter Cata- 
lectio (691. I. ; 684). 



2. See XIV. 2. 
In Ode I. 4. 

XVI. Aristophanio and Greater Sappitio (691. III. ; 690. II). 

1, 2. w « \ ± » :±Z 

2. .iwi._|^„wi.|i.«„JL|„i.- 
In Ode I. 8. 

D. Verses used Sitigly. 

XVII. ASCLEPIADEAN (689. III.). 



13, 

14, 
15. 



22, 

23, 

24, 

25, 

26, 

27, 

28, 

29, 

30, 

31, 

32, 



In three Odes : 1. 1 ; III. 80 ; IV. 8. 

XVIII. Greater AsolepiadEan (689. IV.) 

JL_|±«wi.|i„„l|i.v 
In three Odes : I. 11, 18 ; IV. 10. 

XIX. Iambio Trimeter (683). See VI. 1. 
In Epode 17. 






3, 



METEES OF IIOBACi?. 



319 



~1 



701. I^BEX TO TDB LteIC JIktHES op HonACK. 
I r™ "'"""*_■■'"■- 'o articte h the preceding „„Ui„e, WO. 



Oiles. 

I, 

o 

"} 

3, 
4, 

5, 
6, 

V, , 

8, , 

9, . 
10, 



BOOK I. 



Metres. 
XVII. 

II. 

VII. 

XV. 

IV. 

III. 
viir. 

XVI. 

I. 

JJ' xviii. 



13, 

14, 
15, 
16, 



II. 

VII. 

IV. 

III. 

I. 

I. 



18, XVIII. 

1^ VII. 

II. 

IV. 

II. 

IV. 

III. 

II. 

I. 

r. 

VIII. 

I, 

II. 

I. 

II. 

III. 

I. 

I. 

VII. 

I. 

II. 



Odos. 

4, 

5, 
6, 
1, 
8, 

9, 
10, 

11, 

12, 
13, 

14, 
15, 
16, 

IV. 
18, 
19, 
20. 



20, 

21, 
22, 
23, 
24, 
25, 
26, 
27, 
28, 

29, 

30, 

31, 

32, 

d3, 

34, 

35, 

36, 

3Y, 

88. 



BOOK II. 



1, 

2, 
3, 



I. 

II. 

I. 



3, 
4, 

5, 
6, 
V, 
8, 

I 10, 

11, 
12, 

13, 

14, 

15, 
16, 

IV, 
18, 
19, 
20, 

21, 
22, 
23, 
24, 
25. , 



BOOK in. 



Metres. 
II. 
I. 
II. 
I. 
II. 
I. 
II. 
I. 
III. 
I. 
I. 
I. 
II. 
I. 
XIV. 

I. 
I. 



Odes. 
26, 

27, , 

28, . 

29, . 

30, . 



Metres. 

I. 

II. 

\n. 

I. 

xvii. 



I. 
I. 
I. 
I. 
I. 
I. 

IV. 

II. 

VII. 

III. 
II. 

V. 
IV. 

II. 

VII. 

III. 

I. 

II. 

VII. 

II. 

I. 
II. 

I. 

VII. 
VII. 



BOOK IV. 

vir. 

II. 

VII. 

I. 

III. 

II. 

IX. 

XVII. 

y, I. 

??. XVIII. 

II.' 

III. 

IV. 

I. 

I. 



2, 
3, 
4, 
5, 
6, 
V, 
8. 



11 

12,' 
13, 

14, 
15. 



EPODES. 



Epodos. 

1, .. 

2, .. 

3, ... 



6, 

V, 
8. 



10, .....^.... 

11, 

12, 

13, 

14, 

15 

16, 

IV, 

SEGt:i.AR HTJiJ 



Metres. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
XIII. 
VIII. 
XII. 
XI. 
XL 
X. 
XIX. 



I 



■•f ; 



a.. 



APPEl^DIX. 



I. FiGUEES OF Speech. 

702. A Figure is a deviation from the ordinary /orm, 
construction, or signijication of words. 

Deviations from the ordinary forms are called Figures of Etymology ; 
from the ordinary constructions, Figures of Syntax, and from the ordinary 
significations, Figures of lihetoric. 

7G3. Tlie Figures of Etymology are the following : 

1. ApiiAEnESis takes a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word : W for est. 

2. Syncope takes a letter or syllable from the middle of a word: vlrum for 
v'irdrum, dixe for dixisse. 

8. Apocope takes a letter or syllable from the end of a word : tiln' for tilne. 

4. Pkostiiesis prefixes a letter or syllable to a word: tetUli for tilli. 

5. Epenthesis inserts a letter or syllable in a word : Alcumena for Alcmena., 
dllluum for dlUum. 

6. Paeagoge adds a letter or syllable to a word : dicier for did. 

7. Metathesis transposes letters or syllables; pistria {or prist is. 

8. Antithesis substitutes one letter for another : volnus for vulnus, olli for illi< 
See also Figures of Prosody, 669. 

7C4. The Figures of Syntax are the following : 

I. Ellipsis is the omission of one or more words of a 
sentence : 

HSbitabat ad Jo vis {sc. templum), lie dwelt near the temj^le of Jupiter. 
Liv. Abiit, Cvasit {et), lie has gone, has escaped. Cic. 

1. Asyndeton is an ellipsis of a conjunction. See 5S7. 1. 6; 587. IIL 4. 

2. Zeugma is an ellipsis which employs a single verb with two subjects or ob- 
jects, though strictly applicable to only one : 

Pi'icem an bellum gerens, xchether at peace (iigens) or waging war. Sail, 

3. Aposiopesis, also called lieticentia^ used for rhetorical cft'ect, is an ellipsis 
which leaves the sentence unfinished: 

Quos ego Bed motos praestat compOnere fluctus. Whom I hut it is let- 
ter to calm the troubled waves. Virg. 

4. Proverbs are often elliptical. 

5. Ellipsis of Facio, Dico, Obo, Sec 460. 3 ; 602, ;L 8. 

II. Pleonasm is the use of superfluous words : 

Erant itinfira duo, quibus itincribus exire possent, 77iere were two ways 
by icMch ways they might depart. Caes. Eurusque Notusque ruunt, Jioth 
Eurus and Notits rush forth. Virg. 

1. PoLVSY><i)ETo;s 13 a jilcoiMstii in the use of conjunctions, as in the lant cxam[ilc. 

2. Hendiadys is the use of two nouns with a conjunction, instead of a nowJi 
with an adjective or genitive: 



Etymology ; 
ae ordinary 

wing : 

;1 : '«< for est 
I: vlrum for 

for time. 

tor Alcmena., 



?, olli for illu 



)rds of a 



of Jupiter, 

[.4. 

bjects or ob- 

•. Sail, 

s an ellipsis 

hut it is let- 



re two ways 
uuut, JJoth 

last csamplc. 
d of a iioiiii 



FIGUKES OP SPEECH. 



321 



Armis virisquo,/w vJris annf.ds, with armed men. Tac 

Metr" mih 'n!. " "- "'"" "*■ ' """ ■*' ^"^ '^^'"^'^•"^ '' «"'="^-«'v-o clauses : 

4. Epipiioua is the repetition of a word at the end of successive clauses- 
Lae lius navus erat, doetus erat, Laelius v,as aHioent, was lea^-^eTcl^ 

larl^t^rre^ ''''''''''''' ''' ^^'^""^^'^^ ^^'"^ — '- no^n^regu- 
6. A demonstrative, pronoun or adverb, id, hoc mud s^in >itn \. „« 

8. Pleonasm often occurs with licet: 

Ut licat permittitur = licet, It is lawful (is permitted that It Is, &c.). Cic 

9. A word IS often repeated lor emphasis. 

10. Circumlocutions with m, ginm, mddue, and rrf^jo are common. 

III. Enallage is the substitution of one part of speech 
for anotiier, or of one grammatical form for Lothei-f 

sivcM ^Virt ^'^S-'''' f ' T'''"'^' ''^'^"^'^ "-^ ^'^«^*^'^ ^^^^^ ('•»li"g e-^tcn. 
Hor \ ma cad.s {vims cados) ^ncrare, ^.//^ the flasks with wine. Vir« 
amplt. "'^"'^ '' ''' "'' '^ ""' P'^* "^ 'P'-'^'''^ *°'- ^°''^'>'^'-' "« 5" tl^e fi'^t two ex- 

8 sl™tr! '' ""f "'!.°'"'"' '"''^ '■"'' ""^'^*''' "^ *° ^'^^ '"«* "-'^^PJo. 
forms Se™. ranr4t " "^"'"■'^ *" """' ^^■"''"•^* ^^^^'"'^ ^" ^--™^*'-' 

of a stuente:'""''' '" " ""* °' '""""^ '" ^'^ construction of the different part. 
Si, ut <llcunt, omnes Graios esse ^Grail sunt), if, as they say, all are GreeTcs. Cic. 

IV. HYPEEBATOivr is a transposition of words or clauses • 
«mf Ten' T.' ff ^'"* "T' ^'"P^'^''^'^^ ^^^^^^--O remained, ezcepttleir 

1. An ASTnoPUE .s the transposition of words only, as in the tirst example 

2. HvsTEnoN PuoTERON is a transposition of clauses, as in the second example 
a 1 ME8I8 13 the separation of a compound word. See 523. % 2). ^"^'^"P'^- 

705. Figures of Rhetoric, also called Tropes, comprise 
several varieties. The following are the most impoTant! 

.;..': ,^^^^^^"?i^— Tln^ is an implied comparison, and as- 
SotLT? •'''' ' appropriate name, epithet or action 

Rei publicao vulnus (for dmimum), the wound of the republic Cic 
Naufragium fortunac, the wreck of fortune. Cic. i^I>uouc. tic. 

II. Metonymy is the use of one name for another 
naturally suggested by it : ^noiiiei 



WH 

m 



lUtl 



322 



APPENDIX. 



Aequo Marte (for proelio) pugnatum est, Tliey fought in an equal c n- 
test. Liv. Furit Vulcanus {ignis), The fire rages. Virg. 

By this fi-ure the cuiiso is often j.ut for the cliect nnd tlio effect for the cause- 
the property for the possessor, the place or age for the people, the siyn for the thin"-' 
Bi-uilied,etc.: Jlars for helium, Vulcunua for ignis, Mtcc/tua tor vUium, nol-'d'uJs 
for noblles, Graecia for Graeci, laurea/or Victoria, etc. 

III. Synecdoche is the use of a part for the whole, or 
ot the whole for a part ; of the special for the general, or 
of the general for the special : 

^ In vestra tecta (vestras domos) discSdite, DepaH to your homes. Cic. 
btatio male fida carinis (ndvUus), a station unsafe for ships. Virg. 

IV. Irony is the use of a wo"d for its opposite : 

LC-gatos hmus (for malvs) impfirator vester non admisit, Your good 
commander did not admit the ambassadors. Liv. 

1. Enim, ctenim, scilicet, videlicet, nwiinim, credo, and the like, are often 
ironical. See 503. 3. 

V. Hyperbole is an exac^geration : 

Ventis et fulminis ocior alis, swifter than the winds and the wings of the 
liglitning. Virg. 

VI. Litotes denies something instead of affirming the 
opposite : 

Non (5pu3 est = perniciosum est, It is not necessary. Cic. 






n. Latin Authors. 

^ 703. The history of Roman literature embraces about 
eight centuries, from 250 B. C. to 550 A. D., and has been 
divided by Dr. Freund into three principal periods : 

_ I. The Ante-Classical Period.— From 250 to 81 B. 0. Tho 
principal authors of this period are : 

Ennius, Plautus, Terence, Lucretius. 

IT. The Classical PEiuoD.—This embraces the Golden and 
tlie Silver age : 

1 . The Golden Age.— From. 81 B. C. to 14 A. D. The pruicipal 
authors are : 



Cicero, 
Caesar, 
Sallust, 



Nepos, 

Livy, 

Virgil, 



Horace, 

Ovid, 

Catullus, 



Tibullus, 
Propertius. 



2, 

author 



Tlie Silver Aq€.—Yi 



■3 are : 



^c.— From 14 to 180 A. D. The principal 



LATIX AUTIIOKS. KOMAN CALE^Vdae. 



323 



rhaedrns, The Plinios, Ouintilmn p • 

\ellems, T-icifn-. vumuiian, Persius, 

TheSenocas, Gurus' ^"«tonm., Lucan, ' 

and the l!-on i^J.-^^^^^^^-^^I^-i^iOD.-This embraces the Brazen 
autw'ai;/''"^'" ^^^.-Prom 180 to 476 A.D. The principal 



Justin, 
Victor, 



Ku tropins, 
Macrobius, 



Lactantiug, Claudian, 
Ausonius, Terentian. 



9 Tl,^ r J ^ — -".i.us, aerentian. 

■ ttors' Ji? '"" ^'J'-^'"^- m to 650 A.D. The principal au- 

ni. The Romas Calesdae. 

.0 the ,ear »a i„ the n^^^^^J^t^^fZ:^!^^'^'^ 
low,™%^rdfa r •-'^''" «"-- -'^'-J-- i- the fol- 

and O Jtr";""''' '^°-^>'''.-''»' tho «..„« in March, May, My, 
July! and oSor!" '"''■"""'''-^-t the //<«„« ;„ m„,„^ jj_,y^' 

war^fhS'lacfed;''™" ^°""' ""^ ^"^« --- "-torcd, not fc- 

CaJroTriL':,^;!,:;;* ■""""■"' ■"^— -n.l^or.<, r™ „, 

Oayi,l;o%"JS'i!,,^„;:rjt.S5f^->. of t- Poi-ts, the 
secoiKl before each bv rfw "t?& fn^Vf -'"*', ^"»<'*' <"«•.■ the 
'«(« r;i;,„,to etc., thi t ird l,v ,7/! =^'"=""''0; tliird, not second) 
the month. ' ' ""' ^^ *" ?"<"■<<'. etc., and so on tlu-oi">h 

an«>s frou, the fact that the Cal..;,s. to tr^ t h „ T, ''"^" '"" ^""'•'''' ''^-- 
lbus;,rZrf/ea7j^etWe«c^««becomoath„«2 , 1 r °''''^ counted as the first 
Cdlen,,as, the third, etc. '^' '''""^ ^''''' ^^^ Calends, rf/. Urtio auL 

^^^^^^ZZ^^:.^^.^! '^r^"- -nth ,s added ,„ the ^r. „ran 
^'i/'^aw, often .horfoned to, ^j.arto ««<;Vr,;SZ' "''Z.^'' ^'""'^ '"''" ^^''««« •^««- 
out ««^ OS. IV. Xonas Jan., the secoad^rnfa;;: " "" ""'' ^'""«* •^"»- <>' ^ith- 




324 



APPENDIX. 



•Tf-%- 



3. Ante diem.— Instead of die — ante, ante diem ia common, as, ante diem 
qiutrtam Nonas Jan. for die quarto ante Nonas Jan. 

4. As Inoeolinaule Noijns.— Tho cxjirossions ante diem — Cal., etc., ]:>rldi6 
Cat., etc., aro often used as Indoclluable nouns with a preposition, as, ex ante diem 
V. JdiM Oct., from the llth of Oct. Liv. Ad prldie Nonas JIaias, till the 6th of 
May. Cic, 

709. Calendar for the Year. 



Days of 


Marcli, May, July, 


Jan. Aug. 


April, June, 




ilie Month 


Ocu 


December. 


Sept. Nov. 


February. 


1 


(Ulkndis.' 


Calendis. 


(Jalendis. 


CALENUIS. 


2 


VI. Fionas.' 


IV. Nonas. 


IV. Nonas. 


IV. Nonas. 


3 


V. 


III. 


HI. 


HI. 


4 


1 V. " 


Pridie Nonas. 


Pridie Nonas. 


Pridie Nonas. 


5 


m. 


NONIS. 


NoNis. 


NOMS. 


C 


I'ridie Nonas. 


VIII. Idus. 


VIII. Idus. 


VIII. Idus. 


7 


Noxis. 


VII. 


VII. 


VII. 


8 


VI I L Idus. 


VI. " 


VI. » 


VI. 


9 


VII. 


V. 


V. 


V. 


10 


VI. » 


IV. " 


IV. 


IV. 


11 


V. » 


HI. 


IIL 


HI " 


13 


IV. " 


I'ridio Idus. 


Pridie Idus. 


Pridie Idus. 


13 


III. " 


Ininus. 


Idiiuis. 


Idiuus. 


14 


I'ridle Idus. 


XIX. Calond.J 


XVHI.Calend.3 


XVI. Calend.5 


15 


IniiuTS. 


XVIII. 


XVH. 


XV. 


IG 


XVll. Calend.a 


XVII. 


XVI. 


XIV. 


17 


XVL 


XVI. 


XV. " 


XIII. 


18 


XV. " 


XV. " 


XIV. 


XH. 


19 


XIV. 


XIV. 


XIH. " 


XI. 


20 


XIII. 


XIII. 


XII. 


X. 


21 


XII. 


XII. 


XI. " 


IX. 


23 


XI. 


XI. 


X. 


VIII. 


23 


X. 


X. 


IX. 


VII. 


24 


IX. 


IX. 


VHI. 


VI. 


25 


VIII. 


VIII. 


VII. 


V. (VI.)5 " 


20 


VII. 


VII. 


VI. 


IV. (V.) " 


27 


VI. « 


VI. 


V. 


HI. (IV.) " 


2S 


V. " 


V. 


IV. 


I'rid. Cal (Ill.Cal.l 


29 


IV. 


IV. " 


HI. 


(I'rid. Cal.) 


30 


HI. 


HI. 


Pridie Cak'ud. 




31 


Pridie Calcnd, 


i'ridio Caleud. 







710. English and Latin Dates.— The tabl^ (709) will fur- 
nish the learner with the English expression for any Latin date, 
or the Latin expression for any English date ; but in translating 
Latin, it may be convenient also to have the following rule : 

I. If the day is numbered from the Nones or Ides, subtract 
the number diminished by one from the number of the day on 
which the Nones or Ides fall : 

' To tho Calends, Nones, etc., the name oi tho month must of co'.ir,se be added. 
Before Nonas, Idus, etc., ante is scmetime.i used and sometimes omitted (70S. HI. 2). 

' The Calends of the following month are of course meant, as the 16th of March 
for instaiieo l.i, NYU. Calendos Apnles. 

' The enclosed forms apply to leap-year. 



I, ante diem 

, etc., i^rldie 
X ante diem 
I the 6th of 



February. 



SUI8. 

JSoiias. 

! Nonas. 
Iilus. 



I IJU3. 

8. 

Calend.a 



[.)3 " 
''.) " 
V.) " 
Jul (Ill.Cal.l 
(rrid. Cal.) 



I will fur- 
iatin date, 
ran slating 
ule: 

I, subtract 
le day ou 



•se be added. 
(708. III. 2). 
ith of March 



KOMAN CALENDAR. MONEY. 305 

Via ante Idus Jan. = 13 - (S > 1^ = 13 - , = ,,, ^^...a.y. 

01 days iu the current Znth :''^'"^ ^^ ^''^ ^'^''^ >^''« ""uibor 
Janua.;'"- ^"^^^ '''' ''^'- = ''' ~ (1« " 2) =- 31 - 10 = l^th of 

a. if the nu..U. contained ast'l o 1^2^ C b.U ttdf 'T> "":"''-'^^'^ "^^'-"^ 
bere.l regularly for a month of 23 days Vj^^TrT T' ""' ''"^ "'"'^ """" 

711. Divisions of Day and N'tpttt ti, . t> 1 

sun-rise to sun-sot and tho nhri.^ ^lonT.-lho Roman day, from 

-h divided at ^Z^^Pt^yHil^r^Z^::,^^^^^ -- 
r.oma„ hZellr""-^'^ "'^"' "''^ "^^° ''^^'''^'^'^ '"'<> ^o- watches of three 

seasons of the year! ^ ' '^ ^''' ^'"°"* *^^ '^^ '^^^ <" "'t'l^t "t diflercnt 

IV. RoATAN Money, WETrriTQ a^tt^ ivr 

v^-^J^i, VVJilGIITS, AND M^WSURES. 

or clmer^tlftZ^l'^ Pnncipal Roman coins were the en 
as follou-s : ^ '''' ' ^^^""^ '" ^^^ classical period was 



As 

Sestertiu.s, 

Quliifiiius, 

I'Cjiiarius, 

Aureus = 25 denQrii, 



1 to 2 cents. 
4 

8 «» 

16 «< 

$4.00. 



1 A T^ • «>*.'JO. 

i. AS— TnE U.VIT OP Mo\'PV TUn. 4 ■ . 

Roman currc.cy, a„.l contained 7n f 7"' '"^'"''"^ "^« ""'* «f ^he 
from tin^o to time in ."! 7 nd v.r'r , /7'"' '"* '^ "'^^ ^''"'-^'-d 
pound. °^ '°*^ "^"'"^ *'" "^^ J"«t it contained only 1/,, of a 

2) 7. ^ir-««m -the aJLthra f^ot t'." "" """"" "" °""'^«- 
a foot or of a jugerum. ' or a jugorum (718), and the uncia U ^, of 

15 



il 






w. n 



326 



APPENDIX. 



8) In Interest— The as Is tlicn tho unit of interest, which was one per cent, a 
month, i. e., twelve per \ ear, tho uucia is ^'j, per month, 1. c., 1 per year, and the 
bimM is ,\ per tnoath, i. e , per year, etc. 

4) In Jnheiitante.— Tho us is then the whole estate, and the uncia i\ of It: 
hcres me usse, heir uf tho whole estiito ; hires ex dodrante, heir of f\, 

713. Computation of Money. — In all sums of money 
the common unit of computation was the sestertius^ also 
culled 7iummus ; but lour special points deserve notice : 

I. In all sums of money, the imits, tens, and hundreds are de- 
noted by sentertii with the proper cardinals : 

Quinque sestertii, 5 sesterces, viginti sestertii, 20 sesterces, diicenti ses- 
tertii, 200 sesterces. 

II. One thousand sesterces are denoted by mille sestertii, or 
mille sestcrtium. 

III. In sums less than 1,000,000 sesterces, the thousands are 
denoted either (1) by millia scstertium (gen. plur.), or (2) by scs- 
tertia : 

Duo millia sestertiiim, or duo sestertia, 2,000 sesterces; quinque millia 
sestertium, or quinque sestertia, 5,000 sesterces 

With sestertia the distributives were generally used, as, Una sestertia, 
for duo sestertia. 

IV. In sums containing one or more millions of sesterces, scs^ 
tertium with the value of 100,000 sesterces is used with the propei 
numeral adverb, decies, vicies, etc. Thus 

Dficies sestertium, 1,000,000 (10 X 100,000) sesterces; Vicies sestertium, 
2,000,000 (20 X 100,000) sesterces. 

1. Sestertium. — In the examples under IV., sestertium is treated and declined 
as a neuter noun in the singular, though originally it was probably the genitive pliir. 
oi sesterthis, and the full expression for 1,000,000 sesterces was Dicfes centena mUlia 
sestertium. Centena millia was afterward generally omitted, and finally sester- 
tium lost its force as a genitive plural, and became a neuter noun in tho singular, 
capable of declension 

2. Sestertium Omitted.— Sonietimes sestertium is omitted, leaving only tho 
numeral adverb : as, dMes, 1,000,01)0 sesterces. 

8. Sign IIS.— Tho sign 113, is often used for sestertii, and sometimes for sester- 
tia, or sestertium : 

Decern IIS = 10 sesterces (ITS = sestertii). Dena IIS = 10,000 sesterces (113 
= sestertia). Decies 113 = 1,000,000 sesterces (113 = sestertium). 

714. "Weight. — The basis of Roman weights is the Libra, 
also called uis ov Fondo^ equal probably to about 11^ ounces avoir- 
dupois. 

1. OuNCFS.— The Llhra, like tho as in money, is divided into 12 parts called by 
the names given under 712. 1. 

2. Fractions op Ounoks.— Parts of ounces also have special names: \ = semi- 
uiicia, t -— ducila, j -^ oIclUcus, ^ — seAtulo, \ -= drachma, gv ^^ scfQij 



(lus. 



ivhma, j'i = serQpului 



'i iV 



le per cent a 
yuur, and the 

Ida iV I'f It: 



of money 
'tiifs, also 
lotiee : 

2ds ai'e de- 
dticenti scs- 

estertii, or 

nsands are 
(2) by scs- 

inque millia 
na sestertia, 

terces, ses^ 
the propel 

scstertium, 

and declined 
genitive jtliir. 
•ntena 7ntllia 
inally neuter- 
the singular, 

ing only tho 

les for sester- 

testercea (113 



the Libra., 
ices avoir- 



.rts called by 

(s: 1 = semi- 
urn, jV = o'^' 



WEIGHTS. MEASUKES. ADBIiEVIATIONS. 32J 

. p Jt ^- ^" MeAs™..-Tl,o ,M„;™ i» tho b08l,, ocjuol to about 

.SU,:;,„'.:C="c™„f '■"''""•-■'■''"••• ""^ '-"'I »-: i = lC,„.n.. J = .CO. 

1. CuLBus-Twenty a«,;,Wr«. make one Culeus 

2. Pahts op AMi.noRA.-These have special narnPR. i 

*y\ry y -xr "^^'"""'""ii iJs = cyutliU3. 

/ 1 /. LiONO MEAStJEE. — The hn«ia of +1 ;„ • , 

man foot, equivalent to about 11 6 inihes. '"'"'" '' *^" ^^^ 

1. CosiniNATIOKS OF FeET.— PaImfnP<i - 1 1 T>„™ i. . 

= 5 ; stadium = 625. ^ ~ ^* ^"""^ ^««* ! <>"l>UuB = 1 j ; passus 

2. Parts of FooT.-Palmua = J foot ; uncia = ^, ; digitus = ,»,. 

718. Square Measitre.— The basis nf fi.ia ^ "" • , 
Ji/5'6>t/m,co.itaining 28,800 Roman snnnr^ .measure is the 

six tenths of an acre. ^^^ ^^®'' equivalent to about 



A. = Aulug,' 
Ap. =r Appiiia, 

C.(G.) = Caius(Gaiu.s). 
Cn. (Gn.) = Ciiacus 

(Giiiieus). 
D. = Decimu3. 



V. Abbreviations. 
719. JSTames, 

L. = Lriciua. 
M. = Marcus. 
M'. = Maniu8. 
Mam, = Mrunercus. 
N. = Nurnenus. 
P. = Publlus. 



A, D, = ante diem. 

Aed. = aedllis. 

A. U. C, = anno urbis 

conditae. 
Cal. (Kal.) = Calendae. 
Cos. = consul. 
Coss. = consules. 
D, = divua. 
D. D. = ddno dSdit. 
Dos. = designatus. 
D. M. = diis manibua. 
1). S. = de suo. 
D. S. P. p. = de sua 

p^oQnia posuit. 
Eq. Rom. = Eques Ro- 

manua. 
^' = filiua. 



720. Other Abbreviations. 



Q. (Qu.) = Quintus. 
S. (Sex.) = Soxtua. 
Ser. = Servius. 
Sp. = Spurius. 
T. = Titus. 
Ti. (Tib.) = Tib6riu3. 



F. C. = faciendum cu- 

ravit. 
Id. = Idas. 
Imp. = iniperator. 
Leg. = legatua. 
Non. = :^;6uae. 
0. M. = optlmus max- 

imua. 

P. C. = patres conscrlp- 
ti. ^ 

Pont. Max. = pontlfex 
maxlmus. 

P. R. = pupiilus Ro- 
man ua. 

Pr. =r praetor. 

Praef. = praefectus. 



Proc. = proconsul. 
Q. B. F. F. Q. S. = 
quod bonum, ftlix, 
f'austumque sit. 
Quir. = Quiritea. 
Resp. = res publico. 
S. = sfinatus. 
S. C. = suuatus con- 

sultum. 
S. I). P. = salutcm di- 

eit plunmam. 
S. P. Q. R. = sf;natu3 
popfflusquc Roma- 
nus. 

Tr. Pi. = tribunua ple- 
bis. 



M. 



/ '1 



INDEX OF VERBS. 



W 



ti'l 



i ':! 



*'4. 'i 



721. Tliis Index contains an alphabetical lirit, not only of all the 
Bimple verbs in comraon use which involve any important inogularities, 
but also of such compounds as seem to require special mention. 

But in regard to compounds of prepositions, two important facts must 
be borne in mind : 

1. That the elements, — preposition and verb — often appear in the 
compound in a changed form. See 338. 1 and 341. 3. 

2. That the stem-vowel is often changed in the Perfect and Supine. 
See 200. 



Abdo, hv, dldi, ditum, 280. 
Ab-igo. See ii^o, 27S>. 
Ab-jicio. Hccjucio, 279. 
Ab-iuo. See luo, 274. 
Ab-nuo. See annuo, 274. 
Ab(")leo, ere, uvi, ituin, 200. 1. 
Abolesco, t'lO, olGvi, olitum, 270. II. 
Ab-npio. Sec rupio, 270. 
Abs-con-do. See abdo, 280. 
Ac-ccndo, Sre, i, censum, 278. III. 
Ac-cido. See cudo, 280. 
Ac-cino. See cixno, 280. 
Ac-ciplo. See ciipio, 279. 
Ac-c6lo. See cblo, 270. 
Ac-cumbo, fire, cubui, cubitum, 270. 

II. 
Aceo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Acesco, ere, aciii, — , 281. 
Ac-qulro. See quaero, 270. III. 
Acuo, fire, ui, utum, 273. II. 
Ad-do. See abdo, 280. 
Ad-Imo. See cmo, 279. 
Adipiscor, i, adeptus sum, 282. 
Ad-dlesco. See Ctbulcsco, 270. II. 
Ad-orior. See urior, 286. 
Ad-spicio. See asplcio, 273. I. 2. 
Ad-sto. See sto, 2(34. 
Aegresco, ere, — , 281. 
Af-fero. See/t-ro, 292. 
Age, d(f., 297. 
Ag nosco. See nosco, 277. 
Ag-gredior. See grudior, 2S2. 
Ago, «!re, C'gi, actum, 279. 
Aio, def., 297. 
Albco, ere, — , 2G8. 
Algeo, fire, alsi, — , 209. 



Al-licio, fire, lexi, lectum, 249, 273. 

II. 1. 
Al-luo. See luo, 274. 
Aio, ere, iilui, alltuni, altum, 270. IL 
Anib-igo. See ugo, 279. 
Ambio, 295. 3. 
Aralcio, Ire (ui), turn, 284. 
Amo, parad., 205, 
Ampiector, i, amplcxus sum, 282. 
Ango, file, anxi, — , 274. 
Annuo, fire, i, — , 274. 
Apgge, def., 2')7. 
Aperio, Ire, ui, tuni, 284. 
Ai)iscor, i, aptus sum, 282. 
Ap-pareo. 'Aqg parco, 20<'). 
Ap-pfito. Scepcto, 270. III. 
AppHeo. Beephco, 202. 
Ap-pono. Seepono, 270. 
Arcesso, fire, ivi, Uum, 270. III. 
Ardeo, ere, arsi, arsum, 209. 
Aresco, fire, arui, — , 281. 
Arguo, ere, ui, utum, 273. II. 
Ar-rTpio. See rUpio, 270. 
A-scendo. See scando, 273. III. 
A-spergo. See spargo, 273. 
A-spIcio, 6re, spexi,'spectum, 273. 
As-sentior, iri, scnsus sum, 280. 
As-sideo. See rmIco, 270. 
At-texo. See tcxo, 270. 
At-tint'O. Sec tenco, 200. 
At-tingo. See tango, 280. 
At-tolio. See tollo, 280. 
Audeo, ere, ausus sum, 272. 
Audio, parad., 211. 
Au-fero. See/ero, 292. 
Augeo, ere, auxi, auctum, 269. 
Ave, def., 297. 
Aveo, ere, — , 208. 



INDEX OF VERBS. 



820 



B. 



BalbDtio, Iro 



. . •, 283. 
Biltiio, ere, i, — , 271. 
Hibo, ('re. i, — , '274. 
Blaiidior, iii, itus sum, 220. 

0. 

Citdo, ore, cilcidi, cilsum, 280. 

Caocntio, Iro, — , 28;{. 

Ciic'do, uro, ceeldi, cucsiim, 280. 

Calcsco, tu-e, cillui, — , 281. 

Calloo, Gre, ui, — , 207. 

Calvao, ere, — , 208. 

Candeo, ere, ui, — , 267. 

Canoo, ere, — , 2(')8. 

Caiio, ere, cftcini, cantum, 280. 

Cilporfso, 6ro, ivi, itiiiii, 270. III. 

Capio, ere, copi, captnm, 211, 279. 

Carpo, 6ro, si, turn, 273. 

Ciiveo, ere, cavi, cautuin, 270. 

Cedo, 6\-e, cossi, ccssum, 273. III. 

Cedo, def., 21)7. 

Collo, oJs. See exccHo, 276. II. 

Ceiisoo, ere, ui, cenHuni, 200. III. 

Corno, ere, crevi, cretum, 270. II. 

C'ieo, ore, civi, citum, 20l>. 1. 

Cingo, fire, cinxi, cinctum, 273. 

Circum-sisto. See skto, 280. 

Claiigo, 6re, — , 275. 

Ciaudo, ere, chiusi, clausura, 273. III. 

Cluudo, ere (/o be lame), — , 275. 

Co-aleseo, ere, alui, alituin, 281. 

Co-arguo. See arffuo, 273. 

Coeno, 202. 2, 

Coepi, def., 2l)7, 

Cognoseo. See nosco, 277. 

COgo, ere, coGgi, coactuiu. See iim, 

279. "^ 

Col-lldo. See lacdo, 273. III. 
Col-ligo. See %o, 279. 
Col-lQcoo. See Iricco, 269. 
Colo, ere, ui, cultum, 276. II. 
Com-6do. See cdo, 29 L 
Comunniscor, 

282. 

Corn-nioveo. See mdveo, 270. 
Conio, ere, compsi, comptum, 273. 
Coin-parco (perco). See parco, 280 
Coinpfirio, tve, peri, portum 28 J. 
CompoHco, ere, pescui, — , 270. II, 
Coni-piiigo. Hcapanffo, 280. 



coranientus sum, 



Com-plcctor, i, plexus sura, 282. 
Coui-pleo, ere, Cvi, etuui, 200. 
Cora-prruio. Him prrmo, 273. III. 
Coui-pungo, 6re, punxi, puuetuin. 

See pu/iffo, 2 SO. 
Con-eldo, See ciido, 280. 
Cou-eldo. See caedo, 280. 



See 



cam. 280. 



Con-cluo. 
Coii-clQdo. See ciaudo, 273. III. 
Con-cupisco, 6rc, cuplvi, cupitum, 
281. 

Cou-eutio. See quutio, 273. III. 

Con-do. See abdo, 280. 

Con-fercio. See /arc" >, 284. 

Cou-lTeio. See facio, 279. 

Coufit, dcf., 297! 

Cou-llteor. Soe/c/^cor, 272. 

Con-fringo. Hcofranffo, 279. 

Congruo, ere, i, — , 274. 

Couuiveo, ere, nivi, nixi, — , 209. 

Con-sgro. See sSro, 27(). II. 

Cou-sisto. See sislo, 280. 

Con-spTeio, fire, apcxi, spectum, 24'.^. 

Con-stituo. See stdiuo, SVd. IL 
Cou-sto. See s(o, 264. 
Cousrdo, 6re, ui, turn, 276. II. 
Cou-temuo. See temno, 275. 
Con-texo. See texo, 270. 
Cou-tiugo. See tanffo, 280. 
Cou-Villesco, 6re, valui, vrdifum, 281. 
Coquo, ere, coxi, coctum, 273. II. 
Cor-rlpio. See rtiplo, 270. 
Cor-ruo. See ruo, 273. 
Crebreseo, Cre, crCbrui, —,281. 
Ciedo, gre, credldi, credltuni, 280. 
Crepo, Are, ui, itum, 202. 
Cresco, ere, crevi, cretum, 270. II. 
Cube, are, ui, itum, 202. 
Cudo, ere, cQdi, cusum, 273. III. 
Cumbo. See accumbo, 276. 
Ci'ipio, fire, ivi, itum, 249, 276. 
Curro, ere, cuciirri, cui'sum, 280. 



D. 



De cerpo, ^re, si, turn, 273. I. 1. 
DScet, impcrs., 299. 
r)e-do. See abdo, 2 SO, 
De-fendo, 6re, i, iensum, 273. III. 
De-fetiaeor. See futkcor. 282. 
mfit, def., 297. 

Dugo, ere, degi. Sec (V/o, 279. 
DC'leo, ere, evi, etum, 200. 



I: 



330 



INDEX OF VEUDS. 



; 1 ; 



i'ti 



De-lTpo. See %o, 270. 
Do-mico. See mlco, 202. 
Demo, 6rc, dorapai, deiiiptuin, 273. 
l)o-|mii;?o. i<iH! pan(/o, 260. 
D»5-i)iIiuo. See prdmo, 273. III. 
Dojwo, (••ro, ui, Ituin, tuin, 27t(. II. 
l)o-scundo. See acando^ 27 iJ. III. 
Do-sllio. Sec aalio, 284. 
l)0-slpio. See napio, 27H. III. 
Do-tendo. See tendo, 280. 
DC'-tinoo. See tSneo^ 20f(. 
DO-vertor. See verto^ 273. III. 
Pico, fSre, dixi, dictum, 273, 237. 
Dil-ftio. See/gro, 2y2. 
Dig-nosco. Sue nosco^ 277. 
Di-ligo. See lego, 271). 
Diiiiieo. See mlco, 202. 
Dl-rlgo, ere, rexi, rectum, 273. I. 1. 
Dinco, <5re, dldici, — , 280. 
Dia-crCpo. See crepo, 202. 
Dis-cumbo. See accumho, 276. 
Dis-pertior. ^qq partior, 286. 
Dis-pllceo. See/»/dceo, 206. 
Dis-sideo. See aSdeo, 270. 
Di-stiiiguo. See stinguo^ 275. 
Di-sto. See sto, 204, 
Ditcsco, ere, — , 281. 
Divldo, 6re, visi, visum, 273. III. 
Do, dare, dt^di, datum, 264. 
Doceo, ere, ui, turn, 260. III. 
Domo, are, ui, itum, 262. 
Duco, dre, duxi, etum, 273, 237. 
Dulccsco, ere, — ,281. 
Daresco, fire, durui, — , 281. 



E. 



Edo, gre, 6di, Csura, 279, 291. 
E-do, ore, edidi, editum, 280. 
Egeo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Elicio, 6re, ui, itum, 276. II. 
E-ligo. See %o, 279. 
Eraico. See m\co, 202. 
Emineo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Emo, ere, emi, eraptum, 279. 
En6co, are, ui, turn, 262. 
Eo, ire, Ivi, itum, 295. 
Esurio, ire, — , itum, 283. 
E-vado, ere, vasi, vfisum, 273, III. 
Evanesco, 6re, cvanui, — , 281. 
Ex-ardesco, ere, arsi, arsum, 281. 
Excello, ere, ui (rare), — , 276. II. 
Ex-cludo. See claudo, 273. IIL 



Ex-curro. Roo mrrn, 2 SO. 
Kx-olusco. 8oe ubohsco, 273. II. 
Kxpedit, imptrs., 801. 
KxpergJMCor, i, experrectuaaum, 282. 
Kx-p6rior, Iri, portus hu»i, 266. 
Ex-plco, See compleo, 206. 
Ex-piico. i^ticplu-o, 202. 
Ex-i)ludo. Hctiplaudo, 273. III. 
Ex-atinguo, dre, stinxi,8tiuctum, 276. 
Ex-ato. See ato, 204. 
Ex-tondo. See tnido, 280. 
Ex-tolio. See (olio, 280. 

P. 

Facesso, Cre, Ivi, i, itum, 276. III. 
Fileio, ere, ftci, factum, 249, 279, 

237. 
Fallo, Crc, fofulli, falsura, 280. 
Furcio, ire, farsi, fartuni, faictum, 

284. II. 
Filri, d(f., 297. 
Fflteor, eri, fassua sum, 272. 
FiUiaco, »5re, — , 281. 3. 
Filtlscor, i, — , 282. 
Faveo, Cre, favi, fautum, 270. 
Fendo, obs. See defe7ido, 273. 
FC'rio, ire, — ,283. 
Fero, fcrre, tuli, latum, 292. 
F^rocio, ire, — , 283. 
Ferveo, fire, fervi, ferbui, — , 209. 
Rdo, Sre, f isus sum, 282. 
Figo, 6re, fixi, fixum, 273. III. 
Findo, gre, fidi, fissum, 273. III. 
P'ingo, fire, finxi, fictum, 273. 
Fio, fifiri, factus sum, 294. 
Flaveo, ere, — , 268. 
Flecto, fire, xi, xum, 273. III. 
Fleo, ere, cvi, Ctum, 266. 
Floreo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Floresco, ere, flfirui, — , 281. 
Fluo, Cre, fluxi, fluxum, 273. III. 
Fodio, ere, fodi, fossum, 240, 279. 
Foeteo, ere, — , 208. 
Forem, rfc/., 297. III. 2. 
Fovco, ere, fovi, fotum, 270. 
Frango, tire, Iregi, fractum, 279. 
Fremo, Cre, ui, Itum, 270. II. 
J'rendo, Cre, — , fressum, IVesum, 

273. III. 
FrTco, are, ui, atum, turn, 262. 
Frigeo, ere, frixi (raro), — ^ 269. 
Froudco, Cre, ui, — , 207. 



miiEX. OP VERBS. 



831 



Fruor, i, fmotus, fmltug giim, 282 
*i'Kio, Ore, ffijrj, lu^Mtum, 249, 279. 
*" 010, ire, I'ulrii, lultuin, 2«-t. 
* » geo. Ore, fulai, _, 2t)«. 
!• uliiiltiat, impera., aoo. 
J'undo, 6re, mdi, ITQsura, 279. 
*uii<;or, i, functus siiiij, 282. 
luro, Cro, ui, — , 276, II. 

O. 

Gannio, ire, — , 283. 

Gaudeo, Ore, gavisus sum, 272. 

(»6ino, (5ie, ui, Ituni, 270. II. 

G6ro, 6ie, gessi, gestum, 273. 

t'lgno, ere, g«nui, gCnitum, 276. II 

Olweo, 6re, — , 275. 

(irfldior, i, gressua sum, 249, 282 

Orundcsco, ere, —, 281. 

Grandlnat, impera., 300. 

Grjivesco, ere, — , 281. 



n. 

ITaerco, Crc, haosi, haesum, 209. 
liaurio, ire, hausi, haustum, LaustQ. 

rus, hausQrua, 284. 
Ileboo, Cre, — , 268. 
Hisco, gre, — , 275. 
Ilcnco, ere, ui, — 267. 
Ilortor, 222. 
Ilurneo, ere, — , 268. 



I. 

Ico, f«re, ici, ictum, 273. II. 
lUicio, (Jre, lexi, lectum, 249, 273. 

Il-lldo. See laedo, 273. III. 
Imbuo, gre, ui, Qtum, 273. II. 
Immineo, ere, — , 268. 
Im-parco. See parco, 280. 
Im-pertior. See partior, 286. 
Im-pingo. Seepmiffo, 280. 
Jii-ccndo. See accendo, 273 
Incesso, 6re, ivi, i, — , 276. III. 
In-cido. See cudo, 280. 
In-cldo. See cacdo, 280. 
In-cr^po. See cr<tpo, 2()2. 
IiM;teseo. See cresco, 276. 11. 
lu-cumbo. See accumbo, 276. 



In-cutio. Soo quSlio, 273. Ill 
Ind-fgeo, Cre, m, _. Seo Iffco, 207. 
Ind-Ii)iacor. See tiphtcor, 282 
In-do. See abdo, 280. 
Iiidulgeo, Cre, dulsi, duUum. 269 
Inoptio, ire, —, 283. 
Infit, def., 297. 
Ingruo, fire, i, — , 274. 
In-notesco, ire, nfltui, 281, 
In-olesco. See Hbjlaico, 276 
Inquam, de/., 2!)7. 
j» sideo. See addeo, 270. 
[n-spicio Cre, spexi, epectum, 249. 
ln-8to. See ato, 264. 
Inlcl-irgo. See %o,' 279. 
Interest, hnpera., 301, 
Inter-nosco. See noaco, 277. 
Inv6t«rasco, 6re, rftvi, ratum, 276. 
Iiascor, 1, — , 282. 
Ir-ruo. See ruo, 273. 

J. 

J.lcio, Cre, jCci, jactum, 249, 279. 
.Jubeo, ere, jussi, jussum. 269. 
Juro, 262, 2. 
Juvenesco, 6rc, — , 281, 
Juvo, are, juvi, jQtuni, 203. 



Labor, i, lapsus sura, 282. 
I Lacesso, ere, ivi, itum, 276. III. 

Lilcio, oba. See alllcio, 273. I. 2 

Lacteo, ere, —, 208. 

Laedo, tire, laesi, lacsum, 273, IIL 

Lambo, ere, i, — , 274. 

Langueo, ere, i, — , 269. 

Lilpidat, impera., 300. 

Largior, in, itus sum, 286. 

Lfiteo, ere, ui, — -, 267. 

Lavo, 6rc, lavi, lautum, lotum. lava- 

turn, 263. ' 

pgo, ere, iGgi, lectum, 279. 
Libet, impers., 299. 
Liceor, eri, itus sura, 272. 
Licet, impera., 299. 
Lino, ere, livi, levi, litum, 276. IL 
Linquo, Cre, llqui, — , 279. 
-..(j — , , .. , „q^2j ^iiumj^ 2d9. 
i-Kiuet, impera,, 299. 
I Liquor, i, — , 282. 






..V 



S32 



INDEX OF VERBS. 



¥' 1 



.'!:! 



Liveo, eio, — , 268. 
Luquor, i, lucutus sum, 282, 
Luceo, ore, luxi, — , 209. 
Lueescit, imperii., 3i)0. 
Lfido, (5ro, iQrfi, Ifisum, 273. Ill, 
Luj,'Oo, Ore, luxi, — , 209. 
Luo, ere, lui, — , 274. 

M. 

Macresco, ere, macrui, — , 281. 

Madoo, ere, ui, — , 207. 

Mfideseo, gre, madui, — , 281. 

Maereo, ere, — , 208. 

Mfilo, inallo, niului, — , 293. 

Mando, gre, i, mansum, 273. III. 

Maneo, Ore, niansi, mansum, 209. 

Maturesco, ere, mfitiirui, — , 281. 

MSdeor, eri, — , 272. 

Memini, def., 297. 

Mentior, iri, Itus sum, 286. 

Mereor, eri, itus sum, 272. 

Mergo, ere, mersi, mersum, 273. Ill, 

Metior, Iri, meusus sum, 286. 

Meto, ere, mcssui, messum, 276. II. 

Metuo, ere, ui, — , 274. 

Mico, are, ui, — , 202. 

Miniscor, obs. Sec commTmiscor, 
282. ' 

Minuo, 6re, ui, fitum, 273. II. 

Misceo, ere, miscui, mistum, mix- 
turn, 206. III. 

JFusSreor, eri, itus or tus sum, 272. 
Miseret, impers., 299. 
ilTtesco, ere, — , 281. 
Mitto, ere, misi, missum, 273. III. 
Mulior, iri, itas sum, 286. 
MoUesco, ere, — , 281. 
Molo, ere, ui, itum, 276. II. 
Moneo, ere, ui, itum, parad., 207. 
Mordeo, ere, momordi, morsum, 271, 
Morior, i (iri), mortuus sum, 249. 
282, ' 

Moveo, ere, niovi, motum, 270, 
Mulceo, ere, mulsi, mulsuin, 269. 
Muigeo, ere, nmlsi, mulsum, 269. 

N. 

Xanciscor, i, nactus sum, 282. 
Naseor, j^ uatus sum, 282. 
Neeto, ere, iiexi, nexui, nexum, 273. 
III. 



Neg-lTgo, ere, lexi, lectura. See 

lego, 279. 
Neo, ere, nevi, iietum, 206. 
Nequeo, Ire, Ivi, itum, 290. 
Nigresco, 6re, nigrui, — , 281. 
Niugo, 6re, iiinxi, — , 274. 
Niteo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Nitor, i, nisus, nixus sum, 282. 
Nolo, nolle, nolui, — , 293. 
Nosco, fire, novi, nOtum, 277. 
Nubo, 6re, nupsi, nuptum, 273. 
Nuo, obs. See annuo, 274. 
Nupturio, ire, ivi, — , 283. 2. 

0. 

Ob-do. See abdo 280. 
Ob-dormisco, 6re, dormivi, dormi- 

tum, 281. 
Obllviscor, i, oblitus sum, 282. 
Ob-njQteseo, 6re, mutui, —,281. 
Ob-sideo. See sedeo, 270. 
Ob-sulesco, See ubblcsco, 276. 
Ob-sto. See sto, 264, 
Ob-surdesco, ere, surdui, — , 281. 
Ob-tineo. Sec tcnco, 266. 
Occido. See cudo, 280. 
Oc-cldo. See caedo, 280. 
Oc-elno. See cuno, 280. 
Oc-cTpio. Sec cupio, 279. 
Occulo, ere, ui, turn, 276. II. 
Odi, def., 297. 

Of-fendo. See dcfcndo, 273. III. 
Oleo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Olesco, obsolete. See uboksco, 278. 

Op6rio, ire, ui, turn, 284. 

Oportet, impcrs., 299. 

Op-p6rior, iri, pcrtus, pcrltus sum, 

286. 
Ordior, iri, orsus sum, 286. 
Orior, iri, ortus sum, 286. 
Os-tendo. See ictido, 280. 
Ovat, dc/., 297. 



Paciscor, i, pactus sum, 282. 

Palleo, f-ro, ui, — , 2()7. 

Pando, 6re, i, pansum, passum, 273. 

Pango, ivc, pcpTgi, pactum, 2S0. 
Pango, fire, panxi, pegi, panctum, 
pactum, 280. 



INDEX OF VERBS. 



333 



Parco, ?ro, p6pcrci (parsi), parsuin, 

Pai-io, ^re, pc^pgii, paitum, 249, 280. 
1 artior, hi, Uus sum, 286. 
Parturio, ire, ivi, — , 283. 2. 
Pasco, ere, puvi, pastuin, 276. 
Pilieo, Ci-e, ui, — , 267. 
Pjitior, i, passus sum, 225, 249, 282 
Paveo, eio, pavi, — , 270. 
Pecto, ere, xi, xum, 273. Ill, 
Pel-licio, fire, lexi, leotum, 249, 273. 

Pello, ere, pepuli, pulsum, 280. 

Pendeo, ere, pependi, peusum, 271. 

I eudo, ere, pepet)di, pensum, 280. 

Por-cello. See excello, 276. 11. 

Per-censeo. See censeo, 266, 

Per-do, ere, dldi, ditum. See abdo, 
280. ' 

Pergo {for per-rigo), (Sre, per-rexi, 
pcr-rectum. See rego, 273. 

Per-petior. Sec pallor, 282. 

Per-tjto. See sto, 264. 

Per-tiiieo. See ienco, 266. 

Pessum-do. See do, 264. 

Peto, 6re, ivi, itum, 276. III. 

Pigot, impers., 299. 

Pingo, ere, pinxi, pictum, 273. 

Pingucsco, (5ro, — , 28] . 

Pinso (piso), 6re, i, ui, piiisitum, pis- 
turn, pinsum, 273. III. 

Plaudo, ere, si, sura, 273. III. 

Plecto, ho, xi, xum, 273. III. 

Plector, not used as Bcp. See am- 

pledor, 282. 
Pleo, obsolete. See complco, 266, 
PIico, fire, fivi, ui, atum, itum, 262. 
Fluo, ere, i or vi, — , 274. 
Pocnitet, impers., 299. 
Polleo, ere, — , 268. 
PolIIceor, cri, itiis sum, 272, 
Pono, ere, posui, positum, 276. II, 
Posco, (5re, poposci, — , 280. 
Pos-sldeo. Soesedco, 270. 
Possum, posse, potui, — , 089. 
Potior, Tri, itus sum, 286. 
lV»to, are, avi, ntum, um, 262. 1, 2. 
•Vae-cluo, Sec cuno, 280. 
I'rae-eurro. See curro, 280. 
Prac-slileo. See sedco, 270. 
Pnie-sto. Sec sto, 264. 
Prae-vcrtor. See verfo, 273. Ill, 
Praudeo, ere, i, prausum, 269. 
Prehendo, 6re, i, hensum, 273. III. 



Premo, ere, prcssi, pressum, 273. 

Prod-igo. See liffo, 279. 
Pro-do. See abdo, 280. 
Prof leiscor, i, prol'ectus sum, 282. 
Iro-fiteor. See/ti^eor, 272. 
Promo, ere, prompsi, promptum, 

Pro-sum, prodesse, profui, — 200. 

Pro-tendo. See tcndo, 280. 

Psallo, 6re, i, —, 274. 

Pudet, impers., 299. 

PuCrasco, ere, — , 281. 

Pungo, ere, pupugi, punctum, 280. 



Quaere, gre, quaesivi, quaesitum. 

276. III. ' 

Quaoso, def., 297. 
Quatio, ere, quassi, quassum, 249. 

273. III. ' ' 

Queo, ire, ivi, itum, 296. 
Queror, i, questus sum, 282. 
Quiesco, ere, quievi, quietum, 276. 

R. 

Rado, ere, rasi, rasum, 273. III. 

Rapio, gre, r.1pui, raptum, 249, 276. 

Raucio, ire, rausi, rausum, 284. 

R6-censeo. See cemeo, 266. 

Re-crudesco, fire, crudui, 281. 

R6d-arguo. See arffuo, 273. 

Red do. See abdo, 280. 

Re-follo. See f alio, 280. 

R6fero. Seefero, 292. 

Refert, impers., SOI. 

Rego, lire, rexi, rectum, parad., 20a 
273. ' 

R{S-linf|uo. See Unquo, 279. 
RSmiiiiscor, i, — , 282. 
Rf'^^nidco, ere, — , 268. 
Rcor, rgri, ratus sum, 272. 
Re-pango. See panr/o, 280. 
R8-parco. Sec parco, 280. 
Re-perio, ire, p^ri, pcrtum, 284. 
T?e-sideo. Sec srdro, 270. 
Re-sipio. See sapio, 276. Ill, 
Re-s6no, See sdno, 262. 
Re-spergo. See spargo, 273. III. 
Re-tendo. See (endo, 280. 



ii 



334 



INDEX OF VERBS. 



■% 

m 



R(?-tinco. See teveo, 266. 
liu-veitor. See verto, '273. III. 
Re-vivisoo, ere, vixi, victum, 281. 
Rideo, ere, risi, risiim, 269. 
Rigeo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Riugor, i, — , 282. 
Kodo, fere, rosi, rosum, 273. III. 
Korat, impers., 300. 
Rubeo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Rudo, 6re, ivi, itum, 276. III. 
Rumpo, ere, rupi, ruptum, 279. 
Ruo, ere, rui, lutum, ruitQrus, 273. 



S. 



Sagio, ire, — , 283. 

Siilio, Ire, ui (ii), turn, 284. 

Salve, dcf., 297. 

Sancio, ire, sanxi, eancitum, sana 

turn, 284, 
Sapio, ere, ivi, ui, — , 249, 276. 
Savcio, ire, sarsi, sartum, 284. 
Sat-itgo. See cigo, 279. 
Scabo, 6re, scfibi, — , 279. 
Scalpo, 6re, psi, ptuni, 273. 
Scando, ^re, di, sum, 273. III. 
Scateo, ere, — , 268. 
Scindo, 6re, scidi, scissum, 273, III. 
Scisco, 6re, scivi, scitum, 281. 
S('t'0, are, ui, turn, 262. 
S6deo, ere, sedi, sessura, 270. 
Se-llgo. See %o, 279. 
Sentio, Ire, sensi, sensum, 284. 
Seprdio, Ire, ivi, sepultum, 288. 
Sepio, ire, psi, ptuni, 284. 
SSquor, i, seciitus sinn, 224. 
Sero, ere, sevi, siltum, 276. II. 
S6ro, ere, scrui, sertum, 276. II. 
Sido, ere, i, — , 274. 
Sileo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Singuitio, ire, — , 2S". 
Sino, 6re, sivi, sttum, 276. Ill, 
Sisto, ere, stiti, statura, 280. 
Sitio, ire, ivi, — , 283. 
Soleo, ere, solitus sum, 272. 
Solvo, ere, solvi, solutum, 278, II. 
Sono, are, ui, itum, 262. 
Sorbeo, 6re, ui, — , 267. 
Sordco, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Sortior, Iri, itus sum, 2SG. 
Spargo, 6re, sparsi, sparsum, 273. 



SpScio, obs. See asptcio. 

Sperno, (5re, sprevi, spretum, 276. 

Splendeo, fire, ui, — , 267. 
Spondee, ere, spopoudi, spousura, 

Squaleo, ere, — , 268. 
Statuo, Cre, ui, utum, 273. II. 
Sterno, ere, stravi, stratum, 276. 
Sternuo, iSre, i, — , 274. 
Sterto, «re, ui, — , 276. II. 
Stinguo, ere, — , 275. 
Sto, are, st6ti, statum, 264. 
Strepo, 6re, ui, itura, 276. II. 
Strideo, ere, stridi, — , 269. 
Stride, ere, i, — , 274. 
Struo, ere, struxi, structum, 273. IL 
Studeo, Crc, ui, — , 267. 
Stupeo, ere, ui, — , 267. 
Suadeo, ere, si, sum, 269. 
Sub-do, ere, didi, ditum, 280. 
Sub-igo. See ilgo, 279. 
Sub-silio. See salio, 284. 
Sue-cedo. See ccdo, 273. 
Suc-cendo. See accendo, 273. 
Suc-censeo. See censeo, 266. 
Suc-cido. See cudo, 280. 
Sue-cido. See caedo, 280. 
Suc-cresco. See cresco, 276. II. 
Sueseo, ere, suevi, sufitum, 276. II. 
Suf-ftro. Scefi-ro, 292. 
Suf-ficio. Seefucio, 279. 
Suf-fodio. Seefodio, 279. 
Sug-g6ro, See ^r^^ro, 273. 
Sum, esse, fui, — , 204, 
Sumo, ere, psi, ptum, 273. 
Superbio, ire, — , 283. 
Sup-pono. Hcepdno, 276. 
Surgo (for sur-rlgo), 6re, sur-rcxi, 
sur-rectum. See re</o, 273. 



T. 

Taedet, impers., 299. 

Tango, C've, tetlgi, taetuni, 280. 

Temno, 6re, — , 276. 

Tendo, 6re, tetendi, tentum, tensum. 

280. 
Teneo, ere, ui, turn, 266. III. 
TS|)eseo, 6re, tepui, — , 281. 
Tergeo, ere, tersi, tursiim, 269. 
Tergo, ere, tersl, tersum, 273. III. 
Tero, fire, trivi, tritum, 276. III. 



INDEX OP VEKBS. 



335 



lexo, gre, ui, turn, 276. II. 

Jimco, ere, ui, — 2C7. 

1 olio, ere, sustuli, sublatum, 280. 

londeo, ere, totondi, tonsuui, ii7l 

lono, are, ui, itum, 262. 

Torpeo, ere, ui, — 26V. 

lorqueo, ere, torsi, tortum, 269. 
Torreo, 5re, torrui, tostum, 266. Ill, 

1 raclo. See abdo, 280. 
Traho, ^re, traxi, tractum, 2V3. 
Tremo, 6re, ui, — 2V6. II. 
Inbuo, ere, ui, Qtum, 273. II 
Trudo, 6re, trusi, trasum, 273. Ill 
lueor, eri, tuitus sum, 272. 
a limeo, 6re, ui, — 267. 

280 ' ^''^' *"*"'^'' *"'^""' *°'"™' 
Tuor, for tueor, 272. 
Turgco, ere, tursi {rare), — 269 
Tussio, ire, — , 283. 

u. 

Ulciscor, i, ultua sum, 282 
I'Tgeo, Ore, ursi, — , 2V,0. 
iJro, ere, ussi, ustura, 273. 
ttor, i, 0':jssum, 282. 



Vado, 6r(i, — , 275. 
Vagio, lie, ivi, — , 283. 



Vggeo, ere, — , 268. 

Veho, ei", vexi, vectum, 273. 

Veljo, <Sre, veUi (vulsi) nhum, 213. 

Vendo, ^re, didi, ditun >80. 
Ven-eo. See eo, 296. 
Vdnio, Ire, veni, ventum, . 5. 
Venum-do. See do, 264. 
Vereor, eri, veritus sum, 223. 272 
Vergo, ere, ~ 275. ' 

Verro, dre, verri, versum, 273. IIL 
Verto, ere, ti, sum, 273. III. 
Vertor. See dcvertor, 273 HI 
Vescor, i, _, 282. ' * 

V espdrascit, impers., 800 
Vet^rasco, dre, ravi, ~, 276. 

V dto, are, ui, itum, 262. 

Video, ere, vidi, visum, 270. 

Vieo, ere, — , etum, 266. I. 2. 

Vigeo, ere, ui, — 267. 

Vilesco, ere, vilui, _ 281. 

Vincio, ire, vinxi, vinctum, 284. 

Vmeo, dro, vici, victum, 279. 

Vireo, fire, ui, — , 267. 
Viresco, 6re, vlrui, —, 281. 

Viso, ere, i, um, 273, III. 
Vivo, 6re, vixi, victum, 273. 

V o o, veUe, volui, — 293. 
Volvo, fre, volvi, volQtum, 273- U. 
Vomo, ere, ui, itum, 276. II 
Voveo, fire, voAi, vOtum, 270 






Unimex of suejects. 



-•♦•- 





\^ 


n . 


\ 


''l 


' 


k 


I 


i? '" 


1 


•w 


\ 



- ^wtli, i^ = and the followin- <.o/«^;rf*. = co.ni.oumls, gen. «r £7e,»Y. = n,..,tive 
gend. = gender, «oc. or accw. = accu«ative, aecs. = accusatives, adU = tt.^(cctivc!*! 
iv«i9«. = prepositions., etc. "^ tt-jcv^uvcis 

It has not been tl.ought advisable to overload this index, with such aeparato 
^vords as nmy be readily referred to classes, or to general rules, or even with inch e v 
ceptions as may be readily found under their respective heads. Accordin-ny the nu- 
merous exceptions in Dec. III. in the formation of the genitive and in genJ.r.aro not 
inserted, as they may bo best found under the respective endings, 5&-lia 



\ SOUND of, 6 (T., 14. Nouns in 
JlXj a,— of l.st doc, 42; of ^li 
doc, 48; genitive of, 58; gon- 
der, 111; f'jrivatives in a, 820, 
C. A, in nom., aoeus., voc. plur., 
88 ; in ace sin'r , 93 ; changed in 
compd.s., 341, ". A, quantity of, 
— final, 615 ; in inw-oments of 
dec, 033; of conj., 640. 
A, ab, abs, in compds., 338, 1 ; in 
conipds., w. dat., 386, 2. A, ab, 
abs, w. al)l., 434, of agent, 388, 1, 
in personification, 414, 6. 
Abbreviations, 719. 
Abh'inc, 427. 

Ablative, formation of, — in Ist dec 
42, 3; in 3d dec, 87, 90, 97; iil 
4ti) dec, 116, 4; in adjV, 156. 
Ablative, syntax of, 412-437. Of 
cause, manner, niean.s, 414 ; agent, 
ac'coinpaiiinient, 411, 5 anil 7' 
Of price, 416. W. comparatives," 
-117. Of dilVer., 418. In .special 
t.<iMstrs., 419; 3«5, 5; 386, 2; 
4:;4, 2 ; 414, 3. Of place, 420 W. 
<>t t-oiuce, 425. Of time, 426. Of 
chui ac, 428. Of specilicatiun, 429. 
Abi. ubsol., 431 ; w. tjiiimjur, 431, 6. 
^V. piei).s., 432 If. Ui g.runds. 
etc, 666. Of supine, 570. 
Absolute, ablative, 430 H". ; infinitive 
or clause, 431, 4, 



Absque, w. abl., 434. 

Abstinco, w. ace and abl., 425, 2 • 

w. gen., 409, 4. 
Abstract nouns, 31 ; from adjs., 319 ; 

from verbs, 321, 2. 
Abunde, w. gen., ;W6, III. 4). 
-abus, for is, in 1st dec, 42, 3. 
Ac, for quam, 417, 4. Ac si, w. 

sub)., 503, 506. - 
Acataloctic verse, 663, III. 1. 
Aca'dii, constr.. 556, II. 1 
Accentuation, 25 ff. 
Accldit, constr., 5ri6, IT. 
Acclngo, constr., 374, 7. 
Accompaniment, abl. of, 414 7. 
Accomplishing, constr. of verbs of, 
558, IV. 

Accusative, formation of,— in 1st 
doc, 42, 3; in 2u dec, 45; 46 
3; in 3d dec, 85, 88, 98; in ad- 
jectives, 157. 

Acou.sative, syntax of, 370-381 — 
Direct object, 371 ff. ; cognate, 
371, 1, 3); w. other ca.scs, 371 
2 ; w. compd.s., 371, 4; w. verbal 
adjs. and nouns, 371, 7. Two 
aces., 373 ff. ; other constrs. for 
374, 3 ; infin. or clause, 374 4 •' 
poetic ace, 374, 7. Subj. of i„Hn.; 
37o. Agreement, 376. Adver- 
bia ace, 377 If. Ace of time 
and space, 378. Of limit, 379 



Hi 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



337 



f 



/ 



y. 



'/ 



/ 



poetic dat. for, 370, 5. Of speci- 
fication, 380. In exclam., 381. 
VV preps., 432 ff. Of gerunds 
and gerundives, 6G5. Of supine. 
5b9. ' 

Accusing and acquitting, constr. of 

verbs of, 410. 
Accplialous verse, C63, III. 
-aceus, adjs. in, 324. 
Active voice, 195. Act. and pass. 

constr,, 4(55. 
Ad, in conipds., 338, 1 ; in compds. 
w. two aces., 374, 6; w. dat., 386. 
Ad, w, ace, 433. 
-ades, in patronymics, 316 ; quanti- 
ty, 046, 1. 
Adhuc locorum, 396, 2, 4) (4) 
Adipiscor, w. gen., 409, 3. 
Adjective,— Decl. of, 147 ff. Forma- 
tion of cases, 154 ff., irreg., 159. 
Comparison, 160 ff. Numerals, 
172 ff ; decl. of, 175 ff Deriva- 
tion, 322 ff Comp., 340. W. 
dat., 391. W. gen. 396, III. 2- 
399. W.abl., 4*14, 419. 'Agree- 
ment, 438 ff W. the force of 
nouns, clauses, adverbs, 441 ff. 
tse of comparison, 444. 
' Admlscco, w. dat., 385, 5. 
Admdnco, constr., 410, 3. 
Admonisbrng, constr. of verbs of 
410. ' 

Adolcscens, compared, 168, 3. 
Adonic verso, 677, III. 
Adulor, w. ace. or dnt., 385, 3 
Advantage, dat. of, 385. 
Adverbial ace, 377. 
Adverbs-Niimeral, 181. Classes 
of, 304.^ Compar., 305. Deriva- 
tion, 333 ff. Composition, 34'> 
For adjs., 352, 4. W. dat., 392.' 
]y. gen., 396, III. 4). As prop..., 
437. Use, 582 ; w. nouns, 583 
JVegativcs, non, ne, haud, 584, two 
nogativos, 585. 
Adversative conjs., 310; 587, HI. 
Ad\ersiitive sentence, 360. ' " | 
Adrn'ms, w. accus., 433. 
Advising, constr. of verbs of, 558, 

Ae^onnd of, 9,15; changed to I, 

34 1,3. 
Aedes, sing, and plur., 132. 
Aeper, w. gen., 399, 3. 



Aenmlm, w. gen. or dat., 399, 2, 

Aeneas, decl. of, 43. 
Acqui bonifaccre, 402 3 

"^o^, 62^ 3. "''• '^' ^'^' "^' •^"'^^^•'y 

-aeus, adjs. in, 326. 

Affatim, w. gen., 396, III. 4). 

Ajjido, w. abl. 414, 1, 1). 

Affinis, w. gen., 399, (3). 

Age, expression of, 417, 3. 

Agent,— Abl. of, w. a or ab, 388. 1 • 
Dat. of, 388. ' ' 

Agreement,— Of Prod. Noun, 362 • 
in gend. and uumb., 362, 1 Of 
Appositive, 303, in gend. and 
numb., 363, 1. Of Adject., 438 • 
w. clause, 438, 3 ; constr. accord.' 
to sense, 438, 6; w. pred. noun or 
^!T^'"'':f'438,7; w. two nouns, 

2 v/^iwH^'- ^*''''*- ^'«"- '^»«. 

-=> o)' yJi Pronouns, 445 : w 
two antecedents, 445, 3 ; w. prod 
noun or appositive, 445, 4; constr.* 
accord, to sense, 445, 5 ; w. clause, 
445 7. Ot Verb, 400; constr. ad 
cord, to souse, 461 ; agreement w. 
Appos. or Pred. noun, 462- w 
comp. subject, 463. ' 

-ai, for ae, 42, 3; quant, of, 612, 1. 

-al, gen. and abl. of nouns in, 64, 87, 

Alcaicverse,604; 691,11.; greater, 
092; stanza, 700,1. 

Ahenus, w. dat., 391, 1 ; w. all 

rf.H, 2, 3); w. gen., 399, 3. 
Al/gitmitus, aliqnh, aliquoL 19] • 
Hse of aliquis, 455. ' 

-alis, adjs. in, 325, 
Alius,— T)cc\. 14<). i„f}(,f. jgj o. 
^v. abl., 417, 5; av. atque, ac, m 
cf. 459, 2. Anus-aUus, 459 • 
alncs—almm., w. plur. verb, 401, 3. 
Alphabet, 2 ff, > . • 

\Alfer,~J)cd. 149. Lidef lO] o. 
I ^J'^-^ynf''/-, 191, 2; u/ier-ahr,-, 
459; alkr—altcrum, w. plur. verb, 
4 o 1 , o» 
Altercor, w. dat., 385, 5. 
Ahus, gender of, 47. 
Ambi, amb., 338, 2. 
^w Jo, decl. of, 170, 2. 
Amphora, 710. 
Amjdius without quam, 417, a 



I 



'•■ Si 






H '' 



338 



INDEX OF SUI5JECTS. 



An, annon, MCy, II. 2; 626, 2, 2). 

Anacoluthon, 704, III. 4. 

Anapaestic verse, G78. 

Anaphora, 704, II. 3. 

Anastropiie, 704, IV. 1. 

Animi, constr., a99, 3. 4). 

Ante, iu compds., 3^8, 1 ; w. dat., 
386. Ante, in expressions of time, 
427 ; w. ace, 433. 

Antecedent, use of term, 445, 1 ; 
omitted, 445, 6 ; attracted, 445, 9. 
Clause as antecedent, 445, 7. 

Antcquam, w. indie, or subj., 523. 

Antimeria, 704, III. 1. 

Antitliesis, 703, 8. 

-anus, adjs. in, 325 ff. 

Anxius, w. gen., 399, 3. 

Ai'liaeresis, 703, 1. 

Apocope, 703, 3. 

Aposiopesis, 704, I. 3. 

Appendix, 702-720. 

Appositro,— Agrpemont of, 863; in 
gend. and numb., 363, 1. Subject 
omitted, 363, 2. Force of, 363, 3. 

Ajdus, w. dat., 391, 1 ; aptm qui, w. 
subj., 501, III. 

Apud, w. accus., 42" 

-ar, gen. and abl. of nouns in, 66, 
87, 89. 

Arceo, w. dat., 885, 4. 

Archilochiau verse, 664 ; 677, II. ; 
greater, 691, I. 

Arenae, gen. of place, 424, 3. 

-aris, adjs. in, 325. 

Aristoplianic, 691, III. 

-arium, nouns in, 317. 

-arius, nouns in, 318 ; adjs. in, 325. 

Arrangement,— Of Words, 592-602, 
—General rules, 593 ft". Effect of 
emphasis and euphony, 694. Con- 
trasted groups, 595'. Kindred 
words, 596. AVords with common ! 
relation, 597. Special rules, 598 
fl". Modifiers of nouns, 598 ; of | 
adjs., 599 ; of vverbs, 600 ; of 
adverbs, 601 ; of special words, 
— Demon. Trep. Conjunct. Rel. 
A'ow, 602. Of Clauses, 603-606, 
— Clause as Subj. or Fred., 603 ; 
as Subord. element, 604 ; in Latin | 
Period, 606 ; iu compd. sentence, 
606. 
Arsis and thesis, 660. 
As and its divisions, 712. 



-as, nouns in, 1st dec, 43 ; 3d dec, 
50 ; genit. of, 68 ; gend. of, 105. 

-as, for ae in gen., 42, 3; in Greek 
ace. plur., 98; in patronymics, 
316; iu adjs., 326; quantity of, 
623. -^ ' 

Asclepiadean verse, 689,111.; great- 
er, IV. 

-asco, inceptives in, 332, II. 

Asking, constr. of verbs of, 374 ; 558, 

Aspcrgo, constr., 384, 1. 

Aspirated letters, 4, 3. 

-asso, assim, in fut. perf. and perf. 

subj., 239, 4. 
Asyndeton, 704, I. 1. 
-atim, adverbs in, 334, 2. 
Aique, for quam, 417, 4. 
Attraction, qf pronoun, 445, 4 ; of 

antecedent, 445, 9 ; of pred. noun 

or adj. after an infin., 547. Subj. 

by attraction, 527. 
Attributive adj., 438, 2. 
-atus, nouns in, 318 ; adjs. in, 323. 
Alt, 9, 15; changed, 341, 3. 
Audio, w. Pred. Noun, 362, 2, (1). 
Audicns, w. two datives, 390, 3. 
Aureus, the coin, 712. 
Autem, place of, 602, III. 
Authority, long or short by, 609, 2. 
Authors, Latin, 706. 
Avidm, w. gen., 399, 2; w. dat., 

399, 5 ; w. ace. and prep., 399, 5. 
-ax, genit. of nouns in, 77 ; verbals 

in, 828 ; w. gen., 399, 2. 

"P CHANGED to/>, 248. 

-L'^ Being angi-y, verbs of, w. dat., 

385. 
Being distant, constr. of verbs of, 

556, in. 
Believing, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 
Belli, constr., 424, 2. 
Bene, compared, 305, 2 ; w. verbs of 

buying, 416, 3. 
Benefiting, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 
Bibi, quantity of, 661, 2. 
-bilis, veriwis in, 328. 
Bonus, dee'., 148; compar., 165; 

honi comulo, 402, 3. 
Bos, gen. of, 72, 6 ; gen. plur., 89, 

III. , .111., abl., 90, 2. 
Braehycatalectie, 663, III. 
Brazen a^o, 706, III. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



339 



-brum, nouns in, 320. 
-bs, gtmit. of nouns in, '75, 
Bdcolic caosui-a, 673, 2. 
-biiium, nouns in, 320. 
-bandus, verbals in, 828. 

n SOUND of, 11 ff. Nouns in, 
y? 48; genit. of, 63; gend., 111. 
C', quantity of final syllables in, 62L 
Caesura, caesural pause, 662 ; in 
• ^exam., 673 ff. ; in anai)aestic 
verse, 678; in trochaic, 680; in 
iambic, 683, IV. ; 686. 
Calendar, Roman, 707. 
Calends, 708, I. 1. 
Calling, verbs of. w. two aces., 373 
-canus, adjs. in, 326, 2. 
Caput, genit. of, 67; w. verbs of 

condemning, 410, 5. 
Carbasus, gend. of, 47. 
Cardinals, 172, 174 • dccl. of, 175 ff. 
Cases, etymoloj^y ui;— Endmfjs of, 
{58, 2 ; in 1st doc, 42 ; in 2(i'dec.,' 
45 ; in 3d dec, 52 ; in 4th dec, 
116; m 5th dec, 119; compara- 
tive view of, 121 ; general end- 
ings, 123. Formation of, in 3d 
dee.,— nora. sing., 55 ; gen., 56 ff. ; 
dat., 84; ace, 85; voc, 80; abl., 
8 1 ; nom., ace, and voc plur., 88 • 
gen., 8i) ; dat. and abl., 90. Greek 
cases,— gen. sing., 92 ; ace, 93 ; 
voc, 94; nora. and voc plur. 
95 ; gen., 96 ; dat. and abl., 97 ' 
ace, 98. Cases of adj.s. of 3d dec 
154-158. ■' 

Cases, syntax of, 364-435,— charac- 
terized, 364 ; kindred, 365 ; nom., 
361 ff. ; voc, 369 ; accus., 370- 
381 ; dat., 382-392 ; gen., 393- 
411; abl., 412-431; w. preposi- 
tions, 432-137. 
Catalectic verse, 603, III. i. 
Caum, gratia, 414, 2, 3). 
Causal conjunctions, 310, 311; 587 

V. ; 588, VII. 
Causal sentences, 360. 
Cause, abl. of, 414. 
Cause, Subj. of, 617-523,— Rule 
C17, 521; w. quum, 518; qui, 
0U\ quod, quia, quo7uam, quan- ■ 
"0, 52(} ; dam, donee, quoad, 522 ; 
anteqnam, priusqiiam, 523.' 
Cause, denoted by part., 578, II. 



CaiK^ing, con.str. of verbs of, ,'i58, IV. 
tai'c, w. subj. for iniperat., 535, 1. 
tavco, constr., 885, 3. 
-ce, appended, 186, 1. 
Cdo, constr., 374, 2 and 3. 
-cen, compounds in, 339, 2. 
-ceps, genit. of nouns and adis in 
75, 1 ; 155, 3. ^ ' 

Certo, w. dat., 385, 5. 
Certus, w. gen., 399, (2). 
C/t, 4, 3; sound of, 11, 1, 
Characteristic, gen. of, 896, IV • 
abl. of 428; gen. and abl. distiu' 
guished, 428, 4. 
Choliambus, 683, 4. 
Choosing, verbs of, w.two aces., 373. 
Clionambic verse, 689 ff. 
Cirigo, constr. of, 374, 7. 
-oio, derivatives in, 315, 5. 
Circa, circiier, w. ace, 433. 
Ctreum, in compds., 338, 1 ; compds. 
w. ace, 371, 4 ; w. two aces., 374, 
6. Circumdo,cireumfundo, constr. 
384, 1. Circum, w. ace, 433. * 
Cm, eUra, w. ace, 433. 
Citerior, compared, 166. 
Cltuin, quantity of, 651, 3 
Clam, w. ace or abl., 437, 3. 
tliuises, as nouns, gender of, 35 
Pnn. and sub. clauses, 345, 1 and 
2. Clause as object, 371, 5; as 

AAr "i V' ^^^' ^5 "^ antecedent, 
44o, 7. Indirect questions, clauses 
w. infin., suly., and w. quod, com- 
G^7w ^^^' ^'■'"^"S'imcut of, 

Caelum, plur. coeli, 143, 1. 
Cognate accua., 371, 1. 
Coins, Roman, 712. 
-cola, compounds in, 339, 2. 
Collective nouns, 31. 
Coins, gender of, 47. 
Com, con for cum, in compds., 838 
^ 1 ; w. dat., 386. 
('ombincd objects, 354, 3. 
Comitor, w. ace or dat., 385 3 
Command, subj. of, 487 ff. Co'nstr 

of verbs of, 885 ; 558, VI. 
Common nouns, 31; com. quantity. 

Commons comm.Qnefacin ron^fr 
410, 3. "^ ' '""'^"•' 

CommM«/5, constr., 391, 2, 4); 399, 
3, 



.1 :J| 



f IJ 



340 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Commuto, constr. of, 41(5, 2. 
Comparative coiijs., ail ; 588, II. 
Comparative degree, 1(>0; wanting, 
1<J7 ; formed by magis, 170. Com- 
paratives w. gen., 3y(), 2, 3) (2); 
w. ubl., 417; w. quam, 417, 1; w. 
force of too, 444, 1 ; before and 
after quam^ 444, 2 ; w. quam and 
the subj., 501, IV. 
Comparative view, — of dec!,, 121- 

I'Vi; of conjugation, 243 ff. 
Comparison,— of adjs., 100; modes 
of, IGl; terminational, 102 If.; 
irreg., Ica If.; defect., IGO If,; 
adverbial, 170. Use of, 444; in 
adverbs, 444, 4. 
Compleo^ constr., 410, 7. 
Complex sentences, 345, 357 ; abridg- 
ed, 358 if. Comp. elements, 350; 
subject, 352 ; predicate, 354. 
Compos, gcnit. of, 155; w. gen. or 

abl., ayj, (3); 419,111. 
Composition of words, 813, 338 If. 
Compound nouns, — decl. of, 125 If. ; 
composition of, 339; comp. adjec- 
tives, 310; verbs, 341 ; pnn. parts 
of, 259 IF.: comp. adverbs, 342. 
Comp. sentences, 345, SCO; abridg- 
ed, 3(31. Comp. subject, predi- 
cate, modifier, 3t)l, 1-3. Com- 
pounds of preps, w. ace, 371, 4 ; 
w. two aces., 374, 6. 
Computation of money, 713. 
Con, see com. 
Concealing, verbs of, w. two aces., 

374. 
Concedo, constr., 551, II. 2. 
Concession, si.hj. of, 514 if. 

ciple, 578, IV. 
Concessive conjunctions, 

IV. 
Condemning, constr. of 

410, 5. 
Condition, — conjunctions 
588. Subj. of, 502; 
tenses, 504 ; w. dum, modo, dum 
modo, 505 ; ac si, ut si, etc., 500 ; 



parti- 
588, 
verbs of, 



311 



of, 811, 
force of 



tfi, nisi, etc., 507 ff. ; si omitted, 
503, 1; condition supplied, 503, 
2 ; first form, 508 ; second, 509 ; 
third, 510 ; mixed forms, 511, 512. 
Condition in relative clauses, 513; 
in oratio obliqua, 5:^3, 2 and 3 ; 
denoted by participle, 578, III. 



Conditional sentences, 602 AT. 
Confido, w. dal., 885, 1; w. abl., 

419. 
Conjugation, 201 If. ; of sum, 204. 
First conj., 205 if., 201 If.; sec- 
ond, 207 If., 206 if. ; third, 209 if., 
273 if., fourth, 211 if., 283 if.; 
of verbs in io of tlie 3d conj., 213. 
Periphrastic, 227 if. Contractions 
and peculiarities, 234 if. Com- 
parative view of conj., 243 if. ; one 
general system, 244. Vowel conj., 
278. Conj. of irreg. verbs, 287 if. ; 
of defect., 297; of impersonal, 
298 if. 
Conjunctions, 808; coordinate, use 
of, 587 ; subordinate, use of, 588. 
Place of, in sentence, 602, III. 
Consciiis, w. gen., 399, (2); w. abl., 
399, 5 ; w. gen. and dat., 399, 0. 
Conscius mihi sum, constr., 551, 3, 
Consecutive conjunctions, 311, 588. 
Consonants, 8, I.; double, 4, 2; 

sounds oi; 10 if., 16. 
Consors, w. gen., 399, (8). 
Constitiio, const!-., 558, II. 
Consuctudo, consuetudinis est, con- 
str., 556, I. 1. 
Consulo, constr., 385, 3. 
Conmllus, w. gon., 899, (2). 
Contcntus, w. abl,, 410, IV. 
Continffit, constr., 550, II. 
Contra, w. accus., 488. 
Contracted syllables, quantity of, 610. 
Contractions, in f<n]., 234 ff. 
Contrarius, constr., 891, 2, 4). 
Convicting, constr. of verbs of, 

410. 
Coordinate conjunctions, 809. 
Copulative conjunctions, 810, 587. 

Copul. sentences, 300. 
Coram, w. abl., 434. 
Countries, gender of names of, 35. 
-crum, nouns in, 820. 
Cukuimodi, 187, 7. 
Cujas, 185, 3; 188, 4. 
Ctcjus, 185, 8; 187, 3; 188, 4; <-u- 
jusmodi, cujuscemodi, ciijuscuin- 
qucniodi, 187, 7; cujusdummodi, 
191, 4. 
-culuni, nouns in, 820. 
-cuius, cula, culum, nouns in, 815; 

adjs. hi, 827. 
Cum, appended, 184, 6; 187, 2; 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



341 



citm, com, in compds., 338, 1 

Own., w, abl., 434. 
-cundus, vorbals in, 328. 
Vuncli, omncs, w. gen., 396, III. 2, 

Cupidus, w. gen., 399, 2. 

Cupiens, idiomatic use of dat., 387, 

Cupio, constr., 651, II. 1 and 2. 



. T) DROPPED before », 55, 3; 
■*^5 quantity of final syllables in, 
621. 

Dactylic ver.sc, BTO ff. Dactylico- 
ianibic, 6!)3. 

Duma, gend. of, 44. 

Dates, Lat. and Eng., 710. 

Dative, formation of,— in 1st dec 
42 3 ; in 3d dec., 84, 90, 97 ; in 
4tlideo., 116, 4; in 6th dec, 119, 

Dative, syntax of, 382-392,— with 
verbs, 384 If. Of advant. and dis- 
adyaut., 385. W. compds., 386. 
Of possessor, 387. Of agent, 388. 
Mueal dat., 389. Two dat. 390. 

Jno'^'^J.';'.^^^- ^^- nouns and adv., 
<JJ^ 01 gerunds, etc., 564. W 
verbs of Separ. 425, 2, 3). 
Datum, quantity of, 651, 3. " 
De, in compds. w. dat., 386, 2. Dc 

w. abl., 434. 
Becerno, constr., 5/)8, II. 
JJecipio, w. gen., 409, 4; 410, 7. 
Declarative sentence, 346. 
Declaring, constr. of verbs of, 551. 
Declension, 39; first, 42; second, 
45; third, 48; fourth, 116; sec- 
ond and fourth, 117; fifth, 119. 
Comparative view of decl., 121 ; 
one general system of decl., 122.' 
Decl. of compds., 125. 
D&M, quantity of, 651, 2. 
J)r,locro, constr., 374, 2 and 3. 
Defective nouns, 119,5; 129; def. 
adjs., 159; def. comparison, 'l 66 •' 
def. verbs, 297. ' 

Dehbcrative questions, w. the subi 
4Sti, II, '' ' 

Demanding constr. of verbs of, 374 • 
558, VI. 

Demonstratives, 186; use of, 450. 

I'hxdriicK, 712. 

Deponent verbs, 221 ; 465, 2. 



Derivation, 313; of nouns, 314 ff.- 
of adjs., 322 If.; of verba, 330 \\.\ 
of adverbs, 333 ff. 

Derivatives, quantity of, 663; quan- 
tity of deriv. endings, 645 If. 

Desideratives, 332, III. 

Dcsino, w. gen., 409, 4. 

Desire, subj. of, 487 ff. ; in assevera- 
tions, 488, 4 ; iu relat. clauses. 
488, 6. ' 

Desiring, constr. of verbs of, 661. 

Dednto, w. gen., 409, 4. 

Dcspcro, w. ace., 371, 3. 

Detcrior, compared, 166. 

Dctcrrco, constr., 499, 1-2. 

Deus, 45, 6. 

Diaeresis, 669, III. 

Diaiia, quantity of, 612, 3. 

Diastole, 669, IV. 

Die for dice, 237. 

-dicus, compds. in compared, 164. 

Difference, abl. of, 418. 

Differing, dat. w. verbs of, 385, 4. 

Differo, w. dat., 385, 4. 

Dlijnor, con.'-tr., 419, 2. 

Dl(jniis, constr., 419; digmis, qui, 

w. subj., 501, III. 
Dimeter, 663, 2. 

Diminutive, nouns, 315; dim. adjs., 
327 ; dim. verbs, 332, IV. 

Diphthongs, 4 ; sounds of, 9 ; quan- 
tity of, 610. 

Dipody, 656, 2. 

Direct object, 354, 1 ; 371. 

Dis, di, 3;;8, 2. 

Disadvantage, dat. of, 385. 

Discrepo, w. dat., 385, 4. 

Disjunctive conjs., 310; 587; sen- 
tences, 360. 

Dhpar, constr., 391, 2, 4). 

Displeasing, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 

Disscntio, w. dat., 385, 4. 

Dissimilis, constr., 391, 2, 4). 
Dissyllabic perfects and supines 
quantity of, 651. ' 

Distance, nljl. of, 378, 2. 
Distich, Him. 
Disto, w. dat., 385, 4. 
Distributives, 172; 174; decl. of. 

179. 
Diit, compared, 305, 4. 
Diu.i, quantity of, 612, 3. 
Diversm, compared, 167. 
Dives, compared, 165, 2. 



342 



INDEX OP SUUJECTS. 



Doceo, constr., 374, 2 and 3. 
l)uUo^ w. auciiA, 371, 3; w. clause, 

558, V. ; w. nbl., 414, 2, 1). 
Domm, decl. of, 117, geud., 118; 

constr., 87;, H t24, 't. 
Doncc^ V,'. uhiic. 01 iiilij., 621 ff. 
DoHo, coustr., 384, 1. 
Double coustr, of a few verba, 384, 1, 
Double consonants, 8. 
Ihic for duce, 377. 
Dam, durmtiodo, w. subj., 603 ff. ; w. 

lull, or subj., 521 ff. 
Duo, dccl. of, 17a 

■p SOUND of, 6, 14. Nouns in 

J^J e,— l.st dec., 43 ff ; 3d dec., 

48, 50; genit. of, 59; 89, 1; abl. 

of, 87, 1; geud.. 111. £ in abl., 

87; in Greek ace. plur., 98; for 

ei in gen. and dat., 119, 4; B ia 

adverbs, 335 ; changed to i, 341, 3. 

£, quantity of— in ei, 119, 1 ; final, 

616; m increments of decl., 635; 

of conjugation, 641. 

£ or ex, see ex. 

Ecce with demonstratives, 186, 3 ; in 

exclamations, 367, 3 ; 381, 3. 
Ecquis, 188, 3. Ecquid, 346, 11. 2. 
Edoceo, constr., 374, 2 and 3. 
Egenus, w. gen. or abl., 399, (3); 
419,111. ^ ' 

Egeo, constr., 409, 1. 
Effo, decl. of, 184. 
Eheu, quantity of, 612, 2. 
Ei, 9. Ei, quantity of, 612, 2. 
-eis, in patronymics, 816. 
-P'us, quantity of, 612, 2. 
Ejusmodi, 186, 4. 
-ela, nouns in, 320, 7. 
Elegiac distich, 676, 2. 
Elegiambus, 693, 1. 
Elements of .sentences, 347 ff. 
Ellipsis, 704, of facio, oro, .367. 3 • 
6U2, IL 3. ' . . 

-ellus, ella, ellunx, nouns in, 315 ; 

adjs. in, 327. 
-em, inaccus., 85, 119. 
Emotion, constr. of verbs of. 551 : 
658, V. ' ' 

Emphasis and euphony in the ar- 
rangement of words, 594. 
-en, nouns in, 51 ; en in Greek ace, 
93 ; with demonstratives, 1 86, 3 ; 
in exclamations, 367, 3; 381, 3. ' 



Enallngc, 704, IH. 
EucliticH, accent of, 20, (a): quantity 
of, 613, 1. 

Endeavoring, constr. of verbs of. 
558, ill. 

Endings, 41; in 1st dec, 42; in 2a 
dec., 45, 1 ; iu 8d dec, 52, 2; la 
4th dec, 116; in 6th dec, 119; 
in the five decls., 121, 123; in 
comparison, 162; in coiyugation, 

Enc-lish pronunciation of Latin, 6 ff. 
Emm, place of, 602, III. 
-ensia, adjs. in, 325 ff. 
-entior, entisaimus, in comparison, 

164. 
Envying, verba of, w. dat., 886. 
Eo, w. gen., 396, 2, 4). 
Epenthesis, 703, 5. 
Epicene nouns, 36. 
Epichoriambic verse, 690. 
Epiphora, 704, II. 4. 
Epitome, decl. of, 43. 
Epulum, plur., epulae, 143. 
-er, gend. of nouns in, 47, 1 03. Adjs. 

in, 151; comparison of, 163, 1. 

Adverbs in, 335. 
-ero, for erunt, 235. 
Erga, w. ace, 433. 
Ergo, w. gen., 411. 
-ernus, adjs. in, 325, 2. 

nouns in, 60, 119; genitivo of, 



-es, 



69; gender of, 104, 109, 119. es, 

in nora,, ace, and voc. plur., 88. 
-es, final, sound of, 8, 1 ; quantity of, 

624. 
•esco, inceptives in, 332, II. 
•esao, essim, in fut., pcrf., and perf. 

subj., 239, 4. esso, verbs in, 332. 
^ster, adjs. in, 325, 2. 
-estus, adjs. in, : 23, 3. 
Ethical dative, 389. 
Etiamsi, etsi, w. subj., 515, 616, 

-etum, nouns in, 317. 

Etymology 29-342. 

Eu, sound of, 9. 

Euphonic changes, 55, 8 ; before xi, 
sum, turn, 248; 257, 1; iu prepo- 
sitions, 338, 1. 

Euphony, see Emphmif,. 

-eus, adjs. in, 324, 326. 

■ex, genit. of uoulj in, 78. 



INDEX OF SUnjECTS. 



843 



Ex, e, in compels, w. dat., 380, 2. Fx 

w. ubi., 4;j4. ' 

Exclmiiying, constr. of verbs of, 41G, 

Exilanmtory sontenccn, 3-1 r>, IV. ae- 
ons, in, 38] ; voc, nom., dat.' in, 
JHl, 3; infinitive in, 553, ill. 

Bxoro, constr., 374, 2. 

Expern, exsors, w. gen,, 399, (3). 

lixkrus, compared, 1C3, 3. 

Ji'xtra, w. ace., 433. 

lixtrcmum est, constr., 55n, I. 2. 

Ji'xuo, constr., 374, 7 ; 884, 1. 

■pAC, for face, 237. 
-^^ J'acio, w. prcd. gen., 403, 
J^alsum est, constr., e5G, I. 2, 
Falxus, compared, 1G7. 
Fumct, ahlfamS, 137, 2. 
Familia, genitive of, 42, 3. 
Fearing, constr. of verbs of, 492, 4 
Feeling, constr. of verbs of, 551 • 
558, V. ' 

Feet, metrical, 656 ff. 
Feminine, 33. 
Fer, for /ere, 237. 

Fertilis, w. gen., abl, or ace, 399. 
(2) and 5. ' » . 

-fex, compd.s. in, 339, 2. 
-ficus, adjs. in, compared, 161. 
f}do, w. dat., 385; w. abl., 419. 
ligures—o'' prosody, 669; of ety- 
mology, 703; of syntax, 704; of 
Rhetoric, 705. 
Filling, constr. of verbs of, 410, 7. 
Iinalconjs., 311; 588, V. 
Final syllables, quantity of, 613 ff. • 
final syllable of the verse, 663. ' 
Fmite, or definite moods, 196 ; finite 

verb, 196. 
Fio, quantity of, 612, 3. 
Fit, coTtstr., 550, II. 
Flagif w. two aces., 374, 2- w 
subj., 558, VI. ' . • 

Foci, gen. of place, 424, 3. 
Following, constr. of verbs of, 650, 

Formation,— of cases, 55-98; of 
parts of verb.s, 240-260; of words. 
31.3-342. ' 

FractioiM, 174, 1. 

Freeing, constr. of verbs of. 410 7 

Frenum, pl.,frcHi,/rena, 143. 

Irequentatives, 332. 



Frctus, w. abl., 419, IV. 

^juffi, in decl., 159 ; compared, ICO. 

rruur, constr., 419. 

Fuiif/or, constr., 419, 

Future, 197; 241,1.; in indie, 470; 
w. force of imperat., 470, 1 ; l.r 
Jug. pres , 470, 2 ; w. melius, 470, 
3. \\ anting in subj., 479; lijw 
finpphed, 481,111.1. In imperat.,; 
534 537; fut. for prcs., and prcs./ 
forluf., 534, 1 and 2. In inlin., 
043 It. ; circunilocution for. 544. 
In part., 573. 

Fulme Perfect, 197; 241, II. ; in in- 
uic, 473 ; to denote certainty 473 
1; for Kng. pros., 473, 2. Vvant! 
i"^ "\ i"'i'J-» '*''''^; I'ow supplied, 

Fulurum ease, fuissc, fore, ut, 544, 
Futurum sit vt, 481, HI. 1 and 2. 

G SOUND of, 11 ff.; changed, 
f 248. ° ' 

Gimdeo, constr., 871, 3; 551 III • 
558, v.; 414,2. * * 

Gvmo, -w. accus., 371, 3. 

Cems, gender of names of, 47. 

Gender, S3 ff. ; hi 1st dee., 44 ; in 
2d dec, 47; in 3d dee., 99-115- 
in 4th dec., 118; in 5th dec, 119 • 
general table of, 124. ' 

Genitive, formation of,— endings 
40; in 1st dec' 42; asiovae,u,n 
for arum, 42, 3 ; in 2d dec., 45 ; 
I for n, um for orum, 45, 5 ; o or 
on, -i % 3 ; in 3d dec, 56-83, 89 
96; I 4th dec, 116; uia {or us, 
116.'"'"' ' — 



. i; in 5th dec, 119; e or i 
for ei, 119, 4. In adjectives, 155. 

Genitive, syntax of, 393-411,— with 
noun.s, 395 ; varieties, 396 ; pecu- 
liarities, 897; other constrs. for 
gon., 398. W. adj.H., 399. W. verbs 
401 ff. Trcd. gen., 401 ff ; other 
constrs, for, 404. Of place, 404 ; 
421, II. In special constrs., 4or> 
ff. Ace and gen., 410. W. ad- 
verbs, 411. Gen. of gerunds and 
gerundives, 563. 

Genitus, w. abl., 425, 3. 

Gentile nonns, 326, 3. 

Gerund,— Nature of, 559. Cases of, 
560. Ger. and lufin., 560, 2. W. 



: 



I II 



844 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



direct (thJQct, nni. Ocnindivo, 
6(52 ; of ulor, friior, etc., 502, 4. 
I'liHa. scnye of (ior., 5()2, 5. (len- 
itivo of gor. and gerunUive, 6(53 ; 
go r, when preferred, 60.'j, 2; go- 
rundive witli mei, nostri, etc., Bt);{, 
4 ; of purpose, 6(53, 5 ; inlin. for 
ger., 5G3, 0. Dat. of, 604; of 
piiipose, with ofRcial names, 664, 
2 and 3. Accus, of, 505 ; w. ob- 
ject, 6t)5, 2 ; of puri)ose, 605, 3. 
Abl. of, 606. 

Gloriosum est, 550, I. 2. 

(jlyconic vci-se, 604, 089. 

Gnarus, w. gen., 309, (2). 

(Jolden age, 700. 

Creeli nouns, — in 1st dec, 43 ; in 2d 
dec, 46 ; in 3d dec, 91-98. 

TT A HREATIIING, 2. 
Al) Iladria, gender of, 44. 
Happening, constr. of verbs of, 650, 
II. 

Jlauil, ne, non, 584. 
Ilendeeasyllabic verse, C91, V. 
Ilendiadys, 704, II. 2. 
Ilephtliemimeris, 656, 2. 
Ileioic verse, 004. 
Ileteroclites, 135 ff. 
Heterogeneous nouns, 141 AT. 
Hexameter verse, 003, 2. Dactylic, 

671. 
Ilic, iste, Ule, dec!, of, 180; use of, 

450. 
Jlic (adv.), w. gen., S9G, III. 4). 
Hipponaetean, 083, 4. 
Historical tenses, 198, 2; hist, pres- 
ent, 407, III. ; hist, perfect, 471, II. 
Ilud/e, quantity of, 654, 8. 
Horaec, versification of, 698 ff. Lyric 

metres of, 700. Index, 701. 
fforrco, w. accus., 371, 3. 
Hue, w. gen., 396, III. 4). 
Jfujitsmodi, 186, 4. 
JIuitms, gender of, 47; constr. of 

humi, 424, 2. 
Hypallage, 704, III. 2. 
Hyperbaton, 704, IV. 
Hyperbole, 705, V. 
Hypereatulectie verse, 663, III. 
Ilypermeter, 608, III. 
Hypothetical sentences, see Condi' 

tionul ditto. 
Ilystcrou proteron, 704, IV. 2. 



T SUrrUER the place of ;, 2, .1; 
-I J sound of, t) ir. ; 14 if. ; with the 
sound of 7/, 9; i for i?', ie, 4.'), 6. 
Nouns in, 48; genit. of, 00; gen- 
der of, 111; J, linul in dat., 84; 
in abl., 87 ; for is, 92 ; for ci, 119, 
4 ; in perfect, 247, 2. /, quanti- 
ty of,— final, 618; in increments 
of ded., 636 ; of conjugation, 04;{. 
-ia, nouns in, 319 ; in nom., ace, and 

voc. plur., 88. 
-iaciis, ndjs. in, 326. 
-iades, in patronymics, 316. 
lanibelegus, 694, 1. 
Iambic verse,— Dipody, 682. Tri- 
meter, 683 ; choliambus, 683, 4 ; 
catalectic, 684. Dimeter, 685 ; 
hypermeter, 685, 1 ; catalectic, 
685, 2 ; acephalou.s, 685, 3. Te- 
trameter, 086. 
lanibieo-dactylic verse, 694. 
-ianiis, adjs. in, 326. 
-ias, in patronymics, 316. 
-ibam, for iebatn, 239, 1. 
-ibo, ibor, for iam, iar, 239, 2. 
-ibus, in dat. and ubl. plur., 90. 
-icius, adjs. in, 324, 328. 
Ictus, 059. 

-icus, adjs. in, 325 ff. 
Idem, decl., 180; w. dat., 391, 3; 
use of, 451. Idem — qici, ac or at- 
qiie, 451, 5. 
Ides, of the calendar, 708, I. 3. 
-ides, in patronymics, 316. 
•ido, nouns in, 320, 7. 
Idoneus qui, w. subj., 501, III. 
-idus, verbals in, 328. 
■iensis, adjs. in, 826. 
-ier, for i in infin., 239, 6. 
IgUur, place in the clause, 002, 

III. 
Ignarus, w. gen., 399, {•!). 
-igo, nouns in, 320, 7. 
-ile, nouns in, 317. 
-ills, adja. in, 325, 828 ; compared, 

163, 2. 
Illative conjs., SIO; 587, IV. ; sen- 
tences, 3(i0. 
llle, decl. of, 186; use of, 450. 
lllic for ille, 1 80, 2. 
Uliusmodi, 180, 4. 
-illo, verbs in, 332, IV. 
-illus, ilia, ilium, in nouns, 315, 3 ; 
in adjs,, 327. 



INDEX OF SUnjECTS. 



345 



Jm, in ncc, 85, on ; for am, or em 

in prcH. Hiilij., i>a!», ,'{. 
Lnniemor, genit. of, 155, 4; gon. 

plur., 15«, ;j; w. gen., yyi», 2. 
-imonia, nouns in, .'{10. 
Iiii/ieUio, const!'., 4',)!t, 1-2. 
lin|ioiativc, IDtJ. Tenses, OJM, Use, 
535 ir.; prod., 5:i0; Int., 537; iu 
proliibiiioiis, 538. 
Imperative sunteneos, 3 46, III. 
Imperfect tcn.se, 11)7 ; 241, I. ; in in- 
die., 408 ir. ; in lively description, 
of customary or repeated action, 
4t5',»; of attempted action, in let- 
ters, 469, 1 and 2. In Subj., 477 ; 
of present time, 481, V.; after 
I'erf. Def., 482, 1 ; for Plnperf., 
48(), 4 ; in desires and wislie.s, 
488, 2; in comiition, 510; after 
antequam and prhwpiam, 523, 2. 
Imperilits, w. gen., 3'J'.), (2). 
Impcro, const r., 551, II. 1 and 2. 
Impersonal verbs, 298 ff. ; subjects 

of, 55H, I.-III. 
Impcrtio, constr., 38 1, 1. 
Jmpko, constr., 410, 7, 
Jmpos, genit. of, 155 ; w. gen., 399. 
(3). ' 

Jinpolens, w. gen., 399, (3). 
LnprudmH, w. gen., 399, (2). 
-in, in Greek aces., 93. 
In, In compds., 338, 1 ; w. two accg., 
3-74, 6 ; w. dat., 38t). /«, w. ace. 
or abl., 435. 
Inceptives, inchoatives, 332, II. 
Invcrlm, w. gen., 399, (2). 
Inclination, subj. of, 48(5, 3, 
Iiidutus, compared, 1G7. 
Increments, 629 ff. ; quantity of, 632 

IK, 639 ff, 

Indeclinable nouns, gender of, 35; 

examples, 128. Indecl. adjs., 159. 

Indefinite moods, 196. 

liuleiinite pronouns, 189; use of. 

455 ff . , , 

Index of verbs, 721. 

ludieutive, 196 ; use of, 474 ff. ; spe- 
cial uses, 475. 

Jiul/ffco, constr., 409, 1. 

Indiffnus, w, abl, 419, IV. indlgnus 
<pii, w. subj., 501, III. 

Indirect discourse, distinguished from 
direct, 528. Subj. in, 529. Moods 
in prin. clause, 530 ; in sub. clause, 



531. Tenses, 532 ; Tronouns, ad- 
vcrb.H, etc., 633. 

Indirect object, 354, 2.1{nle, 384 : 
indirect w. direct, 384, II. 

Indirect questions, 524 ti;,— Sul)j. in, 
526. Indie, in, 525, 6; in orat. 
obliqua, 630, II. 2 ; sing, and dou- 
ble, 526. 

luduvo, constr., 3Y4, 7. 

Indulging, verbs of, w. dat., 383. 

Jmluo, constr., 374, 7 ; 384, 1. 

»ine, in patronymics, 316, 4. 

Ill f ems, compared, 163, 3. 

lulinitive, 196, II. Tenses of, 640 
ff. Subject of, 545; of Hist, in- 
fin., 546, 1. Predicate after, 646; 
attracted, 547. Construction of, 
548 ff. ; as Nom., 549 ; as Accus., 
650 ff. ; w. another ace, 5.52, 2 ; 
in relative clauses, 531, 1 ; after 
conjunctions, 531, 2; after adjs,, 

552, 3 ; after preps., 552, 4 ; in 
special constrs., 553; as pred., 
653, I.; as appos., 553, II.; in 
exclam., 553, HI.; as abl. abs., 

553, IV.; of Purpose, 553, V.; 
for Gerund, 553, VI. 

hifm, w. ace, 433. 
Ingcnii, w. aiijs., 399, 3. 
Injuring, verbs of, w. dat., 383. 
Innitor, constr., 419. 
Imps, w. gen. or abl., 399, (3) ; 419. 
Insmis, w. gen., 399, (2). 
Inseparable preps., 307 ; 654, 2. 
Inspergo, constr,, 384, 1. 
Instrument, abl. of, 414, 4. 
Lisuetus, w. gen., 399, (2); w. othei 

constrs., 399, 5. 
Integer, w. gen., 399, 3. 
Inter, in compds., 338, 1; w. dat., 

386. Inter, w. ace, 433. 
Intcrcludo, constr., 384, 1. 
Interest, w, gen., 406, III. 
Interior, comjjared, 166. 
Inteijections, 312; w. voc, 369, 1; 

w. nom., ace, or dat., 381, 3; use 

of, 589 ff 
Interrogative conjunctions, 311, 588. 
Interrogative pronouns, 188 ; use of, 

454. 
Interrogative sentences,-— Form, 346, 

II. Interrog. words, 346, II. 1. 

Double quest., 34l., 11. 2. Deliber 

quest., 480, II. Answers, 340. II.' 



346 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



r; 



3. Indirect quest., 528 ; w. indie, 
525, 6 ; single and double, 526. 
In indirect discourse, 529 ff. ; rhe- 
torical ques., 530, 2. 
Inicrrogo, w. two aces., 374, 2 ; w. 

ace. and abl, 374, 2-3. 
Iniray w. accus., 433. 
Intransitive verbs, 193; 371, 3; im- 
personal pass., 465, 1. 
-iniis, adjs, in, 324 ff, 
InviduR^ w. gen. or dat., 399, 2, 2). 
Invitus, idiomatic use of dat., 387, 3. 
-io, verbs of 3d conj. in, 213 tf. ; 

nouns in, 318, 321. 
Ionic verse, 687. 
-ior, in comparatives, 162. 
Ipse, decl. of, 186; use of, 452. 
ijosMS, for ipse, 186, 3. 
Iron age, 706. 

Irony, 705, IV. in condition, 603, 3. 
Irregular nouns, 127 ff. ; irreg. adjs., 

159 ; irreg. comparison, 163 ff 
Irregular principal parts of *^erbs, 

249-258 ; irreg. verbs, 287 ff. 
/«, decl. of, 186; use of, 451; rc- 
_ flexivc, 448. In— qui, 451, 4. 
-is, in dat, and abl. of the 1st and 2d 
decls., 42, 45 ; in genit. of 3d deo., 
52; in ace, dat., and abl. pliir., 
88, III.; 90, Nouns in is, 60; 
_ genitive of, 71 ; gender of, 106, 
-iSj in patron}-mics, 316 ; quantity of 

is final, 626, 
-isco, inceptives in, 332, II. 
Islands, gcnd, of names of, 35 ; con- 

str. of names of, 424, 
-issimus, in superlatives, 162, 
-isso, verbs in, 332. 
Me, decl. of, 186 ; use of, 450. 
Jstic, isthlc, for isle, 186, 2. 
Istiusmodi, 186, 4. 
-itas, nouns in, 319. 
-iter, adverbs in, 335. 
Ithyphalicus, 681, 2, 
-itia, nouns in, 319, 
-itimus, adjs, in, 323, 2. 
-itium, nouns in, 318. 
-ito, frequentatives in, 832. 
-itado, nouns in. 319. 
Itum, quantity of, 651, 3. 
-itua, Houns in, 318 ; adverbs in, 335. 

3. 
-ium, in genit. plur., 89 ; noims in. 
318 ff. 



-ius, adjs. in, S26; (luantity of, 612, 3. 

-ivus, adjs. in, 328, 5. 

-ix, genitive of nouns in, 79. 

T TLACE supplied by i, 2 ; leno;th- 
^ J ens preceding vowel, 611. 
Jerur, genitive of, 66, 5. 
Jesus, decl. of, 128, 1, 3). 
Joeus, J)]., joci, joca, 141. 
Jubeo, constr., 551, II. 1 and 2. 
Jugerum, decl. of, 136; use of, 718, 
Jugum, quantity of compds. of, 611, 

3. 
Jungo, w. dat., 385, 5. 
Jupiter, genitive of, 66, 3. 
Jusjurandum, decl. of, 126, 
Juvenal, versification of, 696. 
Juv€7ialis, abl. of, 87, 2. 
Juvenis, abl, of, 87, 2; compared. 

168, 3, 
Juvo, w, accus., 385, 1. 
Juxta, w. accus,, 438. 



K 



EARE, 2. 
J Knowing constr. of verbs of, 
551, I. 1, 

NOUNS in, 48, 51 ; genit. of, 
'J 04; gender, 112; quantity of 
final syllables in, 621, 

Labials, 3. 

Lacrimo, w. accus,, 371, 3. 

Laedo, w, accus., 385, 1. 

Lar, quantity of genit., 083, 4. 

Lassus, w, gen., 899, 3, 

Latin authors, 703, 

Latin grammar, 1, 

Latin period, 603, 

-lentus, adjs. m, £23. 

Letters, classes of, 3 ; combinations 
of, 4; sounds of, 5-16. 

L'^bero, w, abl, or gen., 425, 3. 

Libra, 714. 

Licet, w. subj., 515. 

Linguals, liquids, 3. 

Litotes, 705, VL 

Litum, quantity of, 651, 8, 

Logaoedic verse, 691, 

Longius, without quam, 417, 3. 

-Is, genit. of nouns in, 76, 

EUPHONIC changes 
-J 338, 1 ; quantity of final syl- 
lables in, 621 ; efided, 669, L 




""Hi 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



347 



•ma, dat. and ubl. plur. of nouns in 

"'Jy 1. 

iihffis, maxime, in adverbial com- 

punson, IVO. 
M/ir?/«s, compared, 165. 
Major, in expressions of age, 417 



Making, verbs of, w. two aces.. 373 • 

w. siibj., 558, IV. 
i/a/o, constr., 551, If. 1 and 2. 
-^/a/«,v, compared, 105. 
I/ani/estus, w. gen., 399, 3. 
Manner, means, abl. of, 414; parti- 
ciple lor, 578, II. 
Masculine, 33. 
Material nouns, 31. 
Me, for mi/ii, 184, 5. 
Measure of difterence, abl. of 418- 
measure in prosody, 663, II.'; Ro- 
man measure, 715 If. 
Med, mche, for me, 184, 5. 
Medcor, w. dat., 385, 2. 
Mcdius, designating part, 441, 6. 
Jlehus, w. indie, for subj., 475, 2- 

Mclos, plur. of, 95, 1. 

Meme, 184, 6. 

J/mm/,w. gen., 406, II.; w. ace, 

Memor, w. gon., 399, 2). 
-men, mentum, nouns in, 320 
Mcnsa, decl. of, 42. 
Mcp/e, 184, 5. 

-met, forms in, 184, 3 ; 185, 1. 
Metaphor, 705, I. 
Metathesis, 703, 7. 
Metonymy, 705, II. 
Metro, 067. 

Metrical equivalents and substitutes 
657, 658. ' 

-metros, Greek nouns in, 47 2 
Afdiio, constr., 885, 3 ; 492, 4. " 
Jfeus, decl., 185. 
Mi for mi/d, 184, 5. 
Militia, constr., 4 1:4, 2. 
Mille, decl. and use of, 178. 
Million, cardinal for, 174; symbol 

lor, 180. 
MiUion sesterces, Latin for, 713 4 
-mmo, in imperatives, 239, 5. ' 
Minor, minus, without quam, 417 3 

Uirum est, constr. of, 556, I. 2. 



I Mis for met, 184, 5. 
j Mm-io, w. dat., or abl., 385, 5 
J/isercor, misercsco, w. gen, 406 
Mvieret, constr,, 410. Mim-esclL 

miseretur, 4]0, 6. ' 

j Mobile nouns, 36. 
Modcror, constr., S85, 3. 
Modifier, 348 If. 
Modius, 715. 
Modo, w. subj., 503, 505. 
Moereo, w. accus., 371, 3. 
Moneo, constr., 410, 3. 
Money, Roman, 712 If 
Monometer, 663, 2. 
Monosyllables, quantity of 613 
Months, Roman, 707; divLsio; of, 

/OS ; gender of names of, 35 

^83-533. Impeiat., 634 If. In! 
hn., 539-553. Gerund, 559 ff 
Supine, 567 If. Tart., 57 Iff ' 

Mos, mons est, constr., 5o6, I 1 

-ms, gen. of nouns in, 76. 

Multiplicatives, 173. 

Mullus, comparison of, 106. 

Mutes, 3. 

Muto, constr., 416, 2. 



IW" XOUx\S in, 48; gcnit. of, 65 ; 

V ^^'''n\,''^^ ^^^; •l^'^^tity of 
tinal syllables in, 621. 
Kame, dat. of, 387, 1 ; gen. of, 387, 2. 
xNames of towns, constr., 423. 
JVatus, w. abl., 425, 3. 
^"^e num nmne, interrog. particles, 
611, b; in single questions, 346. 
n. 1; m double, 346, II. 2; in iu! 
^direct questions, 526. 
I ^\ w. subj. of desire, 488 3 • cf 
I purpose, 489 ff. ; of conccJitni 
5Io. ' 

I^\ nan, hand, 684. JVeve, 490 1 
iV^Ti., 346,11.2, 3); 526,2,1).' 
J\edum, w. subj., 493, 4 
Negaf/es, 584; force of two ne-a- 
tnxs, 685. ° 

AW, indef, 191,2; use of, 457, 1 
Zr2 '"'^''''^■' ^^'^' ^'«mpaied; 
^c—<]iiide^yn, 585 ; 002, III. 2. 
Nescio an, w. su!)j. .'"s^'O I' <) 'o\ 
Nesa^o quis, qmmodo, i^t^!;^;: iZiC^ 

Nescius, w. gen., 399, (2). 



343 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Ml 






-neus, adjs. in, S24. 

Neuter, dccl. of, 149; indcf,, 191, 

Neuter adjectives, as adverbs, 335, 
4; as cognate accus., 3Y1, 1, 3) 
(2); as a second accus., 374, 5; 
w. partitive geuit., 390, III. 2, 3) 
(3) ; as predicate, 438, 4. 
Neuter nouns, nom., ace, and voc. of, 
38, 3 ; neuter by signiiication, 85 ; 
by ending, in 2d dec, 47; in 3d 
dec, 111 IF. ; in 4tii dec, 118. 
M, w. subj., 503, 507 ff. 
Mmis, w. gen., 3 ',16, III. 4). 
Msl, w. sul)j., 503, 507 If. 
Mfor, const:-., 419. 
J^"olo, constr., 551, II. 1 and 2 ; noli, 

-ilo, in proiiibitions, 535, 1, 3). 
Nomen est, constr., 387, 1. 
Nominative, formation of, in 3d dec, 
55, 88, 95 ; ueut. plur. in adis., 
157. 
Nominative, syntax of, 366 ff.; as 
subject, 367 ; agreement of, 8G8 ; 
for voc, 369, 2, 
Non, lie, haud, 684 ; place of own, 

^602, IV,, omitted, 584, 2. 
Non, w. quo, quod, guin, quia, w. 

subj., 520, 3. 
Nones in the Roman month, 708, I. 

2. 
Monne, non = nonne, 346, II. 1. 
JVos, for er/o, 446, 2. 
Koster, for mens, 446, 2. 
A^ostras, 185, 2. 

Xostri, nostrum, 396, 1 ; 446, 3. 
.Nouns, etymology of,- -gender of, 33 
ff. ; pcrs. and nu:nb., 37 ; cases, 
38 ; declensions, 39-126 ; indecL, 
128; defect., 129; heteroclites, 
135 ff. ; heterogeneous, 141. 
Nouns, syntax of, 362-437, — Agree- 
ment, 362 ff. Nom., 364" ff. ; 
Voc, 369; Accus., 370-381 ; Dat., 
382-392; Gen., 393-411; Abl., 
412-431 ; v/. preps., 432-437. 
Novus, compared, 167. 
Noxius, w. gen., 399, 3. 
-ns, genit. of nouns in, 76. 
Nubo, w. dat., 385, 2. 
Nallus, decl. of, 149 ; indef , 191, 2 ; 

use of, 457; for non, 457, 3. 
Xiim, niimquhl, 346, IL 1 and 2, 
Number, 37 ; in verbs, 199. 



Numerals, 171 ff. ; adjs., 172 ff. ; 

decl. of, 175 ff. ; symbols, 180; 

adverbs, 181. 
-nus, adjectives in, 324. 
Misquain, w. gen., 396, III. 4). 

SOUND of, 6 ff, 14 ; noims in, 
J 48, 51; genit. of, 61; gend., 
100 ; derivatives in, 320, 6. 
0, quantity of, — final, 62v),- in in^ 
crements, 634, 642 ; in coaipds., 
654, 7. 
Ob, in compds., 338, 1 ; in coinpds. 

w. dat, 386. Ob, w. ace, 43;',. 
Obcdiens, w. two datives, 3S)(i, 3. 
Obeying, verbs of, w. dat., 38?. 
Object, direct, indirect, cumbiucd, 
35 J ; direct, 371 ; omit., 371, 1, (3j; 
clause as an object, 371,5 ; 55 V If. 
See Subject and object elansei:. 
Oltjectlve genitive, 396, II. 
Oblique cases, 38 ; use of, 370-437 
Oblivkcor, w. gen., 400, II. ; other 

constrs., 407. 
Obsisio, obsto, constr., 499, 1-2. 
Ocior, compared, 160, 
-odos, (jireek nouns in, 47, 2. 
Oe, sound of, 9, 14. 
Officio, constr., 499, 1-2. 
Ohc, quantity, 612, 4. 
Olco and redoleo, w. ace, 371, 8. 
Ollus, tor ille, 180, 3. 
■olu3, ola, olum, in diminutives,— 

in nouns, 315, 2 ; in .ndjs., 327. 
Omnes, w. gen., 396, III. '2, 3). 
-wU, in Greek gen. plur., 96. 
-one, in patronymics, 316. 
Opcram do, w. subj., 492, 1. 
Optimum est, constr., 556, 1. 2. 
Opus^ constr., 419. 
-or, gender of nouns in, 101 ; deri- 
vation of, 320 ff. 
Oratio obliqua, sec Indirect discourse. 
Ordinal numbers, 172, 174; decl. of., 
179. ' 

Oro, w. two aces., 874, 2 ; w. subj. 

or infin., 558, VI, 3. 
Oi'tliography, 2-28. 
Ortus, w. abl., 425, 3. 
-03, nouns in, 60; genit. of, 72; 

gend., 102. 
-03, for is in the genitive, 92. 
-OP, final, sound 'of, 8, 1 ; quantity, 
625. 'JIM jy 



I^'DEX OF SUDJECTS. 



849 



-03U3, adjs. in, ,323. 
Ovid, versific'utiori of, G97. 
-ox, genit. of uoims in, «a. 



PALAM, w. abl.. 
Palatals, S, II, 



437, 2. 



Pa?t, gen. and ace. of, 66, 2 ; 93, 1. 

FaniauSf voc. of, 40, 3, 5). 

Far and dispar, constr., 391, 2, 4). 

Paragoge, 703, ti. 

Pardoning, verbs of, w. dat., 885. 

Pai'oemiac verse, 604. 

Fars, in fractions, 174, 1. 

Farticej)!^, genit. of, 155; w. ffen., 
399,(3). *= ' 

Participles, i96, II. 4. Tenses, rel- 
ative time, 571. Agreement and 
use. 4;]8 and 575 fF. Por rcl. clause, 
CV7. For sub. clause,— time, caus«, 
manner, mean?, condition, concos- 
eion, purpose, 578. For prin. 
clause, 579. For verbal noun, 
580. W. negative, 581. 

?:;rticleg, etymology of,— Adverbs, 
303 ff. ; preps., 800 ff. ; coujuncts., 
308 IF. ; interjects., 312. 

Particles, syntax of, 5S2-500,— Ad- 
verbs, 582 fF. ; preps., 580, 432- 
437; conjuncts., 587 ff. ; inter- 
jects., 589 ff: 
rariim, w. gen., 396, III. 4). Par- 
tun— partim, for jjars—jMrs, 401, 
6. 

Partitive genitive, SCO, III. 

Parts of speech, 80. 

Fa-.-um, w. gen., 390, III. 4). 

Farviis, compared, 105. 

Passive voice, 195 ; passive constr.. 

371, 6. ' 

Paterfamilias, decl. of, 126. 
Potior, coiistr., 551. 11. i-2. 
Piitrials, 326, 3. 
Patronymics, 316. 
Pause, cacsural, 662. 
Peculiarities in conjug., 234 ff. 
Felaguf, plur. and geud. of, 46, 5 : 

47, II. ' ' . 

Fcncs, vr. accus., 433. 
Pentameter, 003, 2. 
Pentliemimeris, 050, 2. 
I'onults, quantity of, 045 ff. 
r<r, in compds., 338, 1; 371, 4; 

per, VT. ace, 433. Per mc siat, 

499, 1. ' 

IG 



Perceivmg, constr. of verbs of, 551. 
Pcrcontor, w. two aces., 874, 2. 
Perfect system, 241. 
Perfect and supine, formation of, 258 
Perfect, 197; 241, II. ; pres. and hist., 
or definite and indef., 198 ; wan^ 
ing, 268, 275, 281, 283. 
Perfect, syntax of,— in indie, 471 ; 
def. and indef., or pros, and hist., 
471; of what has ceased tu be, 
471, 1 ; w. paene, propje^ All, 2; 
for Eng. pres., 471, 3. In subj., 
478 ; m sequence, 480 ; after hist, 
tense, 482, 2 ; 533, 1 ; in desires 
and wishes, 488, 2 ; in condition, 
509 ; in orat. obi, 532 ff. ; in in- 
fin., 542 ; for pres., 542, 2. In 
part., 574 ; for verbal noun, 580. 
Period, Latin, arrangement of, 005. 
Periphrastic conjugation, 227 ff. 
Fcrilus, V7. gen., 899, (2). 
Pcrmisceo, w. dat., 385, 5. 
Pcrmitto, constr., 551, II. 2. 
Person, of nouns, 87 ; of verbs, 200, 
Personal pronouns, 184 ; use of, 446 • 
reflex, use of, 448. ' 

Persuading, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 
Pcrtaedet, pertncsum est, 410, 6. 
Fcto, constr., 874, 3, 4). 
Ph,A. ' 

Phalaecian verse, 691, V. 
Pherecratean verso, 689, II. 
-P'>^, constr., 410. 
Place, abl. or gen. of, 421 ff.; loca- 

tivo, 423, 2. 
Pleasing, verbs of, w. dat., 885. 
Plenty, constr. of verbs and adjs. of. 
419, III. "^ ' 

Plcmis, w. gen. or abl., 899, (3); 
419. ^ " 

Pleonasm, 704, II. 

Pluperfect, 197; 241, II.— in indie, 
472; in letters, 472, 1; for Eng. 
imp., 472, 2. In sul)j., 478 ; se- 
quence, 480 ; in desires and wishes, 
488, 2; in condition, 510; after 
antequam and priusquam, 623, 2 ; 
in orat. obi., 532; 533, 2-4. 

Plural, 37 ; wanting, 130 ; with 
change of meaning, 182. 

Plus, without quam, 417, 3. 

Poemtet, constr., 410. 

Polysyndeton, 704, II, 1. 

Pone, w. accus., 433. 



350 



IJJfDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



> If 



Fosco, w. two aces, or ice. and abl., 

iil'i, 2; w. subj., 558, VI. 
Position, long by, till; short, (31l>. 
Positive, IGO; wanting, 1(16. 
Possessives, 183 ; w. gen., 397, 3 ; 
io>- gen., 398, 3 ; w. rcfcrt and in- 
terest, 408, 1, 2); use of, 44Y ; 
reflexive, 448. 
Possessor, dat. of, SSI. 
Post, sound of, 8, 1. 
Post, in compds., 338, 1 ; in conipds. , 
w. dat., 386. Post, in expressions ' 
of time, 427; post, w. ace., 433. 
Posterus, compared, 163, 3. 
Postretmis, force of, 442. 
Postridie, w. gen., 411; w. accus., 

43'7, 1. 
Postulo, constr., 374, 3. 4). 
Polens, w. gen., 399, (3). 
Potential subjunctive, 485 ff. ; in 
declar. sentences, 486, I. ; in de- 
liberative questions, 486, II. ; in 
sub. clauses, 486, III. ; of repeat- 
ed action, 486, 5. 
Potior, w. gen., 409, 3 ; w. abl., 419 ; 

419, 4. 
Prae, in compds. w. dat., 386 ; p^ae, 

w. abl., 434. 
Praeditus, w. abl., 419, 3. 
Praeier, in compds., w. accus,, S^l, 

4; praetcr, w. accus., 433. 
Predicate, 847; simple, 853; corn- 
It. ex, 354 ; compound, 361. Pred. 
nouns, 355, 362. Pred. arijg., 356 ; 
488, 2. Pred, gen., 401; varie- 
ties of, 402 ; verbs with, 403 ; 
other constrs. for, 404. Bred, abl., 
42S, 1. 
I'repo^itions, 806; insop., ;?07 ; in 
compds., 888, 1. \n expressions 
of time and space, 3V8, 1 aad 2. 
W. names of places, 379, 1, 2 and 
4. Pro with abl., 384, 2, 2). 
Compds. w, dat., 886, A or ab 
w. abl. of auent, 888, 1 ; 414, 5. ; 
Case w. prep, for the dat., 891, 2; 
for the gen., 398, 4 ; 899, 5 ; 407, I 
2; 410, 4. Cum w. abl. of ac- 1 
coiiipanimont, 414, 7. Qxam pro, \ 
417, 6. W. abl. of place, 421; 
of source and separation, 425; of 
time, 426. Preps, w. eases. Ride, 
482, 434 ff. ; preps, as adverbs, 486. 
Present, 197 ; 241, I., — in indie., 



466 ff. ; of general truths, customs, 
hist, pres., 467. In subj., 477. 
In imi)erat., 536, In iufiu,, 541. 
Part., 572. 
Present perfect, 471, I. 
Present system of forms, 241. 
Priapeian verse, 695. 
Price, gen. of, 396, IV. ; abl. of, 416. 
Pridie, w. gen., 411 ; w. ace, 437, 1. 
Primitives and derivafi- i, 313. 
Principal parts of verbs, 240, 246- 
260. Prin. clauses, 345, 2; in 
oratio obliqua, 580. Prin, ele- 
ments, 849; tenses. 198, 2, 
Prior, primus, 166 ; force of, 442, 1, 
Priusquam, w. indie, or subj., 521, 

623. 
Pro, in compds. w, dat., 386, 2 ; pro, 
w. abl. in defence of, 384, 2, 2) ; 
pro, w. abl., 434, 
Pro, quantity of, in compds., 654, 4. 
Procid, w. abl., 437, 2. 
Prohibeo, constr., 499, 1 ; 561, II. 1. 
Pronomis, 182 ft".; pers., 184; pos- 
ses., 185; demon., 186; relat., 
187; interrog., 188; indef., 189. 
PronoL'ns, syntax of, 445-459, — 
Agreement, 445. Pers. and Pos- 
ses,, 446 iT. Eeflex. use of, 448 If. 
Demon., 450 ff. Pel., 453, In- 
terrog., 454. Indef, 455. 
Pronunciaiion of Latin, 5-28. 
Prope, w. accus., 438. 
Proper nouns, 31. 
Propior, proximus, 166; w. accus., 

391, 2, 2); 483. 
Propins, w. accus., 487, 1. 
Proprius, cciistr., 891, :.', 4); 399, 3. 
Propter, w. accus., 438. 
Prosody, ('107-70 1,— Quantity, CC8- 

654, Versification, 655-701, 
Prospicio, constr., o85, 3, 
Prosthesis, 708, 4. 
Provideo, constr., SP5, 8. 
Providus, w. gen., 899, (2). 
Proxime, w. accus., 437, 1. 
Proxiimim est, constr., 556, I. 2. 
Proximus, w, aceus., 891, 2, 2); 483. 
Prudem, w. gen., 399, (2); w. abl., 

899, 5. 
-ps, genit. of nouns in, 75. 
Pudit, constr., 410. 
Punishment, w. verbs of condenm- 
iug, 410, 6, 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



351 



Parr/0, constr., 410, 7. 
Turpose, subjunctive of, 489 i^. • w 
conjunclg., 490; pure purpose! 
49 ; mixed, 49?; pcculiariti -j 
49d; m rel, clauses, 500 IF. In- 
fin. of purpose, 553, V. ; gerund 
5(53, 5; 5G4, 2; supine, 569; par- 
ticiple, 578, V. ' ^ 
Pp'ites, ^Qc\. of, 43. 

Qn, changed, 248. ' 
Quaero, constr., 374, 3, 4). 
Qtiahs, ^qualiscunqne, gualisqmiUs, 
187, /; quails, interrog., 188, 4; 
qnaltnUhd, indef,, 191, 4. 
Qnality, characteiistic, gonit. of, 896 

iV.; abl. of, 428. 
<2«am, w. c'on)paratives, 417 1- w 
su,,erlativos, 170, 2. Quam pro, 

r.u- ;' ^^li *'• ^"«"' "'' ^^- «"'^)-' 
4.J ., 2 Qnam si, ^v. subj., 503, 

oiM). ^,'«a/« r^«orf, w. subj., 520 3 

Quamquam, w. indie, or subj., 51 o' 



Quamvls, quantumvis, w. sub!.. 515 
if. 

Quando, w. indie, or su))j., 5^0 
Quantity, 20 ff. ; sig„H of; 24. Gen- 
eral rules for, 610 ff. Special, 
_(j1.J-0o4; final .syllables, 613 ff • 
increments, 629 ff. ; deriv.endi-o-V 
6 1.3 ff ; stem syllables, 649 ff *"' ' 
Quantus, quantuscunq^ie, quantns- 
quantus, 187, 7; indefinite, 188 4 
Quasi, w. subj., 503, 506. ' 

Qui, rel, interrog., indef., 187 ff. • 
iov quo, qua, 1^1^ 1; 188,2. Use 
ot as rel., interrog., indef., 453 ff 
Qm, w. subj. of purpose or result, 
489, 500 ff Qui dicUur, vacatur, 
4y,J, 7. Qmcunque, ]87, 4. 
Quia, w. ir-dic. or subj., 520. 
Quidam, indef, 191, 455. 
Qu'idem, place in clause, (502 III 
QuiMef, 191 ; use of, 458. ' 
Quin, w. sub}., 480., 498. 
Quinary, iH'i: .,. 
Qiiinariiid, V 1 'I. 
Q><ippe, v.. vA^uvc, 519, .3. 
Quis. mteirog., 188; indef., 189 ff. ; 

use ot, 454 ff. 
Quis, for qulhus, IS/, 1. 
Qiiis.iaiu, 188, 3. 
Qumpiam, 191 ; uue of, 455. 



I Quhqnam, 191 ; use of, 457. 
Qauque,Yyi ; use of, 458 ; w. plur. 
I verb, 461, 3. ^ 

Qimquis, 187, 4. 
Qulium, quantity of, 651, 3. 
Qunis, 191 ; use of, 458. 
Quo yr. gen. 396, 111.4); w. sub}, 
ot purpose, 489, 497. '' 

Quoad, w. gen., 396, HI. 4); w. ia- 

md.c. or subj., 621 ff. 
Q^tod expletive, 453, "e; w. sub}., 
0-0 ; clause w. quod unconnected 
00-i, IV. ; y,,oo? rcptrittivo, 501,3 
Quojus, quoi, for cujus, cut, 187, 1 
Quommus, w. subj., 499. 
Gwo«k??2, w. indie, or subj., 520 
Quoque, place in the clause, 60'> III. 
Quof, quoicunque, quotquot, quolm, 

quotusmnquc,\m,n; 188,4. 
Quum, v/. subj., 615, 517 ff ; w. in- 
•iic, 518, 3. ' 



248; nouns in, 48, 51 ; g"mt! 
of, 66; gender, 101, 103, IK. 
114. ' 

^ ^, quantity of final syllables in, 621 
I Kadrum, phir. rastri, rasira, 143 
I hatum, quantity of, 6''il, 3. 
I lie, red, 338, 2. 

-re, for rh, 236. 

Iicason,subj. of, 517ff ^^^ Cause. 

IZ {' '^- S'^?-; 4'^<5. n. ; w. acous., 
407, 1 ; w. abl. with do, 407 2 
Jxccitso,^ constr., 499 1-') ' * 

^"ot 65^' '"^ perfects, 254 ; quantity 
Pefcn, constr., 406, HI. ; 4O8. 
Jie/erlus, w. gen. or abl., 399, (2) and 

Reflexive use of pronouns, 448 ff. 
Regarding, verbs of, w. two accus., 

Jie;7no, w. gen., 409, 3. 

^'ofl53^*^'^''''^^J-'^^^' ^' '''^ 
Relative clause, w. potential sub}., 
48b, l;w. subj. of desire, 488, 5 
of purpose, result, 500; of result 
alter mdchmte or general atiteee- 
dents, after unus, sol's, dig,. us, 
mdif-nun, rJoneus, apius, and c 
par. w quam, 601, I.-IV. ; w 



^.y«//.s, ?f/o«e«s, „;,n«, and 'com: 
. . w. y««m, 601, I.-[V. ; w. 
subj. of condition, 513 ; of conces. 



352 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



sion, 516 ; of cause, reason, 517, 
519 ; w. infill., 631, 1. 

RcUquum est, constr., 550, I. 2. 

Remaining, constr, of verbs of, 556. 
III. 

Reminding, constr. of verbs of, 410. 

Jicminiscor, w. gen., 406, IT. 

Repeated action, subj. of, 486, 5. 

Jicposco, with two aces., 374, 2. 

Resisting, verbs of, av. the dat., 385. 

Rmniblka, decl. of, 126. 

Rcstat ut, 495, 2. 

Result, subjunctive of, 489 ff. ; w. 
conjuncts., 490 ff. ; of pure result, 
494 ; mixed, 495 ; peculiarities, 
496. With relatives, 600. See 
Relative clause. 

RcHcentia, 704, 1. .'5. 

Rhetorical questions, 530, 2. 

Rhythmic accent, 659. 

Ridco, w, accus., .^Vl, 3. 

Rivort- gend(!r of names of, 35. 

Roffo, vv. two aces., 374, 2 ; w. subj., 

558, vr. 

-rs, genlt. of nouns in, 76. 

Rtidis, w. gen., 399, (2): w. abl., 

399, 5. 
Rules of SjTitax, 591. 
R"s, constr., 379, 3 ; 424, 2. 
Rutum, quantity of, 651, 3. 

S SOUND of, 11 ff. ; nouns in, 48 
^ ff. ; genie, of, 08-76 ; gend., 110. 

Sacci'^ compared, 167; w. dat. or 
^ gen., 391 ; 399, 3, 8). 

Sacpe, compared, 305, 4. 

Sapio, w. accrs., 371, 3. 

Sajiphic verse, 664 ; 690, I. ; 691, 
IV. ; greater sapphic, 690, II. 

Safoffo, satarfito, w. gen., 409, 5. 

Satis, w. gen., 396, III. 4). 

Satisfacio, w, dat, 385, 2. 

HCo'tim^ (luantity of, 651, 3. 

Scanning, 668. 

Scazon, 683, 4. 

Scidi, quantity of, 651, 2. 

SecundiDn, w. accus., 433. 

Semi-deponents, 272, 3; 282; use 
of, 465, 3. 

Scnex, compared, 168, 3. 

Sentences, syntax of, 343-361 ; clas- 
sification of, 345 ff. ; simple, 347 
ff". ; complex, 357 ff'. ; compound, 
oOO. See also JJeclarativc, Ex- 



clamatory^ Imperative, Interror/a- 

live. 
Separation, abl. of, 425. 
Sequence of tenses, 480 ff. Rule, 

480. Application, 481 ; after hist, 
pres., 481, IV.; after imp. subj., 

481, v.; after infin. or part., 481, 
VI. Exceptions, 482 ; after perf. 
def , 482, 1 ; hist, tense, 482, f; ; in 
orat. obliqua, 482, 3. 

Seguitur, w. subj. or infin., 495, 2 ; 
549, 1. 

Serving, verbs of, w. dat., 885. 
I ScrvuH^ decl. of, 45. 
; Sese, 184, 4. 

Sestertius, scstcrtia, sestertium, 712 ff. 

Showing, verbs of, w. two aces., 373. 

-si, sin, in Greek datives, 90, 97. 

Silver age, 706. 

-.sim, in perfect subj., 239, 4. 

Sindlis and its compds., constr., 391. 
2,4). 

Suuple,— sentence, 347 ff. ; elements, 

850; subject, 351; predicate, 353; 

words, 313, 1. 
Simid, w. abl., 437, 2. 
Sin, w. subjunctive, 503, 507 ff. 
Sine, w. abl, 434. 
Singular, 37; wanting, 131. 
Sino, constr., 551, II. 1. 
Sitio, w. accus., 871, 3. 
Sltimi, quantity of, ('.."il, 3. 
-so, in fut. perfect, 239, 4. 
Solus, decl. of, 149; solus qui, w. 

subj., 501, II. 
Source, abl. of, 425. 
Space, abl. of 378. 
Sparing, verbs of, w. dnt,, 385. 
Specification, ace. of, 380 ; genit. of, 

396, V. ; abl. of, 429. 
Spirants, 3. 
Stanza, 666 ; stanzas of Horace, 699 

ff ' 

Stutum., quantity of, 651, 3. 
Staluo, constr., 558, 11. 
Stem, 41 ; in the five decls., 123. 
Stem-syllables, quantity in primitives, 

649 ff. ; hi derivats., 653 ; iu 

compds., 654. 
StUi, siiti, quantity of, 051, 2. 
Striving, constr. of verbs of, 558, III. 
Sfudios^t's, w. gen., 399. 
Sub, iu compds., 338, 1 : conuHis. w 

dat., 386. Sub w. ace. or •■:.ui, 435. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



358 



Subject,— Simple subject, 851 ; com- 
plex, 352 ; compound, 361. Subj. 
nom., 367 ; omitted, 367, 2. Subj. 
ace, 375, 545 ; omitted, 545, 2. 
Infiu. as subj., 549. Clause as 
subj., 555 ff. 
Subject and object clauses, 654 ff. 
Indirect questions, infin. clauses, 
subjunctive clauses, and clauses 
with quod, compared, 554. Sub- 
ject clauses, 653 if. ; interrog., 555 ; 
not interrog., 556. Object clauses, 
657 ff. ; interrog., 557 ; not inter- 
rog., 658. 
Subjective genitive, 396, I. 
Subjunctive, 196; syntax of 483- 
533,— Potential Subj., 485 ff. Subj. 
of desire, 487 ff. Of purpose or 
result, 489-601 ; vv. conjuncts., 489 
ff. ; w. relatives, 500 ff Of con- 
dition, 502 ff. Of concession, 515 
ff. Of cause and time, 517 ff. In 
indirect questions, 524 ff. By at- 
traction, 627. In indirect dis- 
course— on; I io obliqua, 528. 
Subordinate,— clause!!, 845, 2; in 
oratio obliqua, 531. Sub. con- 
juncts., 311, 588 ; elements, 349. 

Substantives, see Nouns. 
Suhter, in compds. w. ace, 371, 4. 
Subter, w. ace. or abl., 435. 

&</, decl. of, 184 ; use ol", 448 ff. 

&uin, w. dat., 387; w. pred. cen., 
403. ^ ' 

Super, in compds. w. accus., 871, 4. ; 
in compds. with dat., 386. Sapc}\ 
AY. ace. or al>l., 435. 

Superlative, 160 ; irreg., 163; want- 
ing, 168 If. ; formed by maximc, 
170; w. gen., 306, 2, 3) (2). 

huperns, compared, 1G3, 3. 

Supine, 196, II.; wanting, 267 ff., 
274, 281, 283. Use of;"567 ff 

Supine system, 241. 

SuppUco, w. dat., 385, 2. 

Supra, w. accus., 433. 

Sugpcnms, w. gen., 399, (2). 

Suns, decl. of, 185 ; use of, 448 ff. 

Syllables, 17 ffl 

Syuaeresis, 669, II. 

Synalocpha, Synaj-Jioia, 669, I. 5. 

Syujecdoche, 705, III. 

Syne.-.is, 704, III. g. 

Synopsis of conjugation, 216-226. 



Syntax, 343-606, — of eentencea, 
343-361; of nouns, 862-437; of 
adjectives, 438-444 ; of pronouns, 
445-459 ; of verbs, 460-581 ; of 
particles, 682-590. Rules of syn. 
tax, 691. Arrangement of words 
and clauses, 592-006. 

Systole, 669, IV. 

T SOUND of, 11 ff.; nouns in, 
? 48 ; genit. of, 67 ; gender, 111. 



^dropped, 65, 3; 248. 
T, quantity of final syllables in, 621 
Tacdct, constr., 410. 
Talis, 186, 4. 
Talpa, gender of, 44. 
Tamctsi, w. subj., 515; 516, III. 
3'anquam, tanquam si, w. subj., 503 ; 

506. 
Ta7itus, 186, 4 : tantum ahest, 496, 3. 
Teaching, verbs of, w. two aces., 
374. ' 

TedioTte,m\, 6. 
Tcinpcro, constr., 385, 3. 
Tcmphim, decl. of, 45. 
Temporal conjunctions, 311 ; 588, T. 
Tenses, 197; prin. and hist, 198; 
wanting, 1 98, 3. Use of, in indie, 
466 ff. ; in su)»j., 478 ft". ; seriuence 
of, 480 ff. ; in imperat, 534 ; in 
inlin., 640; in part., 671. 
Tcniis,w. gen., 411; w. abl., 434; 

after its case, 434, 2. 
Tirrac, genit. of place, 424, 3. 
Tt.stis sum, constr., 551, 3. 
Tcfc, 184, 4. 

Tetrameter vorse, 663, 2. 
Tetrapody, 056, 2. 
Tetrastich, 6C6. 
Th, 4. 

Thesis, 660. 

-thongos, Greek nouns in, 47, 2. 
Threatening, vtrbs of, w. dat., 385. 
-tim, adverbs in, 334, 2. 
Tinh>, accus. of, 378 ; abl. of, 378, 
2 ; 426 ; w. the prep, in, 426, 2 ; 
w. ubhinc, 427. Time denoted by 
ace. or abl. w. ante or post, 427'; 
by participle, 578, I. 
Time, with cause or purpose, gubj. 
of, 521 ff 1 t , J 

Timco, constr,, SS5, 3 ; 492 4 
Tis^ for fui, 184, 5. ' ' ' 
-to, for tor, in imperative, 239, 6. 



354 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Ii0m 



To( iotus, 186, 4., 2h(u8, decl. of, 

Towns, gender of names of, 35- 
const!-.,— accus., 37 'J; With tirl/s 
or oppidum, 371), 2; gcuit; or abl., 

Trans, in compcln., 338, 1 ;4n compels. 

w. ace, 371, 4; w. two aces., 374, 

6. Trans, w. ace., 433. 
Transitive verbs, l'J3; 371, 3, 
Trees, gender of names of, 35.' 
Inmeter, 0(53, 2. 
Ti'ipody, (15(5, 2. 
Tristieli, (506. 
Ti'oeliaie verse, G79 (f. 
-trum, nouns in, 320.' 
T>i,*\w\. of, 181. 
^W/, quantity of, ()31, 2. 
-tus, nouns in, 318. 
Tuus, dec!, of, 183. 

U ^''f^UXDof,Gfr.,i4;w.soundof 
'^ ; w, 9. Nouns in ?<, lio : .ren- 
der of, 118. , io, ot-u 

IT, quantity of,-final, 019: in in- 

crenients, 637, (Mt. 
•u, fur ui in dat., 116, 4. 
UIj'i, \y. genit., 3'JO, 2, 4). 

.ubus,indat. andabl., yO; 116,4. 
{/^ as diphthong, i). 
-uia, for?w, in genit., 116, 4 
-ma, nouns in, 320, 5. 
-uleus, in derivatives,* 315, 5. 
f///««, ceel. of, 149; indef, 191 2- 
use of, 457. ' ' 

6^/Jev7(»-, «//,•,,,„,, 166; force of, 

Ultra, w: aecus., 433 

-iilus, ula, ulum, in nouns, 315- 

«>2(j, u; niadjs., 327 If. 
-um,foram»,42, 3; for on«« 45, 

•>,4); ingon. plur.ofSddec. 89 I 
-undus undi, for, W«,s, «,,//, 238 
^^-^-Meel.<,.; 1,0, 176; ««^L,• j«/, 

w. subj., 5U1, If. ^ ' 

Vnusquisquc, 19] l. 

-lur, gend. of nouns in, 114. 

-ura, nouns in, 321. 

-urio, desideratives in, 332 III 

""in'";o;rTiv''""*'''^';""""'^ 

VV,. ', -^^^5 genitive of, 73, 



lib; gender, 115, 118. Deriva- 
tives in, 320, 6; 821; «5, final 
quantity of, 6£7. ' ' ' 



Ustjw, w. accus., 437, 1. 
-UStus, adjs. in, 323. 
Usus, eoiistr., 419. i 

-ut, nouns in, 51; genit. of, 67: 
^K'lid., 111. ° ' ' 

Ut, w. subj. of purpose or result, 
439 If. ; omitted, 493, 2 ; w. qwL 
519, 3. ■* ' 

Ut si, w. subj., 503, 506. 

Ut qu'mjuc—ita, 458, 2. 

Utcr, utercunquc, 149 ; 187, 6 • 188 
4; 191, 2. » > , 

Uterlibct, utcr que, utervis, 191, 3 
Utcrqne, w. plur. verb, 461, 3. 

Uluiam, w. subj. of desire, 4S8, 1. 

Ulor, constr., 419; 419, 4. 

Ulpofc, w. qui, 519, 3. 

Utrnm, 316, II. 2. 
-utus, adjs. in, 323. 
-uus, ver'bal adj's. in, 328, 5, 
-ux, genitive of nomis in, 81. 

\r PLACE supplied bv u, 2. 
» 7 Vacuus, w. gen. or abl., 399. 
(o) and 5, ' 

Value, genit. of, 396, IV. 
Vannus, gender of, 47. 
Vdut,vdut si, w. subj., 503, 506. 
Verbal inflections, tai)ie oC, 242 
Verbs, etymology of— Classes, voices, 
iiioods, tenses, etc., 192-203 
Para(Iigms, 204-215. Synopsis." 
-10-L26. Peiiphrastiecoiij., 227- 
232. Contractions and i)eenliari. 
ties, 234-239. Formation of parts 
^40 fl. Table of inlleetions, 242.' 
Comparative view of conjs., 243 if 
Piincipal parts of verbs, 2 16-2110 
Classitieation of verbs, 2(n-'>:-;(l 
Irreg. verbs, 287-296. Defeet.! 
l^.-J'^l'^'-^^'^'^^-oOl. Deri v., 
rf-sO n. Compound, 341. Irio"- 
ularities of special verl)s, 721. Si-c 
also Transitive, Intrans., Finite, 
Deponent, Semi-depon., Lnpcrm- 
nal. Frequent., Incept., Desiderat., 
JJinunutivc, 
Verbs, syntax of, 460, 581,— A-reo- 
ment, 460 If. Omitted, 367 3'- 
460 3. Voices, 464 If. Tenses 
of In.he., 466 ff. TJ.se of Indie, 
^Jt" , ?^'"««« «*■ Subj., 476 tf. Use 
of Sub)., 483-333. Imnoraf 534 



Inli 



n., 539-553. Subject and 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



355 



\i) 



olycct clauses, 554 IT. Gonind, 
55'J-5G<i. Hupino, 607 IF. I'urti- 
cipk'S, 571-581. 

Verb-stem, 203, 242. 

Vcrcor, constr., 41)2, 4. 

VerishnUe csl, verum est, constr 
650, I. 2. ■' 

Vero, place in clause, 002, III. 

Versos, 001; names of, 603 iV. 

Versilieation, 055,— Feet, 650 ff. 
Verses, 001 IK Figures of proso- 
dy, OOi). Varieties of verse, 070 If. 

Versus, w. accus., 4;{3. 

Vescor, constr., 419; 419, 4. 

Vesiras, 185, 2. 

Vcstri, vesirum, 896, III. 1 • 440 3 

Veto, constr., 551, II. 1. ' 

Vetns, compiirod, 107. 

Vichius, w. dat. or gen., S91, 1- 

V!r, decl. of, 45, 4. 
Vh-i/il, versiKfiitiou of, 090. 
Vocative, formation of, 80, 88; in 

(Jreek nouns, 95; in adjs., 154 

^ 157. Syntax of, 309. ' 

Voices, 1 95. See also under Verbs 

si//itax of. ' 

Vokns, idiouiatic use of dat., ?S7,8 
yolo, constr., 551,11. 1. 



-yolus, compds. In, compared, 104. 
V owels, 3, 1. ; sounds of, If., 14 li: : 
before r, 0, 2. 



^\ 



^ riiACE supi)lied by u, 2. 

J \Vant, constr. of verbs and 
luij.s. ot, 419. 
Warning, constr. of verbs of, 558, 

Weiglits, IJoman, 714. 
Winds, gentler of names of, 35. 
Wishing, constr. of verljs of, 551. 
Avords, arrangement of, 592. 

y SOUND of, 11 ni; nouns in, 
-^^1 48, 50; genitive of, 77-83: 
gender of, 108. 

V OXLY i. Greek words, 2. 
■■- •) Nouns in, 48 ; genitive of, 02 ; 

gender, 111, 
r, quantity of,— final, 017; in in- 
crements, 038. 
-ys, genitive of nonns in, 74; gender 
of, 107; quantity <)f_//,s final, 028. 
-y^j genitive of nouns in, 82. 

y ONLY in Greek words, 2. 
^5 Zeugma, 704, I. 2. 



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Notes, by Professor Johnson, of the New York University, have be n mostly sdected 
w.th great care, from tho best German authors, as well as the English editionVArnolJ 
From Thomas Cuase, Tutor m Latin in Ilm-vard Univermy 
«An edition of Cicero like Johnson's has long been wanted; and the excellence of tho 
text, the illust.-ations of words, particles, and pronouns, and tLe explanation of a, o^ 
pomts of construction and toterpretation, beax- witness to the Editor's fan^liari y ™'h 

z: :;rubrt:r " -^^^^ -' -'"'-^ -^"^'' -^ -""^ ^'« -k to i 'C 

"It seems to us an improvement upon any edition of these Oi-ations that has been 
pub .shed in this country, and will be found a valuable aid in their studies to the lovtn, 
of classical Uterature."—7>oy 2>a% ]FA»j7. 



Cicero cle Officiis : 



With English Notes, mostly translated from Zumpt and Bonnell. By 

THOMAS A. TEACHER, of Yale College. 12mo, 194 pages. 

In this edition, a few historical notes have been introduced in cases where the Dic- 
tionary in common use has not been foimd to contain the desired information ; tho design 
o-f which is to aid the learner in understanding the contents of the treatises, the thoughts 
and reasoning of tho author, to explain grammatical difEculties, and inculcate a knowl- 
edge of grammatical principles. The Editor has aimed throughout to guide rather than 
cany the learner through difficulties; requiring of him more study, in consequence of 
his help, than he would have devoted to the book without it. 

From M. L. Stoeveu, Professor of tU Latin Language and Literature, in Pinnml- 

vania College. 

"I have examined with much pleasure Prof. Thacher's edition of Cicero de Officiis 
and am convinced of it~ excellence. The Notes have been prepared \vith great care and 
good judgment. Practic.-vl knowledge of tho wants of the student has enabled the Editor 
to furnish just the kind of assistance required; grammatical difficulties are removed ar-d 
the obscurities of the treatise are explained, the interest of the learner is elicited and his 
Industry directed rather than superseded. There can be but one opinion with re-ard to 
the merits of the work, and I trust that Professor Thachor will be disposed to conliuu. 
ble .abors so carefully commenced, in this department of classical learning." 



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D. AITLETON d; CO:S PUIiLWATIONS. 

Greek Ollendorff; 

Being a Progressive Exhibition of tlie Principles of tlio Greek Gram- 
mar. By ASAHEL C. KEXDIUCK, Professor of the Greek Lau- 
guage and Literature in the University of Rochester. 1 21110, 
3Y1 nages, 

Tho present work is what its title indicates, strictly an OUemlorjf, and aims to apply 
the methods which have proved so successful in the acquisition of the inodorn languages 
to tho study of Ancient Greek, with such dififerences as the different genius of tho 
Greek, and tho different purposes for which it is studied, suggebt. It diifors from tho 
modern OUendorffs in containing Exercises for reciprocal translation, in confining them 
within a smaller compass, and in a more methodical exposition of the principles of lan- 
guage. 

Tho leading object of the author was to furnish a book which should serve as au in- 
troduction to tho study of Greek, and precede the use of any grammar. It will therefore 
bo found, although not claiming to embrace all the principles of the Grammar, yet com- 
plete in itself, and will lead tho pupil, by insensible gradations, from the simpler construc- 
tions to those which are more complicated and difficult. The exceptions, and the more 
idiomatic forms, it studiously avoids, aiming only to exhibit the regular and ordinary 
usages of the language as tho proper starting-point for the student's further researches. 

In presenting these, the author has aimed to combine the strictest accuracy with tho 
utmost simplicity of statement. His work is therefore adapted to a younger class of 
pupils than have usually engaged in tho study of Greek, and will, it is hoped, win to tho 
acquisition of that noL '. > tongue many in our academies and primary schools who hava 
bean repelled by the less simple character of our ordinary text-books. 



Exercises in Greek Composition. 

Adapted to the First Book of Xenophon's Anabasis. By JAMES R. 
BOISE, Professor of Greek in the University of Michigan. 
12mo, 185 pages. 

These Exercises consist of easy sentences, similar to those in the Anabasis, having 
the same words and constructions, and are designed by frequent repetition to make th« 
learner fiimiliar with the language of Xenophon. Accordingly, the chapters and sections 
in both are made to correspond. No exercises can be more improving than those in this 
volume ; obliging the student as they do, by analysis and synthesis, to master the con- 
structions employed by one of tho purest of Greek writers, and imbuing him with th« 
Bpu-it of one of the greatest historians of all antiquity. 



s. 



Greek G ram- 
ie Greek Luu- 
jster. r2mo, 

(1 aims to apply 
jdoi-n langiiaf,'08 
; genius of the 
(litFors from tho 
confining tiicm 
Mciples of lau- 

scrve as an in- 
It will thureforo 
mmar, yet com- 
mpler eonstruc- 
s, and tho more 
ir and ordinary 
lier researches, 
curacy with tho 
)unger class of 
)ped, win to tho 
liools who hava 



y JAMES R. 
of Michigan, 

nabasis, having 
ion to make tlw 
jrs and sections 
lan those in this 
master the con- 
ig him with th« 



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corr, CLAEK cfc co:s publications. 



Harkuess^s Latin Grammar. 



From Rev. Prof. J. J. Owkn, D.D., New York Free Academy. 
"I havo carefully examined HarknesB's Latin Grammar, and am bo well ploAixW 
with lt« [)lan, arrangement, and oxocutlon, that 1 shall take the earliest opportunity ot 
introducing it as a text-book in the Free Academy." 

From Mr. John D. PmLBUiOK, Superintmdent of Puhlio Schools, Boston, Mans. 
•' This \s'ork is evidently no hasty performance, nor the compilation of a mere book 
iiiiikor, but the well-ripened fruit of mature and accurate scholarship. U Ib eminontlv 
liraetical, because it is truly philosophical." 

F-'oni. Mr. G. N. Bioelow, Principal of State Normal ScJiool, Framingham, Mais. 
" HarknesB's Latin Grammar is the most satisfiictory text-book I havo ever used." 

From Eev. Daniel Lkaoh, Superintendent Puhlio Sohoola, Providence, It, J. 
" I am quite confident that it is superior to any Latin Grammar before the public. 
It has recently been introduced into the High School, and all ore much pleased with it." 

From Dr. J. B. Ciiapin, State CommiHsioner of Public Inntruction in Rhode Mand. 
"The vital principles of the language are clearly and beautifully exhibited. The 
work needs no 9ne'3 commendation." 

From Mr. Abneb J. Puipi's, SupeHntendent of Puhlio Schools, Lowell, Mass. 

"The aim of the author seems to bo fully realized in making this 'a useful Book, 
and as siurti I can cheerfully commend it The clear and admir.ible maimer in which 
the intricaciiis of the Subjunctive Mood are unfolded, is one of its marked features. 

"The evidence of ripe soholarship and of familiarity wit^ the latest works of Ger- 
man and English philologists is manifest throughout the bool." 

From Dr. J. T. Cua.uplin, President of WaterviUe College. 
'• I like both the plan and the execution of the work very much. Its matter and 
manner are both admirable. 1 shall be greatly disappointed if it does not at once win 
the public favor." 

Froin Prof. A. S. Packard, Boivdoin College, Brunswick, Maine. 
" Ilui'kness's Latin Grammar exhibits throughout the results of thorough scholar. 
^hip 1 shall recommend it in our next catalogue." 

From Prof. J. J. Stanton, Bates College. 
•' We have introduced Harkncss's Grammar into this Institution, It is much more 
loirical and concise than any of its rivals." 

From Mr. Wm. J. Koi.pe, Principal Cambridge High School. 
" Notwithstanding all the inconveniences that must attend a change of L.itin Grmi!' 
r:irB in a large school like mine, I shall endeavor to secure the adoption of ILirknetss's 
tii;;mmiu- in place of our present teit-bookas soon as possible." 

From Mr. L. K. Wii.hston, Principal Ladies'' Seminar;/, Cambridge, Mass. 
•' I Diink this work a decided advance upon the Grammar now in use." 

Frimi Mr. D. B. IIager, Princ. Eliot High School, Jamaica Plain. Mass. 
"This is, in my opinion, by far the best Latin Orammar ever published. It l^ 
-.dmirubly adapted to the use of leai'ners, being remarkably concise, clear, compro- 
tK'i:.^;ve, and philotujihictl It will hemoforth bo used as a te^•t-book in this school " 




00i'l\ GLAIiK <B CO:S PUBLICATIONS. 



J much more 



[iarkness's Latin Grammar. 



/'Vwft Prof. C. S. HABBiwaTON and Prot J. C. Van Bbnsohotbk, oftht Wethvan 

Uniteraity. 
" This work 1b clow, accurate, and happy in its sUtement of prlnclplaa, Is simple 30. 
-■< holarly, and embraces the latest researchos In this departmont of philological scioDi-.. 
(t will appear In our catalfigue." 

From Mr. Elbeidok Smith, PHncipal Free Academy, Xorwlch, Ct. 
" This Is not only the beat Latin Grammar, but one of the most thoroughly prepari^l 
-.I'hool-books that I have ever seen. I huve introduced the book into the Free Aoale 
<i!y, and am much pluased with the results of a mouth's experience la the class-room." 

From Mr, H. A. Pratt, Principal Eigh School, Uariford, Ct. 
" I can heartily roct,mmcnd Harkness's new work to both teachers and scholars. Il 
(s. in my judgment, the best Latin Grammar ever oflored to our schools." 

From Mr. L F. Cady, PHncipal nigh School, Warren, B. I. 

•* The longer I use Harkness's Grammar the more ftilly am I convinced of Its superior 
escr.llence. Its merits must secure its adoption wherever it becomes known." 
Frotn. Messrs. S. Tuukbeb and T. B. Stookwell, PubUo High Softool, Providence. 

"An experience of several weeks with Harkness's Latin Grammar, eu.-iblcs us tr 
Boy with confldence, that It is an improvement on our former text-book." 

From Mr. G. B. Gofp, Principal Boye" GUvtuieal High School, Providence, B. I. 
"The practical workini,' of Hai-kness's Grammar is gratifying even beyond my ex- 
('t'Otations." 

From Uev. Prof. M. H. Buokham, University of Vermont. 
" Harkness's Latin Grammar seems to me to supply the desideratum. It is philo- 
sophical in its method, and yet simple and clear in its statements; and this. In my 
judgment, is the highest encomium which can bo bestowed on a text-book." 

From Mr. E. T. QumBY, Appleton Academy, New Ipatcich, X H. 
"I think the book much superior to any other I have seen. I should bo glad to 
Introduce it at once." 

From Mr. H. ORotrrr, Olemcood Ladies' Seminary, W. Brattleboro\ VL 
" I am pleased with Harkness's Latin Grammar, and have already introduced It Into 
this seminary." 

From Mr. Chaeles Jewett, PHncipal 0/ Franklin Academy. 
" I deem It an admirable work, and think it will supersede all others now in uso. 
(n the dlvldion and arrangement of topics, and in its mechanical execution, it la supo- 
■i(ir to any Latin Grammar extant." 

From Mr. C. C. Chase, Principal 0/ Loioell High School. 
" Prof. Harkness's Grammar is, in my opinion, admirably adapted to make the study 
cj the Latin language agreeable and interesting." 

From Mr. J. Kimpall, High School, Dorchester, Mass. 
" It meets my ideal of what is desirable in every grammar, to wit: compression of 
tTneral principles in terso definitions and statements, for ready ase; and ftilnesaof 
t.'.tciil, w()I^ arran/:e(l for rcA'rotirK."